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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25951, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191012

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During outbreaks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries adopted quarantine to slow the spread of the virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quarantine will cause isolation from families, friends, and the public, which consequently leads to serious psychological pressure with potentially long-lasting effects on the quarantined population. Experience of specific practices to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population was limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of mandatory quarantine, and evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on the quarantined population.We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess and manage the psychological status of a mandatory quarantined population in Beijing, China. A total of 638 individuals completed 2 questionnaires and were enrolled in this study, of which 372 participants accepted designed psychological intervention while other 266 participants refused it. The SCL-90 questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychological status and its change before and after the intervention. The differences of SCL-90 factor scores between participants and the national norm group were assessed by 2 samples t test. While the SCL-90 factor scores before and after intervention were compared with 2 paired samples t test.Compared with the Chinese norms of SCL-90, the participants had higher SCL-90 factor scores in most items of the SCL-90 inventory. The SCL-90 factor scores of participants with psychological intervention significantly decreased in somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In contrast, most factor scores of the SCL-90 inventory changed little without statistical significance in participants without psychological intervention.Psychological problems should be emphasized in the quarantined individuals and professional psychological intervention was a feasible approach to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population in the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31930, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141353

ABSTRACT

This report aimed to provide an overview of the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in Morocco and to review the actions carried out as part of the national response to this pandemic. The methodology adopted was based on literature review, interviews with officials and actors in the field, and remote discussion workshops with a multidisciplinary and multisectoral working group. Morocco took advantage of the capacities already strengthened within the framework of the application of the provisions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of 2005. A SWOT analysis made it possible to note that an unprecedented political commitment enabled all the necessary means to face the pandemic and carry out all the response activities, including a campaign of relentless communication. Nevertheless, and despite the efforts made, the shortage of human resources, especially those qualified in intensive care and resuscitation, has been the main drawback to be addressed. The main lesson learned is a need to further strengthen national capacities to prepare for and respond to possible public health emergencies and to embark on a process overhaul of the health system, including research into innovative tools to ensure the continuity of the various disease prevention and control activities. In addition, response to a health crisis is not only the responsibility of the health sector but also intersectoral collaboration is needed to guarantee an optimal coordinated fight. Community-oriented approaches in public health have to be strengthened through more participation and involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society in operational and strategic planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Humans , Morocco/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/standards , Workforce/standards
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30460, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The UK National Health Service (NHS) classified 2.2 million people as clinically extremely vulnerable (CEV) during the first wave of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, advising them to "shield" (to not leave home for any reason). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the determinants of shielding behavior and associations with well-being in a large NHS patient population for informing future health policy. METHODS: Patients contributing to an ongoing longitudinal participatory epidemiology study (Longitudinal Effects on Wellbeing of the COVID-19 Pandemic [LoC-19], n=42,924) received weekly email invitations to complete questionnaires (17-week shielding period starting April 9, 2020) within their NHS personal electronic health record. Question items focused on well-being. Participants were stratified into four groups by self-reported CEV status (qualifying condition) and adoption of shielding behavior (baselined at week 1 or 2). The distribution of CEV criteria was reported alongside situational variables and univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Longitudinal trends in physical and mental well-being were displayed graphically. Free-text responses reporting variables impacting well-being were semiquantified using natural language processing. In the lead up to a second national lockdown (October 23, 2020), a follow-up questionnaire evaluated subjective concern if further shielding was advised. RESULTS: The study included 7240 participants. In the CEV group (n=2391), 1133 (47.3%) assumed shielding behavior at baseline, compared with 633 (13.0%) in the non-CEV group (n=4849). CEV participants who shielded were more likely to be Asian (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI 1.49-2.76), female (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.45), older (OR per year increase 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), living in a home with an outdoor space (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70) or three to