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1.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 309-318, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743513

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and mood changes in the Croatian general population. METHODS: During ten days of the COVID-19 lockdown in Croatia, 3027 respondents (70.3% female) from the general population completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Demographic data and data on lifestyle habits and mood changes before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected. RESULTS: A total of 95.64% of respondents reported to follow most or all restrictions, with female sex (P<0.001) and higher education level (P<0.001) being associated with higher restriction compliance. Women smoked an increased number of cigarettes (P<0.001). The proportion of respondents of both sexes who did not drink or drank 7 drinks per week or more increased (P<0.001). Women also reported lower frequency (P=0.001) and duration of physical exercise (P<0.001). In total, 30.7% of respondents gained weight, with female sex (OR, 2.726) and higher BMI (OR, 1.116; both P<0.001) being associated with an increased likelihood of gaining weight. Both men and women felt more frequently afraid (P<0.001), discouraged (P<0.001), and sad (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in order to reduce long-term negative effects of the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Affect , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , Coronavirus , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Quarantine/psychology , Sadness , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
J Biol Dyn ; 14(1): 730-747, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740143

ABSTRACT

In this study, we estimate the severity of the COVID-19 outbreak in Pakistan prior to and after lockdown restrictions were eased. We also project the epidemic curve considering realistic quarantine, social distancing and possible medication scenarios. The pre-lock down value of R 0 is estimated to be 1.07 and the post lock down value is estimated to be 1.86. Using this analysis, we project the epidemic curve. We note that if no substantial efforts are made to contain the epidemic, it will peak in mid-September, 2020, with the maximum projected active cases being close to 700, 000. In a realistic, best case scenario, we project that the epidemic peaks in early to mid-July, 2020, with the maximum active cases being around 120, 000. We note that social distancing measures and medication will help flatten the curve; however, without the reintroduction of further lock down, it would be very difficult to make R 0 < 1 .


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Biostatistics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data
3.
Diabetes Metab J ; 44(4): 602-613, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. RESULTS: Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Lymphocytosis , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696422

ABSTRACT

In Italy, the COVID-19 epidemic curve started to flatten when the health system had already exceeded its capacity, raising concerns that the lockdown was indeed delayed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health effects of late implementation of the lockdown in Italy. Using national data on the daily number of COVID-19 cases, we first estimated the effect of the lockdown, employing an interrupted time series analysis. Second, we evaluated the effect of an early lockdown on the trend of new cases, creating a counterfactual scenario where the intervention was implemented one week in advance. We then predicted the corresponding number of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, non-ICU admissions, and deaths. Finally, we compared results under the actual and counterfactual scenarios. An early implementation of the lockdown would have avoided about 126,000 COVID-19 cases, 54,700 non-ICU admissions, 15,600 ICU admissions, and 12,800 deaths, corresponding to 60% (95%CI: 55% to 64%), 52% (95%CI: 46% to 57%), 48% (95%CI: 42% to 53%), and 44% (95%CI: 38% to 50%) reduction, respectively. We found that the late implementation of the lockdown in Italy was responsible for a substantial proportion of hospital admissions and deaths associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics
7.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(4): 228-232, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695886

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is inflicting a brutal blow on humankind, and no corner of the world has been exempted from its wrath. This study analyzes the chief control measures and the distinctive features of the responses implemented by Korea and the United States to contain COVID-19 with the goal of extracting lessons that can be applied globally. Even though both nations reported their index cases on the same day, Korea succeeded in flattening the curve, with 10 752 cases as of April 28, 2020, whereas the outbreak skyrocketed in the United States, which had more than 1 million cases at the same time. The prudent and timely execution of control strategies enabled Korea to tame the spread of the virus, whereas the United States paid a major price for its delay, although it is too early to render a conclusive verdict. Information pertaining to the number of people infected with the virus and measures instituted by the government to control the spread of COVID-19 was retrieved from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention websites and press releases. Drawing lessons from both nations, it is evident that the resolution to the COVID-19 pandemic lies in the prudent usage of available resources, proactive strategic planning, public participation, transparency in information sharing, abiding by the regulations that are put into place, and how well the plan of action is implemented.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time , United States/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(15)2020 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created challenges that have caused profound changes in health behaviors. This study aimed to explore how COVID-19 is affecting the health-related quality of life (QoL) among Chinese adults. METHODS: The data of health-related behaviors and QoL were collected via online surveys from 2289 adults (mean age = 27.8 ± 12 years) who had been isolated at home for an average of 77 days. RESULTS: More than 50% of the respondents reported that their time engaged in daily physical activity (PA) decreased, while sedentary behavior (SB) time increased compared with that before the lockdown. Only 20% of the respondents reported engaging in moderate-to-vigorous PA, 23% of adults reported changed their diets to be healthier, and 30% reported consuming more vegetables, fruits, and milk products than before home-isolation. During home-isolation, 75.2% of the adults rated their sleep quality as very good, and 65% reported that they were satisfied with their QoL. Sleep quality mediated the relationship between PA and QoL. CONCLUSION: The two-to-three-month home-isolation has had mixed effects on adult health behaviors in China. The participants were found to have focused more on their eating quality and patterns, which had a positive influence on their QoL. However, people should be encouraged to exercise at home with limited space to maintain a generally healthy lifestyle during a prolonged quarantine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Exercise , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/psychology , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sedentary Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 18984-18990, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691222

