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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7847-7857, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Islamic Republic of Iran has displayed one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection in the world and the highest rate of mortality in the Middle East. Iran has used a stringent package of preventive health measures to mitigate the spread of infection, which however has negatively affected individuals' physical and psychological health. This study aimed at examining whether physical-activity (PA) behavior, anxiety, well-being, and sleep-quality changed in response to the COVID-19-related public health restrictions enforced in Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An online questionnaire was disseminated to adults residing in Iran from November 17, 2020, to February 13, 2021 (~88 days), during Iran's strictest public health restrictions. Main outcome measures included Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder-7, Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: A total of 3,323 adults (mean age 30±11 years, 54.3% female) participated in the survey. Firstly, the restrictions generally reduced PA behavior: (a) among inactive participants (IPs), 60.6% became less active vs. 5.1% who became more active; and (b) among active participants (APs), 49.9% became less active vs. 22.8% who became more active. Secondly, PA behavior was associated with higher well-being and sleep quality during the restrictions: (a) APs reported higher (or lower) levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety) than did IPs; and (b) among IPs as well as among APs, the more active the participants, the greater (or lower) the levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the beneficial role of PA behavior for well-being, anxiety, and sleep quality during the COVID-19 restrictions, whereas such restrictions appeared to decrease PA participation. Active lifestyle should be then encouraged during the COVID-19 outbreak while taking precautions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed) ; 13(2): 259-271, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599551

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to analyze the frequency of the spontaneous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in patients admitted to an Emergency Eye Department in Italy (EED) during the COVID-19 pandemic national lockdown in 2020 compared with the similar time period in 2019. In this retrospective observational study, patient records for ophthalmology EED patients in the month of April 2020 during the COVID-19 Italian national lockdown, were compared with those for an equivalent one-month period in 2019. Diagnoses, gender, and age were assessed. Unpaired Student t-tests were used for continuous variables. Poisson regression was used for count analysis to compare categorical variables. Chi-square test was applied to asses proportion differences. In comparison with the 2019 equivalent period, there was a significant decrease in the overall number of EED visits and in the number of patients presenting with a spontaneous PVD during the 2020 lockdown (-41.6% and -49%, respectively). During the 2020 lockdown, all diagnostic categories showed less patient admittance, however, the proportions remained stable when considering the entire cohort. The proportion of urgent visits was 90% in 2020 and 86% in 2019 (p = 0.66). The proportion of EED patients affected by spontaneous PVD was comparable between the two study periods (8.4% in 2020 vs. 9.6% in 2019, p = 0.34). Patients presenting with spontaneous PVD in both periods were significantly older when compared to patients with other pathologies (mean age of 63years in 2020 and 64years in 2019, p < 0.001). There was a significant bias in female gender (61.2% in 2019 and 60% in 2020, p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease of accesses to the EED during COVID-19 2020 lockdown. Patients affected by spontaneous PVD were about 50% less compared with the same period of 2019. Risk factors for the development of spontaneous PVD were older age and female gender. PVD represents a potentially visual function threatening condition because it can cause retinal ruptures and retinal detachment. Patients need to be educated to get urgent ophthalmic assessments in the presence of important acute signs and symptoms, like floaters and flashes, even in the presence of a lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Vitreous Detachment/diagnosis , Vitreous Detachment/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581766

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US populations have experienced elevated rates of financial and psychological distress that could lead to increases in suicide rates. Rapid ongoing mental health monitoring is critical for early intervention, especially in regions most affected by the pandemic, yet traditional surveillance data are available only after long lags. Novel information on real-time population isolation and concerns stemming from the pandemic's social and economic impacts, via cellular mobility tracking and online search data, are potentially important interim surveillance resources. Using these measures, we employed transfer function model time-series analyses to estimate associations between daily mobility indicators (proportion of cellular devices completely at home and time spent at home) and Google Health Trends search volumes for terms pertaining to economic stress, mental health, and suicide during 2020 and 2021 both nationally and in New York City. During the first pandemic wave in early-spring 2020, over 50% of devices remained completely at home and searches for economic stressors exceeded 60,000 per 10 million. We found large concurrent associations across analyses between declining mobility and increasing searches for economic stressor terms (national proportion of devices at home: cross-correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.6 (p-value <0.001)). Nationally, we also found strong associations between declining mobility and increasing mental health and suicide-related searches (time at home: mood/anxiety CC = 0.53 (<0.001), social stressor CC = 0.51 (<0.001), suicide seeking CC = 0.37 (0.006)). Our findings suggest that pandemic-related isolation coincided with acute economic distress and may be a risk factor for poor mental health and suicidal behavior. These emergent relationships warrant ongoing attention and causal assessment given the potential for long-term psychological impact and suicide death. As US populations continue to face stress, Google search data can be used to identify possible warning signs from real-time changes in distributions of population thought patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cell Phone/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/psychology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/trends , Stress, Psychological , Time Factors , United States
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581751

