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1.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987978

ABSTRACT

Viruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to exploit the molecular machinery of their host cells, including the broad spectrum of host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). However, the RBP interactomes of most viruses are largely unknown. To shed light on the interaction landscape of RNA viruses with human host cell RBPs, we have analysed 197 single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viral genome sequences and found that the majority of ssRNA virus genomes are significantly enriched or depleted in motifs for specific human RBPs, suggesting selection pressure on these interactions. To facilitate tailored investigations and the analysis of genomes sequenced in future, we have released our methodology as a fast and user-friendly computational toolbox named SMEAGOL. Our resources will contribute to future studies of specific ssRNA virus-host cell interactions and support the identification of antiviral drug targets.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Viruses , Base Sequence , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA , RNA Viruses/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Viruses/genetics
2.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 406, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-targeted whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool to comprehensively identify constituents of microbial communities in a sample. There is no need to direct the analysis to any identification before sequencing which can decrease the introduction of bias and false negatives results. It also allows the assessment of genetic aberrations in the genome (e.g., single nucleotide variants, deletions, insertions and copy number variants) including in noncoding protein regions. METHODS: The performance of four different random priming amplification methods to recover RNA viral genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 were compared in this study. In method 1 (H-P) the reverse transcriptase (RT) step was performed with random hexamers whereas in methods 2-4 RT incorporating an octamer primer with a known tag. In methods 1 and 2 (K-P) sequencing was applied on material derived from the RT-PCR step, whereas in methods 3 (SISPA) and 4 (S-P) an additional amplification was incorporated before sequencing. RESULTS: The SISPA method was the most effective and efficient method for non-targeted/random priming whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 that we tested. The SISPA method described in this study allowed for whole genome assembly of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in mixed samples. We determined the limit of detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 virus which was 103 pfu/ml (Ct, 22.4) for whole genome assembly and 101 pfu/ml (Ct, 30) for metagenomics detection. CONCLUSIONS: The SISPA method is predominantly useful for obtaining genome sequences from RNA viruses or investigating complex clinical samples as no prior sequence information is needed. It might be applied to monitor genomic virus changes, virus evolution and can be used for fast metagenomics detection or to assess the general picture of different pathogens within the sample.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , RNA Viruses , Genome, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
3.
Elife ; 112022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954753

ABSTRACT

Background: The variation in the pathogen type as well as the spatial heterogeneity of predictors make the generality of any associations with pathogen discovery debatable. Our previous work confirmed that the association of a group of predictors differed across different types of RNA viruses, yet there have been no previous comparisons of the specific predictors for RNA virus discovery in different regions. The aim of the current study was to close the gap by investigating whether predictors of discovery rates within three regions-the United States, China, and Africa-differ from one another and from those at the global level. Methods: Based on a comprehensive list of human-infective RNA viruses, we collated published data on first discovery of each species in each region. We used a Poisson boosted regression tree (BRT) model to examine the relationship between virus discovery and 33 predictors representing climate, socio-economics, land use, and biodiversity across each region separately. The discovery probability in three regions in 2010-2019 was mapped using the fitted models and historical predictors. Results: The numbers of human-infective virus species discovered in the United States, China, and Africa up to 2019 were 95, 80, and 107 respectively, with China lagging behind the other two regions. In each region, discoveries were clustered in hotspots. BRT modelling suggested that in all three regions RNA virus discovery was better predicted by land use and socio-economic variables than climatic variables and biodiversity, although the relative importance of these predictors varied by region. Map of virus discovery probability in 2010-2019 indicated several new hotspots outside historical high-risk areas. Most new virus species since 2010 in each region (6/6 in the United States, 19/19 in China, 12/19 in Africa) were discovered in high-risk areas as predicted by our model. Conclusions: The drivers of spatiotemporal variation in virus discovery rates vary in different regions of the world. Within regions virus discovery is driven mainly by land-use and socio-economic variables; climate and biodiversity variables are consistently less important predictors than at a global scale. Potential new discovery hotspots in 2010-2019 are identified. Results from the study could guide active surveillance for new human-infective viruses in local high-risk areas. Funding: FFZ is funded by the Darwin Trust of Edinburgh (https://darwintrust.bio.ed.ac.uk/). MEJW has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 874735 (VEO) (https://www.veo-europe.eu/).


