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3.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(1): 22-25, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607391

ABSTRACT

To combat the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), significant measures were enacted including school and business closures, social distancing, and facial coverings. We hypothesized that this would have an impact on all respiratory infections in children. Using nasopharyngeal panel test results of children in the emergency department, we evaluated cross-sectional data from February to May in both 2019 and 2020. Respiratory panel testing included 11 common respiratory viruses and bacteria. After the restrictions were enacted, we observed a large drop in the number and percentage positive of all common respiratory viral infections in 2020 compared with the same time in 2019. When analyzing data from children <2 years old, a similar decrease was seen. Restrictions enacted to prevent the spread of COVID-19 were associated with a significant decrease in respiratory viral infections in children of all ages. This association could guide future public health recommendations and guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Quarantine/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
CMAJ ; 193(24): E921-E930, 2021 06 14.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551317

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: Les interventions non pharmacologiques demeurent le principal moyen de maîtriser le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 (SRAS-CoV-2) d'ici à ce que la couverture vaccinale soit suffisante pour donner lieu à une immunité collective. Nous avons utilisé des données de mobilité anonymisées de téléphones intelligents afin de quantifier le niveau de mobilité requis pour maîtriser le SRAS-CoV-2 (c.-à-d., seuil de mobilité), et la différence par rapport au niveau de mobilité observé (c.-à-d., écart de mobilité). MÉTHODES: Nous avons procédé à une analyse de séries chronologiques sur l'incidence hebdomadaire du SRAS-CoV-2 au Canada entre le 15 mars 2020 et le 6 mars 2021. Le paramètre mesuré était le taux de croissance hebdomadaire, défini comme le rapport entre les cas d'une semaine donnée et ceux de la semaine précédente. Nous avons mesuré les effets du temps moyen passé hors domicile au cours des 3 semaines précédentes à l'aide d'un modèle de régression log-normal, en tenant compte de la province, de la semaine et de la température moyenne. Nous avons calculé le seuil de mobilité et l'écart de mobilité pour le SRAS-CoV-2. RÉSULTATS: Au cours des 51 semaines de l'étude, en tout, 888 751 personnes ont contracté le SRAS-CoV-2. Chaque augmentation de 10 % de l'écart de mobilité a été associée à une augmentation de 25 % du taux de croissance des cas hebdomadaires de SRAS-CoV-2 (rapport 1,25, intervalle de confiance à 95 % 1,20­1,29). Comparativement à la mobilité prépandémique de référence de 100 %, le seuil de mobilité a été plus élevé au cours de l'été (69 %, écart interquartile [EI] 67 %­70 %), et a chuté à 54 % pendant l'hiver 2021 (EI 52 %­55 %); un écart de mobilité a été observé au Canada entre juillet 2020 et la dernière semaine de décembre 2020. INTERPRÉTATION: La mobilité permet de prédire avec fiabilité et constance la croissance des cas hebdomadaires et il faut maintenir des niveaux faibles de mobilité pour maîtriser le SRAS-CoV-2 jusqu'à la fin du printemps 2021. Les données de mobilité anonymisées des téléphones intelligents peuvent servir à guider le relâchement ou le resserrement des mesures de distanciation physique provinciales et régionales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Geographic Mapping , Mobile Applications/standards , Patient Identification Systems/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Patient Identification Systems/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/standards , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Time Factors
6.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 141-149, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463115

ABSTRACT

Amid the COVID-19 crisis, children with special needs may have challenges. To determine emotional and behavioral challenges, 116 children aged 4 to 6 years, who received special education, were evaluated. COVID-19 negatively affected the families at a rate of 94.6%; 76.5% of the children's daily routines were worsened. Although the one-on-one time duration with the mother and father increased (73.5% and 66.7%), reading books (40.6%), play (17.2%), and overall activity durations (25.7%) decreased. The median screen time increased from 1 to 3 hours. According to the families, there was a regression in development in 18.8% of children. Special education practices at home were ceased by 17.2% of families, and a significant difference was found between the groups with and without regression in development in terms of the frequency of continuing special education at home. The development of children with special needs is an ongoing urgent situation; thus, besides protecting and promoting physical health during the pandemic, families and children should also be supported for developmental needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disabled Children/statistics & numerical data , Education, Special/standards , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disabled Children/psychology , Disabled Children/rehabilitation , Education, Special/methods , Education, Special/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257842, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450729