ABSTRACT

The lockdown response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented reduction in global economic and transport activity. We test the hypothesis that this has reduced tropospheric and ground-level air pollution concentrations, using satellite data and a network of >10,000 air quality stations. After accounting for the effects of meteorological variability, we find declines in the population-weighted concentration of ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2: 60% with 95% CI 48 to 72%), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5: 31%; 95% CI: 17 to 45%), with marginal increases in ozone (O3: 4%; 95% CI: -2 to 10%) in 34 countries during lockdown dates up until 15 May. Except for ozone, satellite measurements of the troposphere indicate much smaller reductions, highlighting the spatial variability of pollutant anomalies attributable to complex NOx chemistry and long-distance transport of fine particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). By leveraging Google and Apple mobility data, we find empirical evidence for a link between global vehicle transportation declines and the reduction of ambient NO2 exposure. While the state of global lockdown is not sustainable, these findings allude to the potential for mitigating public health risk by reducing "business as usual" air pollutant emissions from economic activities. Explore trends here: https://nina.earthengine.app/view/lockdown-pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/analysis , Atmosphere/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/economics , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
11.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 607-617, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647841

ABSTRACT

Quarantine plays a key role in controlling the pandemic of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study investigated (a) the associations between mandatory quarantine status and negative cognitions (perceived discrimination because of COVID-19 and perceived risk of COVID-19 infection)/mental health status (emotional distress because of COVID-19, probable depression, and self-harm/suicidal ideation), (b) the associations between the negative cognitions and mental health status, and (c) potential mediations between quarantined status and probable depression and self-harm/suicidal ideation via COVID-19-related negative cognitions/emotional distress. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 24,378 students of 26 universities in 16 Chinese cities (February 1-10, 2020). Correlation coefficients, odds ratios (OR), structural equation modeling, and other statistics were used for data analysis. Mandatory quarantined status was significantly and positively associated with perceived discrimination (Cohen's d = 0.62), perceived high/very high risk of infection (OR = 1.61), emotional distress (Cohen's d = 0.46), probable depression (OR = 2.54), and self-harm/suicidal ideation (OR = 4.98). Perceived discrimination was moderately and positively associated with emotional distress (Spearman correlation = 0.44). Associations between perceived risk of infection and mental health variables were significant but relatively weak. Cross-sectional mediation models showed good model fit, but the overall indirect paths via COVID-19-related negative cognitions/emotional distress only accounted for 12-15% of the total effects between quarantined status and probable depression and self-harm/suicidal ideation. In conclusion, quarantined participants were more likely than others to perceive discrimination and exhibit mental distress. It is important to integrate mental health care into the planning and implementation of quarantine measures. Future longitudinal studies to explore mechanisms underlying the mental health impact of quarantines are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Cognition , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Mandatory Programs , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Risk , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17513-17515, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635447

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), unprecedented movement restrictions and social distancing measures have been implemented worldwide. The socioeconomic repercussions have fueled calls to lift these measures. In the absence of population-wide restrictions, isolation of infected individuals is key to curtailing transmission. However, the effectiveness of symptom-based isolation in preventing a resurgence depends on the extent of presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission. We evaluate the contribution of presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission based on recent individual-level data regarding infectiousness prior to symptom onset and the asymptomatic proportion among all infections. We found that the majority of incidences may be attributable to silent transmission from a combination of the presymptomatic stage and asymptomatic infections. Consequently, even if all symptomatic cases are isolated, a vast outbreak may nonetheless unfold. We further quantified the effect of isolating silent infections in addition to symptomatic cases, finding that over one-third of silent infections must be isolated to suppress a future outbreak below 1% of the population. Our results indicate that symptom-based isolation must be supplemented by rapid contact tracing and testing that identifies asymptomatic and presymptomatic cases, in order to safely lift current restrictions and minimize the risk of resurgence.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Young Adult
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 1998-2004, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634848