four other inhabitants (three: OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94; four: OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.01), or solid organ transplant recipients (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.18-3.77), or have severe chronic lung disease (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.30-2.04). Receipt of a government letter advising shielding was reported in 1115 (46.6%) CEV participants and 180 (3.7%) non-CEV participants, and was associated with adopting shielding behavior (OR 3.34, 95% CI 2.82-3.95 and OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.04-3.99, respectively). In CEV participants, shielding at baseline was associated with a lower rating of mental well-being and physical well-being. Similar results were found for non-CEV participants. Concern for well-being if future shielding was required was most prevalent among CEV participants who had originally shielded. CONCLUSIONS: Future health policy must balance the potential protection from COVID-19 against our findings that shielding negatively impacted well-being and was adopted in many in whom it was not indicated and variably in whom it was indicated. This therefore also requires clearer public health messaging and support for well-being if shielding is to be advised in future pandemic scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mental Health/trends , Public Health/trends , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 770, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the available published research on the impact of social isolation, on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, who had to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Design. Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), guideline, was used to structure this study. A search strategy was carried out across six bibliographic databases. PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science. The following search terms were used, "medical student*" AND "impact" AND "quarantine" AND "COVID-19". Searches were initially confined to articles published (excluding conference abstracts) between 1 January 2019- 21 August 2021 but updated in September 2022 with the original search terms expanded to include "isolation" or "lockdown" as well as "quarantine" and the period of search extended to 21 August 2022. A search of secondary references was conducted. Data from the selected studies were extracted, and the following variables recorded; first author and year of publication, country of study, study design, sample size, participants, mode of analysing impact of quarantine from COVID-19 on mental health and results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 223 articles were identified in the original search in 2021 and 387 articles, in the updated search in 2022. Following the exclusion of duplicates and application of the agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 full-text articles were identified for the final review, most of which were cross sectional studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 4193 students and most studies used a variety of self-administered questionnaires to measure psychological wellbeing. Overall, 26 of the 31 articles showed that quarantine had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of medical students. However, two studies showed no impact, and three studies showed an improvement. CONCLUSION: The evidence is growing. Quarantine because of the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, but this is not certain. There is therefore a need for more studies to further evaluate this research question.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology
7.
Global Health ; 17(1): 106, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severity of COVID-19, as well as the speed and scale of its spread, has posed a global challenge. Countries around the world have implemented stringent non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) to control transmission and prevent health systems from being overwhelmed. These NPI have had profound negative social and economic impacts. With the timeline to worldwide vaccine roll-out being uncertain, governments need to consider to what extent they need to implement and how to de-escalate these NPI. This rapid review collates de-escalation criteria reported in the literature to provide a guide to criteria that could be used as part of de-escalation strategies globally. METHODS: We reviewed literature published since 2000 relating to pandemics and infectious disease outbreaks. The searches included Embase.com (includes Embase and Medline), LitCovid, grey literature searching, reference harvesting and citation tracking. Over 1,700 documents were reviewed, with 39 documents reporting de-escalation criteria included in the final analysis. Concepts retrieved through a thematic analysis of the included documents were interlinked to build a conceptual dynamic de-escalation framework. RESULTS: We identified 52 de-escalation criteria, the most common of which were clustered under surveillance (cited by 43 documents, 10 criteria e.g. ability to actively monitor confirmed cases and contact tracing), health system capacity (cited by 30 documents, 11 criteria, e.g. ability to treat all patients within normal capacity) and epidemiology (cited by 28 documents, 7 criteria, e.g. number or changes in case numbers). De-escalation is a gradual and bi-directional process, and resurgence of infections or emergence of variants of concerns can lead to partial or full re-escalation(s) of response and control measures in place. Hence, it is crucial to rely on a robust public health surveillance system. CONCLUSIONS: This rapid review focusing on de-escalation within the context of COVID-19 provides a conceptual framework and a guide to criteria that countries can use to formulate de-escalation plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/psychology , Contact Tracing/methods , Humans , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094114

ABSTRACT

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Status Schedule/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
10.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 68(3): 283-296, 2022 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067274