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease of humans caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the first case was identified in China in December 2019 the disease has spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic. In this article, we present an agent-based model of COVID-19 in Luxembourg, and use it to estimate the impact, on cases and deaths, of interventions including testing, contact tracing, lockdown, curfew and vaccination. Our model is based on collation, with agents performing activities and moving between locations accordingly. The model is highly heterogeneous, featuring spatial clustering, over 2000 behavioural types and a 10 minute time resolution. The model is validated against COVID-19 clinical monitoring data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. Our model predicts far fewer cases and deaths than the equivalent equation-based SEIR model. In particular, with R0 = 2.45, the SEIR model infects 87% of the resident population while our agent-based model infects only around 23% of the resident population. Our simulations suggest that testing and contract tracing reduce cases substantially, but are less effective at reducing deaths. Lockdowns are very effective although costly, while the impact of an 11pm-6am curfew is relatively small. When vaccinating against a future outbreak, our results suggest that herd immunity can be achieved at relatively low coverage, with substantial levels of protection achieved with only 30% of the population fully immune. When vaccinating in the midst of an outbreak, the challenge is more difficult. In this context, we investigate the impact of vaccine efficacy, capacity, hesitancy and strategy. We conclude that, short of a permanent lockdown, vaccination is by far the most effective way to suppress and ultimately control the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Luxembourg/epidemiology , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573852

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 and resulting local and national lockdowns have a host of potential consequences for demographic trends. While impacts on mortality and, to some extent, short-term migration flows are beginning to be documented, it is too early to measure actual consequences for family demography. To gain insight into potential future consequences of the lockdown for family demography, we use cross-national Google Trends search data to explore whether trends in searches for words related to fertility, relationship formation, and relationship dissolution changed following lockdowns compared to average, pre-lockdown levels in Europe and the United States. Because lockdowns were not widely anticipated or simultaneous in timing or intensity, we exploit variability over time and between countries (and U.S. states). We use a panel event-study design and difference-in-differences methods, and account for seasonal trends and average country-level (or state-level) differences in searches. We find statistically significant impacts of lockdown timing on changes in searches for terms such as wedding and those related to condom use, emergency contraception, pregnancy tests, and abortion, but little evidence of changes in searches related to fertility. Impacts for union formation and dissolution tended to only be statistically significant at the start of a lockdown with a return to average-levels about 2 to 3 months after lockdown initiation, particularly in Europe. Compared to Europe, returns to average search levels were less evident for the U.S., even 2 to 3 months after lockdowns were introduced. This may be due to the fact, in the U.S., health and social policy responses were less demarcated than in Europe, such that economic uncertainty was likely of larger magnitude. Such pandemic-related economic uncertainty may therefore have the potential to slightly increase already existing polarization in family formation behaviours in the U.S. Alongside contributing to the wider literature on economic uncertainty and family behaviors, this paper also proposes strategies for efficient use of Google Trends data, such as making relative comparisons and testing sensitivity to outliers, and provides a template and cautions for their use in demographic research when actual demographic trends data are not yet available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Europe , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States
6.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(8): 1011-1013, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quarantine and stay-at-home orders are strategies that many countries used during the acute pandemic period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to prevent disease dissemination, health system overload, and mortality. However, there are concerns that patients did not seek necessary health care because of these mandates. PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences in the clinical presentation of acute appendicitis and CT findings related to these cases between the COVID-19 acute pandemic period and nonpandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed to compare the acute pandemic period (March 23, 2020, to May 4, 2020) versus the same period the year before (March 23, 2019, to May 4, 2019). The proportion of appendicitis diagnosed by CT and level of severity of the disease were reviewed in each case. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to identify significant differences between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 196 abdominal CT scans performed due to suspected acute appendicitis were evaluated: 55 from the acute pandemic period and 141 from the nonpandemic period. The proportion of acute appendicitis diagnosed by abdominal CT was higher in the acute pandemic period versus the nonpandemic period: 45.5% versus 29.8% (P = .038). The severity of the diagnosed appendicitis was higher during the acute pandemic period: 92% versus 57.1% (P = .003). CONCLUSION: During the acute COVID-19 pandemic period, fewer patients presented with acute appendicitis to the emergency room, and those who did presented at a more severe stage of the disease.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , United States
7.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1603992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533731