ABSTRACT

Carceral settings in the United States have been the source of many single site COVID-19 outbreaks. Quarantine is a strategy used to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in correctional settings, and specific quarantine practices differ state to state. To better understand how states are using quarantine in prisons, we reviewed each state's definition of quarantine and compared each state's definition to the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) definition and recommendations for quarantine in jails and prisons. Most prison systems, 45 of 53, define quarantine, but definitions vary widely. No state published definitions of quarantine that align with all CDC recommendations, and only 9 states provide quarantine data. In these states, the highest recorded quarantine rate occurred in Ohio in May 2020 at 843 per 1,000. It is necessary for prison systems to standardize their definitions of quarantine and to utilize quarantine practices in accordance with CDC recommendations. In addition, data transparency is needed to better understand the use of quarantine and its effectiveness at mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks in carceral settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Correctional Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
8.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(2): 189-191, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rapid implementation of home sleep studies during the first UK COVID-19 'lockdown'-completion rates, family feedback and factors that predict success. DESIGN: We included all patients who had a sleep study conducted at home instead of as inpatient from 30 March 2020 to 30 June 2020. Studies with less than 4 hours of data for analysis were defined 'unsuccessful'. RESULTS: 137 patients were included. 96 underwent home respiratory polygraphy (HRP), median age 5.5 years. 41 had oxycapnography (O2/CO2), median age 5 years. 56% HRP and 83% O2/CO2 were successful. A diagnosis of autism predicted a lower success rate (29%) as did age under 5 years. CONCLUSION: Switching studies rapidly from an inpatient to a home environment is possible, but there are several challenges that include a higher failure rate in younger children and those with neurodevelopmental disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Polysomnography/methods , Self-Testing , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Perception , Polysomnography/psychology , Polysomnography/standards , Quarantine/standards , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/standards , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31930, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417047

ABSTRACT

This report aimed to provide an overview of the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in Morocco and to review the actions carried out as part of the national response to this pandemic. The methodology adopted was based on literature review, interviews with officials and actors in the field, and remote discussion workshops with a multidisciplinary and multisectoral working group. Morocco took advantage of the capacities already strengthened within the framework of the application of the provisions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of 2005. A SWOT analysis made it possible to note that an unprecedented political commitment enabled all the necessary means to face the pandemic and carry out all the response activities, including a campaign of relentless communication. Nevertheless, and despite the efforts made, the shortage of human resources, especially those qualified in intensive care and resuscitation, has been the main drawback to be addressed. The main lesson learned is a need to further strengthen national capacities to prepare for and respond to possible public health emergencies and to embark on a process overhaul of the health system, including research into innovative tools to ensure the continuity of the various disease prevention and control activities. In addition, response to a health crisis is not only the responsibility of the health sector but also intersectoral collaboration is needed to guarantee an optimal coordinated fight. Community-oriented approaches in public health have to be strengthened through more participation and involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society in operational and strategic planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Humans , Morocco/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/standards , Workforce/standards
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quality water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities act as barricades to the transmission of COVID-19 in health care facilities. These facilities ought to also be available, accessible, and functional in temporary treatment centers. Despite numerous studies on health care facilities, however, there is limited information on the status of WASH facilities in such centers. METHODS: The assessment of health care facilities for the COVID-19 response checklist and key informant interviews, were used for data collection. 35 treatment centers in Southern Ethiopia were surveyed. Eightkey informants were interviewed to gain an understanding of the WASH conditions in the treatment centers. The Quantitative data was entered using EPI-INFO 7 and exported to SPSS 20 for analysis. Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Open Code 4.02 was used for the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: Daily water supply interruptions occurred at 27 (77.1%) of the surveyed sites. Only 30 (85.72%) had bathrooms that were segregated for personnel and patients, and only 3 (3.57%) had toilets that were handicapped accessible. 20(57.2%) of the treatment centers did not have a hand hygiene protocol that satisfied WHO guidelines. In terms of infection prevention and control, 16 (45.71%) of the facilities lacked adequate personal protective equipment stocks. Between urban and rural areas, there was also a significant difference in latrine maintenance, hand hygiene protocol design and implementation, and incineration capacity. CONCLUSION: The results reveal crucial deficiencies in the provision of WASH in the temporary COVID-19 treatment centers. Efforts to improve WASH should offer priority to hygiene service interventions to minimize the risk of healthcare-acquired infections. The sustainable provision of hygiene services, such as hand washing soap, should also be given priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hygiene , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sanitation/statistics & numerical data , Water Quality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quarantine/standards , Sanitation/standards
16.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211026155, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331870