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Viruses , Africa , Biodiversity , Humans , Probability , RNA , United States
4.
Inflamm Res ; 71(7-8): 729-739, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941438

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has starkly demonstrated the need to create highly effective vaccines against various viral diseases. The emerging new platforms for vaccine creation (adenovirus vectors and mRNA vaccines) have shown their worth in the fight against the prevention of coronavirus infection. However, adenovirus vectors and mRNA vaccines have a serious disadvantage: as a rule, only the S protein of the coronavirus is presented as an antigen. This tactic for preventing infection allows the ever-mutating virus to escape quickly from the immunity protection provided by such vaccines. Today, viral genomic databases are well-developed, which makes it possible to create new vaccines on a fundamentally new post-genomic platform. In addition, the technology for the synthesis of nucleic acids is currently experiencing an upsurge in demand in various fields of molecular biology. The accumulated experience suggests that the unique genomic sequences of viruses can act as antigens that trigger powerful humoral and cellular immunity. To achieve this effect, the following conditions must be created: the structure of the nucleic acid must be single-stranded, have a permanent 3D nanostructure, and have a unique sequence absent in the vaccinated organism. Oligonucleotide vaccines are able to resist the rapidly changing genomic sequences of RNA viruses by using conserved regions of their genomes to generate a long-term immune response, acting according to the adage that a diamond cuts a diamond. In addition, oligonucleotide vaccines will not contribute to antibody-dependent enhanced infection, since the nucleic acid of the coronavirus is inside the viral particle. It is obvious that new epidemics and pandemics caused by RNA viruses will continue to arise periodically in the human population. The creation of new, safe, and effective platforms for the production of vaccines that can flexibly change and adapt to new subtypes of viruses is very urgent and at this moment should be considered as a strategically necessary task.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , RNA Viruses , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Diamond , Genomics , Humans , Oligonucleotides
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264855, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896450

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 the world has been facing the outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Identification of infected patients and discrimination from other respiratory infections have so far been accomplished by using highly specific real-time PCRs. Here we present a rapid multiplex approach (RespiCoV), combining highly multiplexed PCRs and MinION sequencing suitable for the simultaneous screening for 41 viral and five bacterial agents related to respiratory tract infections, including the human coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, OC43, 229E, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. RespiCoV was applied to 150 patient samples with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared with specific real-time PCR. Additionally, several respiratory tract pathogens were identified in samples tested positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. Finally, RespiCoV was experimentally compared to the commercial RespiFinder 2SMART multiplex screening assay (PathoFinder, The Netherlands).


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , RNA Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nanopores , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 904481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887101

ABSTRACT

Bats are important hosts for various zoonotic viral diseases. However, they rarely show signs of disease infection with such viruses. As the first line for virus control, the innate immune system of bats attracted our full attention. In this study, the Tadarida brasiliensis MDA5 gene (batMDA5), a major sensor for anti-RNA viral infection, was first cloned, and its biological functions in antiviral innate immunity were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the amino acid sequence of batMDA5 is poorly conserved among species, and it is evolutionarily closer to humans. The mRNA of batMDA5 was significantly upregulated in Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza virus (AIV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected bat TB 1 Lu cells. Overexpression of batMDA5 could activate IFNß and inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-GFP) replication in TB 1 Lu cells, while knockdown of batMDA5 yielded the opposite result. In addition, we found that the CARD domain was essential for MDA5 to activate IFNß by constructing MDA5 domain mutant plasmids. These results indicated that bat employs a conserved MDA5 gene to trigger anti-RNA virus innate immune response. This study helps understand the biological role of MDA5 in innate immunity during evolution.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , RNA Virus Infections , Animals , Chiroptera/immunology , Influenza A virus , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-beta , RNA Virus Infections/immunology , RNA Viruses
7.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875813

ABSTRACT

The generation of different types of defective viral genomes (DVG) is an unavoidable consequence of the error-prone replication of RNA viruses. In recent years, a particular class of DVGs, those containing long deletions or genome rearrangements, has gain interest due to their potential therapeutic and biotechnological applications. Identifying such DVGs in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data has become an interesting computational problem. Several algorithms have been proposed to accomplish this goal, though all incur false positives, a problem of practical interest if such DVGs have to be synthetized and tested in the laboratory. We present a metasearch tool, DVGfinder, that wraps the two most commonly used DVG search algorithms in a single workflow for the identification of the DVGs in HTS data. DVGfinder processes the results of ViReMa-a and DI-tector and uses a gradient boosting classifier machine learning algorithm to reduce the number of false-positive events. The program also generates output files in user-friendly HTML format, which can help users to explore the DVGs identified in the sample. We evaluated the performance of DVGfinder compared to the two search algorithms used separately and found that it slightly improves sensitivities for low-coverage synthetic HTS data and DI-tector precision for high-coverage samples. The metasearch program also showed higher sensitivity on a real sample for which a set of copy-backs were previously validated.