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the SwissCovid digital proximity tracing (DPT) app in notifying exposed individuals and prompting them to quarantine earlier compared to individuals notified only by manual contact tracing (MCT). Methods: A population-based sample of cases and close contacts from the Zurich SARS-CoV-2 Cohort was surveyed regarding SwissCovid app use and SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We descriptively analyzed app adherence and effectiveness, and evaluated its effects on the time between exposure and quarantine among contacts using stratified multivariable time-to-event analyses. Results: We included 393 SARS-CoV-2 infected cases and 261 close contacts. 62% of cases reported using SwissCovid and among those, 88% received and uploaded a notification code. 71% of close contacts were app users, of which 38% received a warning. Non-household contacts notified by SwissCovid started quarantine 1 day earlier and were more likely to quarantine earlier than those not warned by the app (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.03). Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that DPT may reach exposed contacts faster than MCT, with earlier quarantine and potential interruption of SARS-CoV-2 transmission chains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Mobile Applications , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Switzerland/epidemiology , Time Factors
8.
Math Biosci ; 338: 108645, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492387

ABSTRACT

With more than 1.7 million COVID-19 deaths, identifying effective measures to prevent COVID-19 is a top priority. We developed a mathematical model to simulate the COVID-19 pandemic with digital contact tracing and testing strategies. The model uses a real-world social network generated from a high-resolution contact data set of 180 students. This model incorporates infectivity variations, test sensitivities, incubation period, and asymptomatic cases. We present a method to extend the weighted temporal social network and present simulations on a network of 5000 students. The purpose of this work is to investigate optimal quarantine rules and testing strategies with digital contact tracing. The results show that the traditional strategy of quarantining direct contacts reduces infections by less than 20% without sufficient testing. Periodic testing every 2 weeks without contact tracing reduces infections by less than 3%. A variety of strategies are discussed including testing second and third degree contacts and the pre-exposure notification system, which acts as a social radar warning users how far they are from COVID-19. The most effective strategy discussed in this work was combining the pre-exposure notification system with testing second and third degree contacts. This strategy reduces infections by 18.3% when 30% of the population uses the app, 45.2% when 50% of the population uses the app, 72.1% when 70% of the population uses the app, and 86.8% when 95% of the population uses the app. When simulating the model on an extended network of 5000 students, the results are similar with the contact tracing app reducing infections by up to 79%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification/standards , Models, Theoretical , Social Network Analysis , Adult , Computer Simulation , Humans , Medical Informatics Applications , Mobile Applications , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Students , Young Adult
9.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1749-1756, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nonpharmaceutical interventions are implemented internationally to mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with the aim to reduce coronavirus disease 2019-related deaths and to protect the health system, particularly intensive care facilities from being overwhelmed. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions on ICU admissions of non-coronavirus disease 2019-related patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Analysis of all reported adult patient admissions to New Zealand ICUs during Level 3 and Level 4 lockdown restrictions from March 23, to May 13, 2020, in comparison with equivalent periods from 5 previous years (2015-2019). SUBJECTS: Twelve-thousand one-hundred ninety-two ICU admissions during the time periods of interest were identified. MEASUREMENTS: Patient data were obtained from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society critical care resources registry, and Statistics New Zealand. Study variables included patient baseline characteristics and ICU resource use. MAIN RESULTS: Nonpharmaceutical interventions in New Zealand were associated with a 39.1% decrease in ICU admission rates (p < 0.0001). Both elective (-44.2%) and acute (-36.5%) ICU admissions were significantly reduced when compared with the average of the previous 5 years (both p < 0.0001). ICU occupancy decreased from a mean of 64.3% (2015-2019) to 39.8% in 2020. Case mix, ICU resource use per patient, and ICU and hospital mortality remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The institution of nonpharmaceutical interventions was associated with a significant decrease in elective and acute ICU admissions and ICU resource use. These findings may help hospitals and health authorities planning for surge capacities and elective surgery management in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Phys Rev E ; 103(1): L010301, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455434