ABSTRACT

To determine prevalence of, seroprevalence of, and potential exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among a cohort of evacuees returning to the United States from Wuhan, China, in January 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional study of quarantined evacuees from 1 repatriation flight. Overall, 193 of 195 evacuees completed exposure surveys and submitted upper respiratory or serum specimens or both at arrival in the United States. Nearly all evacuees had taken preventive measures to limit potential exposure while in Wuhan, and none had detectable SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory tract specimens, suggesting the absence of asymptomatic respiratory shedding among this group at the time of testing. Evidence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 1 evacuee, who reported experiencing no symptoms or high-risk exposures in the previous 2 months. These findings demonstrated that this group of evacuees posed a low risk of introducing SARS-CoV-2 to the United States.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Travel , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e114, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The median duration of hospital stays due to COVID-19 has been reported in several studies on China as 10-13 days. Global studies have indicated that the length of hospitalisation depends on different factors, such as the time elapsed from exposure to symptom onset, and from symptom onset to hospital admission, as well as specificities of the country under study. The goal of this paper is to identify factors associated with the median duration of hospital stays of COVID-19 patients during the second COVID-19 wave that hit Vietnam from 5 March to 8 April 2020. METHOD: We used retrospective data on 133 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 recorded over at least two weeks during the study period. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was applied to determine the potential risk factors associated with length of hospital stay. RESULTS: There were 65 (48.9%) females, 98 (73.7%) patients 48 years old or younger, 15 (11.3%) persons with comorbidities, 21 (16.0%) severely ill patients and 5 (3.8%) individuals with life-threatening conditions. Eighty-two (61.7%) patients were discharged after testing negative for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, 51 were still in the hospital at the end of the study period and none died. The median duration of stay in a hospital was 21 (IQR: 16-34) days. The multivariable Cox regression model showed that age, residence and sources of contamination were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: A close look at how long COVID-19 patients stayed in the hospital could provide an overview of their treatment process in Vietnam, and support the country's National Steering Committee on COVID-19 Prevention and Control in the efficient allocation of resources over the next stages of the COVID-19 prevention period.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Geography , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(8): 1011-1013, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quarantine and stay-at-home orders are strategies that many countries used during the acute pandemic period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to prevent disease dissemination, health system overload, and mortality. However, there are concerns that patients did not seek necessary health care because of these mandates. PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences in the clinical presentation of acute appendicitis and CT findings related to these cases between the COVID-19 acute pandemic period and nonpandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed to compare the acute pandemic period (March 23, 2020, to May 4, 2020) versus the same period the year before (March 23, 2019, to May 4, 2019). The proportion of appendicitis diagnosed by CT and level of severity of the disease were reviewed in each case. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to identify significant differences between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 196 abdominal CT scans performed due to suspected acute appendicitis were evaluated: 55 from the acute pandemic period and 141 from the nonpandemic period. The proportion of acute appendicitis diagnosed by abdominal CT was higher in the acute pandemic period versus the nonpandemic period: 45.5% versus 29.8% (P = .038). The severity of the diagnosed appendicitis was higher during the acute pandemic period: 92% versus 57.1% (P = .003). CONCLUSION: During the acute COVID-19 pandemic period, fewer patients presented with acute appendicitis to the emergency room, and those who did presented at a more severe stage of the disease.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Analysis of Variance , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , United States
19.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 137(4): 251-256, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of the first month of lockdown related to the 2020 SARS-Cov-2 epidemic on the consulting activity of private ENT physicians in Réunion Island. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicenter prospective study analyzed the consulting activity of 12 ENT physicians in full-time private practice. The main endpoints were the number, characteristics and conditions of consultations. Secondary endpoints comprised presenting symptoms, diagnosis, prescriptions, adverse effects, and progression of monthly consulting turnover. RESULTS: Six hundred and ninety three consultations were performed during the study period (Appendix 1), with 50% emergency consultations. In 57.9% were face-to-face, 28.4% by phone and 13.7% video. In face-to-face consultation, the physician wore gloves in 53.8% of cases and a mask in 92.2%: surgical mask in 71.6% of cases and FFP2 in 28.4%. The three most frequent symptoms (48.5% of cases) were otalgia, hearing impairment, and vertigo. The three most frequent diagnoses (60.6% of cases) were otitis, intra-auricular foreign body (including wax), and pharyngeal infection. The three most frequently prescribed complementary exams (74.3% of cases) were imaging, hearing work-up, and specialist opinion. The three most frequently prescribed treatments (52.7% of cases) were intra-auricular drops, oral antibiotics, and nasal spray. The incidence of adverse effects was 0.001%. None of the physicians or patients seemed to have been infected by Covid-19 during the study period. There was a 47.3-91% (median, 75.6%) drop in monthly consultation turnover. CONCLUSION: The present study underscored the availability and adaptability of ENT physicians in the Réunion Island in an epidemic context, although economic impact was detrimental.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Otolaryngology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Private Practice/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Reunion , Time Factors
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