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During their domestic quarantine, Covid-19 patients face major physical, psychological and social challenges. The description of support needs and specific topics brought to supportive conversations will be used to add to the body of knowledge about stressors and resources. Methods: A total of 109 telephone conversations with 69 quarantined Corona patients were documented by psychotherapists and physicians at Heidelberg University Hospital from November 2020 to April 2021. Subsequently, clinical documentations were analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis. Results: Most physical complaints related to cardio-respiratory symptoms (29 %), previous illnesses (24 %), and exhaustion or fatigue (16 %). On the psychological level, patients reported mainly anxiety (31 %) and depressive symptoms (16 %). On a social level, patients described stress related to family (56 %), work (20 %), and time in quarantine (16 %). Social support, individual coping strategies, a positive prognosis on the course of the corona disease, psychotherapy, and satisfactory medical care were mentioned as relieving factors. Therapeutic interventions aimed at stabilization and consisted of psychoeducation, relaxation techniques, and general counseling. Conclusions: The study shows that physical complaints, psychological symptoms, and social factors are brought into telephone support conversations. The support offer met a high demand and was well accepted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Psychophysiologic Disorders , Quarantine/psychology , Telephone
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065947

ABSTRACT

Due to the evolution of COVID-19,restrictive measures were implemented. The quarantine resulted in significant changes in the social, economic, and psychological status of the population; however, its long-term effects have not yet been elucidated, especially in young adults. In the present study, people aged 18-25 years were studied, in relation to their sleeping, smoking, eating, and drinking habits and their physical activity before, during, and after the implementation of quarantine. We included 540 respondents (21.2 ± 2.3 years, 62.8% female). During quarantine, from 23 March to 4 May 2020, we observed an increase in sleep hours by 1.17 ± 1.98 h (p < 0.001), time of sleep arrival by 11.90 ± 30.41 min (p < 0.001), and number of daily meals by 0.66 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). The subjects who consumed alcoholic beverages never or almost never had an upward change of 27.04%, and the time of daily exercise was reduced by 10.16 ± 48.68 min (p < 0.001). After quarantine, cigarettes per day increased by 1.14 ± 3.62 (p < 0.001) and the awakenings during night time increased by 0.37 ± 1.93 (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the quarantine brought about significant changes in smoking, sleeping habits, physical activity, dietary habits, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, some of which continue after its termination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep , Sleep Quality , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia enforced extremely rigorous contact tracing and mandatory quarantine for all suspected contact and travelers entering the country for a period of 14-days duration during the early phases of the COVID-19 outbreak. Several studies investigated the experience of quarantined people because of COVID-19 or previous outbreaks. However, quarantine is often perceived differently in different cultures because of its historical association with class, gender, ethnicity, politics, and prejudices. To our knowledge, there is limited literature on quarantine experience in Ethiopia related to either COVID-19 or other infectious diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore quarantine experience of people in Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia during early phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study implemented an exploratory qualitative research design using a phenomenological approach. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively recruited 29 respondents. Digitally recorded audio files have been listened to several times and verbatim transcriptions were done. The transcribed narratives were examined independently and content analysis was carried out through reading and re-reading the verbatim several times, open coding, grouping, categorizing, and abstracting the final themes. RESULTS: Three broad themes were identified and characterized the experiences of quarantined people due to COVID-19. These themes were a) handling of the suspected person, b) adverse effects of quarantine and c) coping strategies. In addition, quarantine refusals; injustice in quarantine; quarantine errors; psychological distress; physiological changes; social effects; financial losses; personal and social coping strategies were the emerged sub-themes. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored a range of complex experiences of quarantined people because of the COVID-19 outbreak in SNNPR. The quarantined people included in this study were adversely affected psychologically, physiologically, socially, and economically. They also experienced quarantine errors and injustice. There is a need to gather clear justification for close contact before forcing the suspect for mandatory quarantine. In addition, there is a need to develop risk communication strategy to approach suspected contacts for quarantine. Moreover, assessing psychological, physiological, social, and economic impacts of quarantine on the individuals while they are in quarantine and after release could be important. The use of personal and social coping strategies including psychosocial support may lessen the adverse impacts of the quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/psychology
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16484, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050551