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic called for the restructuring of National Health Service (NHS) surgical departments across the country. Initial guidance advised that patients undergoing elective surgery isolate for 14 days prior to their operation. As we learnt more about COVID-19 and its incubation period, at the Princess Royal University Hospital this guidance has been decreased to 72 h. We collected retrospective data for two patient cohorts that underwent elective surgery in June and September 2020, isolating for 14 days and 72 h, respectively. We followed-up these patients with several questions allowing us to categorise the cohorts into three groups based on their compliance with isolation measures and also to assess their satisfaction with the isolation process. Our data shows that only 16% of the June cohort and 53% of the September cohort isolated in accordance with the guidelines whilst patient satisfaction was 16% and 64% respectively. These results highlight a suboptimal compliance to pre-operative guidelines as well as an adverse effect on patient mental health and raise the issue of both patient and NHS staff safety. With the possibility of a COVID-19 second wave and for future pandemics, a clear evidence-based plan for pre-operative isolation is vital. Furthermore, consideration of patient adherence and satisfaction is key in deciding which guideline will be most effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Preoperative Care , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
17.
Elife ; 102021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328262

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, two mainstream guidelines for defining when to end the isolation of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals have been in use: the one-size-fits-all approach (i.e. patients are isolated for a fixed number of days) and the personalized approach (i.e. based on repeated testing of isolated patients). We use a mathematical framework to model within-host viral dynamics and test different criteria for ending isolation. By considering a fixed time of 10 days since symptom onset as the criterion for ending isolation, we estimated that the risk of releasing an individual who is still infectious is low (0-6.6%). However, this policy entails lengthy unnecessary isolations (4.8-8.3 days). In contrast, by using a personalized strategy, similar low risks can be reached with shorter prolonged isolations. The obtained findings provide a scientific rationale for policies on ending the isolation of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Patient Isolation , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Precision Medicine/methods , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252423, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269919

ABSTRACT

Dynamic capabilities, resulting from activities that allow conscious and skillful modification of a firm's strategic potential, are seen as one of the key drivers of a firm's value creation, competitive advantage and above-average performance in changing environments. However, little is known about how dynamic capabilities can shape business survival and performance during crises. The research objective of this paper is twofold. First, through a literature review, we seek to identify which first-order dynamic capabilities-managerial decisions under uncertainty-are vital for rapid response to a crisis. Second, we present the results of research carried out among 151 small and medium-sized companies in Poland immediately after the beginning of the economic lockdown (April 2020). The survey that we developed identifies which dynamic capabilities were essential for businesses to survive during this unexpected black swan event. We also present dependence and regression analyses showing the links between the identified dynamic capabilities and value creation, understood as retaining employees and production levels, as well as value capture, understood as maintaining cash flow and current revenues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Entrepreneurship/organization & administration , Pandemics/economics , Quarantine/economics , Small Business/organization & administration , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Entrepreneurship/economics , Entrepreneurship/statistics & numerical data , Entrepreneurship/trends , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Quarantine/standards , Small Business/economics , Small Business/statistics & numerical data , Small Business/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Sustainable Development , Uncertainty
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