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, there are conflicting demands that arise from public health and socioeconomic costs. Lockdowns are a common way of containing infections, but they adversely affect the economy. We study the question of how to minimize the socioeconomic damage of a lockdown while still containing infections. Our analysis is based on the SIR model, which we analyze using a clock set by the virus. This use of the "virus time" permits a clean mathematical formulation of our problem. We optimize the socioeconomic cost for a fixed health cost and arrive at a strategy for navigating the pandemic. This involves adjusting the level of lockdowns in a controlled manner so as to minimize the socioeconomic cost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257842, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450729

ABSTRACT

Carceral settings in the United States have been the source of many single site COVID-19 outbreaks. Quarantine is a strategy used to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in correctional settings, and specific quarantine practices differ state to state. To better understand how states are using quarantine in prisons, we reviewed each state's definition of quarantine and compared each state's definition to the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) definition and recommendations for quarantine in jails and prisons. Most prison systems, 45 of 53, define quarantine, but definitions vary widely. No state published definitions of quarantine that align with all CDC recommendations, and only 9 states provide quarantine data. In these states, the highest recorded quarantine rate occurred in Ohio in May 2020 at 843 per 1,000. It is necessary for prison systems to standardize their definitions of quarantine and to utilize quarantine practices in accordance with CDC recommendations. In addition, data transparency is needed to better understand the use of quarantine and its effectiveness at mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks in carceral settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Correctional Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125538, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414845

ABSTRACT

Importance: The rate of deaths from overdose has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and recent US overdose mortality rates have been markedly high. However, scant data are available on the causes of this increase or subpopulations at elevated risk. Objective: To evaluate the rates and characteristics of deaths from drug overdose before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, population-based cohort study used data from 4 statewide databases linked at the person level via the Rhode Island Data Ecosystem on adults with deaths due to overdose in Rhode Island from January 1 to August 31, 2019, and January 1 to August 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of unintentional deaths from drug-related overdose during the 2019 and 2020 observation periods overall and by sociodemographic characteristics, drugs contributing to the cause of death, location of death, and socioeconomic factors were evaluated. In subgroup analyses restricted to Medicaid beneficiaries (n = 271), the proportions of deaths from overdose by behavioral health treatment and diagnosis claims in the year before death were also examined. Results: A total of 470 adults who died of drug overdose were included in the analysis (353 men [75%]; mean [SD] age, 43.5 [12.1] years). The rate of deaths from overdose in Rhode Island increased 28.1%, from 29.2 per 100 000 person-years in 2019 to 37.4 per 100 000 person-years in 2020 (P = .009). Compared with 2019, rates of deaths due to overdose during 2020 were higher among men (43.2 vs 59.2 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003), non-Hispanic White individuals (31.0 vs 42.0 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), single individuals (54.8 vs 70.4 per 100 000 person-years; P = .04), deaths involving synthetic opioids (20.8 vs 28.3 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), and deaths occurring in a personal residence (13.2 vs 19.7 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003). A decrease in the proportion of deaths from overdose involving heroin (11 of 206 [5%] vs <2% [exact value suppressed]; P = .02) and an increase among persons experiencing job loss (16 of 206 [8%] vs 41 of 264 [16%]; P = .01) from 2019 to 2020 were observed. Among individuals who died of overdose and were Medicaid beneficiaries, the proportions of those aged 50 to 59 years with anxiety (11 of 121 [9%] vs 29 of 150 [19%]; P = .03), men with depression (27 of 121 [22%] vs 57 of 150 [38%]; P = .008), and men with anxiety (28 of 121 [23%] vs 55 of 150 [37%]; P = .02) increased during 2020 compared with 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, during the first 8 months of 2020, the rate of deaths from overdose increased in Rhode Island compared with the same period in 2019, and several emerging characteristics of deaths from drug overdose during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were identified. These findings may inform interventions that address macroenvironmental changes associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose/mortality , Adult , Cohort Studies , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Rhode Island/epidemiology
13.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410476