ABSTRACT

The Austrian government imposed multiple major lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the relevant measures and their perceptions varied over time. The aim of this study was to compare the over-time impacts of the three COVID-19 lockdowns between March 2020 and December 2021 for (capability) wellbeing and mental health in Austria. Adult Austrian residents (n = 87) completed an online survey about their experiences during three COVID-19 lockdowns, including capabilities (OxCAP-MH), depression and anxiety (HADS), and general wellbeing (WHO-5). Differences across the baseline and follow-up scores of these instruments were summarised by demographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Longitudinal comparisons of the impacts of the lockdowns were conducted using random effect models on panel data for overall instrument scores and individual capability items. The levels of (capability) wellbeing and mental health decreased for most respondents across the three lockdowns: average 2.4% reduction in OxCAP-MH scores, 18.8% and 9% increases in HADS depression and anxiety subscale scores respectively, and 19.7% reduction in WHO-5 score between the first and third lockdowns. Mental health treatment prior to the pandemic, social support and satisfaction with government measures were the most influential characteristics that determine the association with impacts of the chain of lockdowns. Our study is the first to assess the differential capability limiting aspects of lockdowns over time alongside their impacts on mental health and general wellbeing and calls for special attention for mental health patients, isolation and satisfaction with government measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1806, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A key feature of the global public health response to contain and slow the spread of COVID-19 has been community-based quarantine and self-isolation. As part of The Optimise Study, this research sought to understand the factors that influence people's ability to undertake home-based quarantine and isolation to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative phone interviews (n = 25) were conducted by telephone with people who participated in community-based quarantine in Australia before 31 March 2020. The Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour model was used to conduct a thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants required clear, accessible and trusted information to guide them in home-based quarantine and isolation. A sense of social responsibility and belief in the efficacy of the restrictions to reduce viral transmission aided their motivation. Access to essential needs, supportive living environments, and emotional support were required to adhere to restrictions, but few were prepared. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate that in addition to having the capability and motivation to adhere to restrictions, it is vital that people are also encouraged to prepare for the challenge to ensure access to physical, social and emotional support. Findings also illustrate the importance of engaging communities in planning and preparedness for quarantine and self-isolation public health responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Australia , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Motivation , Public Health , Quarantine/psychology
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 386, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036783

ABSTRACT

Stress exposure during pregnancy is critically linked with maternal mental health and child development. The effects might involve altered patterns of DNA methylation in specific stress-related genes (i.e., glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, and serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4) and might be moderated by the gestational timing of stress exposure. In this study, we report on NR3C1 and SLC6A4 methylation status in Italian mothers and infants who were exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown during different trimesters of pregnancy. From May 2020 to February 2021, 283 mother-infant dyads were enrolled at delivery. Within 24 h from delivery, buccal cells were collected to assess NR3C1 (44 CpG sites) and SLC6A4 (13 CpG sites) methylation status. Principal component (PC) analyses were used to reduce methylation data dimension to one PC per maternal and infant gene methylation. Mother-infant dyads were split into three groups based on the pregnancy trimester (first, second, third), during which they were exposed to the COVID-19 lockdown. Mothers and infants who were exposed to the lockdown during the first trimester of pregnancy had lower NR3C1 and SLC6A4 methylation when compared to counterparts exposed during the second or third trimesters. The effect remained significant after controlling for confounders. Women who were pregnant during the pandemic and their infants might present altered epigenetic biomarkers of stress-related genes. As these epigenetic marks have been previously linked with a heightened risk of maternal psychiatric problems and less-than-optimal child development, mothers and infants should be adequately monitored for psychological health during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epigenesis, Genetic , Quarantine , Receptors, Glucocorticoid , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Quarantine/psychology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 966522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022750