Subject(s)
Defective Viruses , RNA Viruses , Defective Viruses/genetics , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA-Seq
8.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869816

ABSTRACT

Pyridobenzothiazolone derivatives are a promising class of broad-spectrum antivirals. However, the mode of action of these compounds remains poorly understood. The HeE1-17Y derivative has already been shown to be a potent compound against a variety of flaviviruses of global relevance. In this work, the mode of action of HeE1-17Y has been studied for West Nile virus taking advantage of reporter replication particles (RRPs). Viral infectivity was drastically reduced by incubating the compound with the virus before infection, thus suggesting a direct interaction with the viral particles. Indeed, RRPs incubated with the inhibitor appeared to be severely compromised in electron microscopy analysis. HeE1-17Y is active against other enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, but not against two non-enveloped viruses, suggesting a virucidal mechanism that involves the alteration of the viral membrane.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavivirus , RNA Viruses , Viruses , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 313, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1857924

ABSTRACT

Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of stomach and intestines and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many viruses, especially RNA viruses are the most common cause of enteritis. Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against enteric RNA viruses and virus-induced intestinal inflammation. The first layer of defense against enteric RNA viruses in the intestinal tract is intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), dendritic cells and macrophages under the intestinal epithelium. These innate immune cells express pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) for recognizing enteric RNA viruses through sensing viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). As a result of this recognition type I interferon (IFN), type III IFN and inflammasome activation occurs, which function cooperatively to clear infection and reduce viral-induced intestinal inflammation. In this review, we summarize recent findings about mechanisms involved in enteric RNA virus-induced intestinal inflammation. We will provide an overview of the enteric RNA viruses, their RNA sensing mechanisms by host PRRs, and signaling pathways triggered by host PRRs, which shape the intestinal immune response to maintain intestinal homeostasis.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestines , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism
10.
J Med Chem ; 65(9): 6454-6495, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825045

ABSTRACT

The azaindole (AI) framework continues to play a significant role in the design of new antiviral agents. Modulating the position and isosteric replacement of the nitrogen atom of AI analogs notably influences the intrinsic physicochemical properties of lead compounds. The intra- and intermolecular interactions of AI derivatives with host receptors or viral proteins can also be fine tuned by carefully placing the nitrogen atom in the heterocyclic core. This wide-ranging perspective article focuses on AIs that have considerable utility in drug discovery programs against RNA viruses. The inhibition of influenza A, human immunodeficiency, respiratory syncytial, neurotropic alpha, dengue, ebola, and hepatitis C viruses by AI analogs is extensively reviewed to assess their plausible future potential in antiviral drug discovery. The binding interaction of AIs with the target protein is examined to derive a structural basis for designing new antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , RNA Viruses , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Nitrogen
12.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792409

ABSTRACT

In RNA viruses, a small increase in their mutation rates can be sufficient to exceed their threshold of viability. Lethal mutagenesis is a therapeutic strategy based on the use of mutagens, driving viral populations to extinction. Extinction catastrophe can be experimentally induced by promutagenic nucleosides in cell culture models. The loss of HIV infectivity has been observed after passage in 5-hydroxydeoxycytidine or 5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine while producing a two-fold increase in the viral mutation frequency. Among approved nucleoside analogs, experiments with polioviruses and other RNA viruses suggested that ribavirin can be mutagenic, although its mechanism of action is not clear. Favipiravir and molnupiravir exert an antiviral effect through lethal mutagenesis. Both drugs are broad-spectrum antiviral agents active against RNA viruses. Favipiravir incorporates into viral RNA, affecting the G→A and C→U transition rates. Molnupiravir (a prodrug of ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine) has been recently approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Its triphosphate derivative can be incorporated into viral RNA and extended by the coronavirus RNA polymerase. Incorrect base pairing and inefficient extension by the polymerase promote mutagenesis by increasing the G→A and C→U transition frequencies. Despite having remarkable antiviral action and resilience to drug resistance, carcinogenic risks and genotoxicity are important concerns limiting their extended use in antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA Viruses , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Mutagenesis , Mutagens/pharmacology , Nucleosides/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 60, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wild birds may harbor and transmit viruses that are potentially pathogenic to humans, domestic animals, and other wildlife. RESULTS: Using the viral metagenomic approach, we investigated the virome of cloacal swab specimens collected from 3182 birds (the majority of them wild species) consisting of > 87 different species in 10 different orders within the Aves classes. The virus diversity in wild birds was higher than that in breeding birds. We acquired 707 viral genomes from 18 defined families and 4 unclassified virus groups, with 265 virus genomes sharing < 60% protein sequence identities with their best matches in GenBank comprising new virus families, genera, or species. RNA viruses containing the conserved RdRp domain with no phylogenetic affinity to currently defined virus families existed in different bird species. Genomes of the astrovirus, picornavirus, coronavirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, circovirus, retrovirus, and adenovirus families which include known avian pathogens were fully characterized. Putative cross-species transmissions were observed with viruses in wild birds showing > 95% amino acid sequence identity to previously reported viruses in domestic poultry. Genomic recombination was observed for some genomes showing discordant phylogenies based on structural and non-structural regions. Mapping the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data respectively against the 707 genomes revealed that these viruses showed distribution pattern differences among birds with different habitats (breeding or wild), orders, and sampling sites but no significant differences between birds with different behavioral features (migratory and resident). CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a highly diverse virome highlights the challenges in elucidating the evolution, etiology, and ecology of viruses in wild birds. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Viruses , Animals , Animals, Wild , Birds , Cloaca , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/genetics , Virome/genetics , Viruses/genetics
14.
Adv Virus Res ; 112: 1-29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763516