ABSTRACT

Domiciliary confinement of people is one of the main strategies to limit the impact of COVID-19. Lockdowns have led to changes in lifestyle, emotional health, and eating habits. We aimed to evaluate the association of differences in dietary behaviours and lifestyle with self-reported weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown in Chile. In this cross-sectional analytical study, five previously validated surveys were condensed into a single 86-item online questionnaire. The survey was sent to 1000 potential participants of the university community; it was kept online for 28 days to be answered. Of the 639 respondents, the mean self-reported weight gain during confinement was 1.99 kg (standard deviation [SE]: 0.17) and 0.7 (SE: 0.06) units of body mass index (BMI) (both p < 0.001) and the median difference in body weight during lockdown was 3.3% (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.0-6.7). The differences of intake of most food groups before and during lockdown were associated with greater self-reported weight, BMI and percentage weight gain. Differences in lifestyle (odds ratio [OR] = 14.21, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.35-85.82) worsening eating habits (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 2.31-5.09), and more consumption of sweet or filled cookies and cakes during lockdown (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.42-3.13) were associated with self-reported weight gain. In conclusion, different dietary behaviours (mainly consumption of industrialized foods) during lockdown, as well as quality of life deterioration were the main factors associated with self-reported weight gain during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Universities , Young Adult
14.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410474

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional online survey performed in Poland aimed to improve understanding of how COVID-19 pandemic restrictions affected complementary feeding practices among parents of infants aged 4 to 12 months. Self-selected parents were recruited through the internet. The anonymous questionnaire was opened during two intervals during COVID-19 restrictions. The primary outcome was an assessment of sources of information and infant feeding practices in the context of COVID-19 restrictions. Data from 6934 responders (92.2% mothers) were analyzed. Most responders received information from multiple sources, with other parents, family members, or friends being the most frequently reported (48.6%), followed by webinars and experts' recommendations (40.8%). COVID-19 restrictions largely did not impact the method of feeding, changes in feeding patterns, or complementary feeding introduction, although the latter was more likely to be impacted in families with average versus the best financial situations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also most consistently showed that parents with a tertiary education and living in a city above 500 k were at higher odds of using webinars/experts' recommendations, internet/apps, and professional expert guides and lower odds of claiming no need to deepen knowledge. This study clarifies major issues associated with complementary feeding practices during the implementation of COVID-19 restrictions in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Parents , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(2): 206-209, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic became a challenge to maintain care for patients with epilepsy; we aimed to find out how the pandemic affected them. METHODS: We sent an online 22-item questionnaire to patients from our outpatient clinic, a reference centre in Spain for drug-resistant epilepsy, inquiring about the effects of lockdown, from March to May 2020. RESULTS: We sent the survey to 627 patients; 312 (58% women) sent a complete response and were included. Of all respondents, 57% took >2 antiseizure medications. One-third of respondents (29%) declared an associated cognitive or motor disability. A minority had confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1.92%). Seizure frequency remained like usual in 56% of patients, while 31.2% reported an increase. Less than 10% needed emergent assistance. Almost half reported anxiety or depression, and 25% increased behavioural disorders. Mood (F: 5.40; p: 0.002) and sleep disorders (F = 2.67; p: 0.05) were associated with increase in seizure frequency. Patients were able to contact their physicians when needed and were open to a future telematic approach to follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Seizure frequency and severity remained unchanged in most patients during the lockdown. Mood and sleep disorders were common and associated with seizure worsening. Patients were open to telematic care in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy/therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/complications , Disabled Persons , Epilepsy/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Motor Disorders/complications , Outpatients , Seizures/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/classification , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI51-SI58, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the adherence of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) to their immunomodulatory medication during the three-month lockdown in Germany. METHODS: From 16th March until 15th June 2020, IRD patients from private practices and rheumatology departments were asked to answer a questionnaire addressing their behaviour with respect to their immunomodulating therapy. Eight private practices and nine rheumatology departments that included rheumatology primary care centres and university hospitals participated. A total of 4252 questionnaires were collected and evaluated. RESULTS: The majority of patients (54%) were diagnosed with RA, followed by psoriatic arthritis (14%), ankylosing spondylitis (10%), connective tissue diseases (12%) and vasculitides (6%). Most of the patients (84%) reported to continue their immunomodulatory therapy. Termination of therapy was reported by only 3% of the patients. The results were independent from the type of IRD, the respective immunomodulatory therapy and by whom the patients were treated (private practices vs rheumatology departments). Younger patients (<60 years) reported just as often as older patients to discontinue their therapy. CONCLUSION: The data show that most of the patients continued their therapy in spite of the pandemic. A significant change in behaviour with regard to their immunomodulatory therapy was not observed during the three months of observation. The results support the idea that the immediate release of recommendations of the German Society of Rheumatology were well received, supporting the well-established physician-patient relationship in times of a crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(10): 37, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379697