ABSTRACT

Prenatal stress can affect pregnant women in an epigenetic way during the critical period of conception of their offspring. The study aims to investigate the relationship between peritraumatic distress, prenatal perceived stress, depression, and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) DNA methylation among pregnant women who experienced COVID-19 lockdown in China. Study data were collected from 30 pregnant women in Wuhan and Huanggang, China. The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory was used to measure peritraumatic distress, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure perceived stress. DNA methylation in the exon 1F promoter region of NR3C1 gene from the venous blood mononuclear cell genome was characterized by bisulfite sequencing. Correlation and linear regression were used for data analysis. The mean level of peritraumatic distress, perceived stress, and depression was 6.30 (SD = 5.09), 6.50 (SD = 5.41), and 6.60 (SD = 4.85), respectively, with 23.33% of pregnant women being depressed. The mean NR3C1 methylation was 0.65 (SD = 0.22). Prenatal depression was positively correlated with the degree of methylation in venous blood from the mother (r = 0.59, p = 0.001), and depression predicted methylation of NR3C1 gene at the CpG 8 site (ß = 0.05, p = 0.03). No association was found between peritraumatic distress as well as perceived stress and methylation of NR3C1. NR3C1 gene was susceptible to epigenetic modification of DNA methylation in the context of prenatal stress, and maternal depression was associated with increased NR3C1 methylation among women who experienced COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Pregnancy Complications , Quarantine , Receptors, Glucocorticoid , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , DNA Methylation/genetics , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/genetics , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/genetics , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/genetics , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/genetics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14514, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016829

ABSTRACT

We study how the Chilean population's well-being responded to the strategy implemented by their health authorities, known as Dynamic Quarantine, to contain the spread of coronavirus in which municipalities periodically entered and exited lockdowns. This unique scheme, together with the population's socioeconomic heterogeneity, facilitates the estimation of changes in this well-being as differentiated by socioeconomic status. Using Google Trends to compute measures of well-being, we find strong evidence that socioeconomic status induces heterogeneity in these changes; thus, neglecting this heterogeneity may lead to misleading prescriptions for the public policy that addresses the psychological effects of lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Quarantine/psychology , Search Engine
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987810

ABSTRACT

This study explores how windows with a green view might affect the mental health (i.e., depressive/anxiety symptoms) of home-isolated populations. An online survey was conducted among 508 adults isolated under government quarantine policies for COVID-19 emergency pandemic control between 10 and 20 January 2022 in Xi'an, China. Structural equation modeling was employed to identify the pathways from green view through windows to isolated people's depressive/anxiety symptoms. The relative frequency of plant/water exposure through windows was associated with fewer depressive/anxiety symptoms. Home-isolated people during COVID-19 reported better mental health when they were exposed to more natural settings. These findings could inspire public health authorities to adopt nature-based solutions to mitigate the adverse mental health consequences of isolated populations during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 301-306, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Anxiety can be related to reduced diet quality during pandemics such as COVID-19. However, it is not clear whether these relationships would be similar in inactive and physically active participants. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between anxiety and eating habits in physically active and inactive individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1826 adults (58.5% women) who were invited through social media to answer an online questionnaire. The instrument included questions related to physical activity, eating habits, health behavior, mental health (anxiety, depression, self-esteem, sadness and stress) and overall health. Anxiety, food habits (high food habits consumption ≥5 times per week) and physical activity (≥150 min per week) were assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between anxiety and eating habits according to levels of physical activity (inactive vs. active) was assessed using binary logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, education level, social isolation, and body mass index. RESULTS: Among the inactive participants, anxiety was related with high consumption of sweets (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.11-1.83) and fast foods (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.05-4.74) while quarantining during the COVID-19 pandemic. No relationship was observed between anxiety and food consumption among physically active participants in the final model. CONCLUSION: Anxiety was associated with less desirable eating habits among physically inactive adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968840

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the global economy and affected millions of people's work and personal lives across the world. The purpose of the present study was to better understand how individuals' work and personal goals have been affected by the pandemic and how they have adapted to these changes. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 48) and surveyed participants (n = 200) weekly for 5 weeks. Both methods revealed similar themes regarding the adaptation and pursuit of goals (social support, handling unpredictable situations, logistics, solving problems creatively, goal postponement, and no changes). Survey responses also showed that most individuals experienced their goals as more difficult (79%; 13% easier; 9% no change) and found that many had had to adapt or postpone their work and personal goals, often due to logistical difficulties. Businesses and governments should do more to help individuals adapt their goals to the new circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Goals , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Work Performance/organization & administration , Adaptation, Physiological , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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