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the effect of home quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic on myopia progression in children and its associated factors. Methods: Myopic children aged 7 to 12 years with regular follow-up visits every half a year from April 2019 to May 2020 were included. Cycloplegic refraction was measured at baseline and at two follow-up visits. The first follow-up visit (visit 1) was conducted before the COVID-19 home quarantine, whereas the second (visit 2) was four months after the home quarantine. Myopia progression at visits 1 and 2 were compared. Factors associated with changes in myopia progression were tested with a multiple regression analysis. Results: In total, 201 myopic children were enrolled. There was a significantly greater change in spherical equivalent at visit 2 (-0.98 ± 0.52 D) than at visit 1 (-0.39 ± 0.58 D; P < 0.001). Students were reported to have spent more time on digital devices for online learning (P < 0.001) and less time on outdoor activities (P < 0.001) at visit 2 than at visit 1. Children using television and projectors had significantly less myopic shift than those using tablets and mobile phones (P < 0.001). More time spent on digital screens (ß = 0.211, P < 0.001), but not less time on outdoor activities (ß = -0.106, P = 0.110), was associated with greater myopia progression at visit 2. Conclusions: Changes in behavior and myopic progression were found during the COVID-19 home quarantine. Myopic progression was associated with digital screen use for online learning, but not time spent on outdoor activities. The projector and television could be better choices for online learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Computers/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , China/epidemiology , Computer Terminals , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quality water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities act as barricades to the transmission of COVID-19 in health care facilities. These facilities ought to also be available, accessible, and functional in temporary treatment centers. Despite numerous studies on health care facilities, however, there is limited information on the status of WASH facilities in such centers. METHODS: The assessment of health care facilities for the COVID-19 response checklist and key informant interviews, were used for data collection. 35 treatment centers in Southern Ethiopia were surveyed. Eightkey informants were interviewed to gain an understanding of the WASH conditions in the treatment centers. The Quantitative data was entered using EPI-INFO 7 and exported to SPSS 20 for analysis. Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Open Code 4.02 was used for the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: Daily water supply interruptions occurred at 27 (77.1%) of the surveyed sites. Only 30 (85.72%) had bathrooms that were segregated for personnel and patients, and only 3 (3.57%) had toilets that were handicapped accessible. 20(57.2%) of the treatment centers did not have a hand hygiene protocol that satisfied WHO guidelines. In terms of infection prevention and control, 16 (45.71%) of the facilities lacked adequate personal protective equipment stocks. Between urban and rural areas, there was also a significant difference in latrine maintenance, hand hygiene protocol design and implementation, and incineration capacity. CONCLUSION: The results reveal crucial deficiencies in the provision of WASH in the temporary COVID-19 treatment centers. Efforts to improve WASH should offer priority to hygiene service interventions to minimize the risk of healthcare-acquired infections. The sustainable provision of hygiene services, such as hand washing soap, should also be given priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hygiene , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sanitation/statistics & numerical data , Water Quality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quarantine/standards , Sanitation/standards
20.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(4): 238-244, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous pandemics have demonstrated that several demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors may play a role in increased infection risk. During this current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, our aim was to examine the association of timing of lockdown at the county level and aforementioned risk factors with daily case rate (DCR) in the United States. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using publicly available data was performed including Americans with COVID-19 infection as of May 24, 2020. The United States counties with >100 000 population and >50 cases per 100 000 people were included. The independent variable was the days required from the declaration of lockdown to reach the target case rate (50/100 000 cases) while the dependent (outcome) variable was the DCR per 100 000 on the day of statistical calculation (May 24, 2020) after adjusting for multiple confounding socio-demographic, geographic, and health-related factors. Each independent factor was correlated with outcome variables and assessed for collinearity with each other. Subsequently, all factors with significant association to the outcome variable were included in multiple linear regression models using stepwise method. Models with best R2 value from the multiple regression were chosen. RESULTS: The timing of mandated lockdown order had the most significant association on the DCR per 100 000 after adjusting for multiple socio-demographic, geographic and health-related factors. Additional factors with significant association with increased DCR include rate of uninsured and unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: The timing of lockdown order was significantly associated with the spread of COVID-19 at the county level in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
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