ABSTRACT

Reverse genetics is the prospective analysis of how genotype determines phenotype. In a typical experiment, a researcher alters a viral genome, then observes the phenotypic outcome. Among RNA viruses, this approach was first applied to positive-strand RNA viruses in the mid-1970s and over nearly 50 years has become a powerful and widely used approach for dissecting the mechanisms of viral replication and pathogenesis. During this time the global health importance of two virus groups, flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) and betacoronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, family Coronaviridae), have dramatically increased, yet these viruses have genomes that are technically challenging to manipulate. As a result, several new techniques have been developed to overcome these challenges. Here I briefly review key historical aspects of positive-strand RNA virus reverse genetics, describe some recent reverse genetic innovations, particularly as applied to flaviviruses and coronaviruses, and discuss their benefits and limitations within the larger context of rigorous genetic analysis.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus , RNA Viruses , Flavivirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses , RNA Viruses/genetics , Reverse Genetics/methods , Virus Replication/genetics
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1406, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750000

ABSTRACT

Human rhinovirus (HRV), like coronavirus (HCoV), are positive-strand RNA viruses that cause both upper and lower respiratory tract illness, with their replication facilitated by concentrating RNA-synthesizing machinery in intracellular compartments made of modified host membranes, referred to as replication organelles (ROs). Here we report a non-canonical, essential function for stimulator of interferon genes (STING) during HRV infections. While the canonical function of STING is to detect cytosolic DNA and activate inflammatory responses, HRV infection triggers the release of STIM1-bound STING in the ER by lowering Ca2+, thereby allowing STING to interact with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and traffic to ROs to facilitates viral replication and transmission via autophagy. Our results thus hint a critical function of STING in HRV viral replication and transmission, with possible implications for other RO-mediated RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus , RNA Viruses , Humans , Organelles , Rhinovirus , Virus Replication/physiology
16.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742734

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases such as the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to have a huge impact on global health, and the host-virus interaction remains incompletely understood. To address the global threat, in-depth investigations in pathogenesis are essential for interventions in infectious diseases and vaccine development. Interestingly, aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases (aaRSs), an ancient enzyme family that was once considered to play housekeeping roles in protein synthesis, are involved in multiple viral infectious diseases. Many aaRSs in eukaryotes present as the components of a cytoplasmic depot system named the multi-synthetase complex (MSC). Upon viral infections, several components of the MSC are released and exert nonenzymatic activities. Host aaRSs can also be utilized to facilitate viral entry and replication. In addition to their intracellular roles, some aaRSs and aaRS-interacting multi-functional proteins (AIMPs) are secreted as active cytokines or function as "molecule communicators" on the cell surface. The interactions between aaRSs and viruses ultimately affect host innate immune responses or facilitate virus invasion. In this review, we summarized the latest advances of the interactions between aaRSs and RNA viruses, with a particular emphasis on the therapeutic potentials of aaRSs in viral infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases , COVID-19 , RNA Viruses , Virus Diseases , Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases/genetics , Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases/metabolism , Humans , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Transfer/metabolism
17.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715763

ABSTRACT

Epithelial cells are apico-basolateral polarized cells that line all tubular organs and are often targets for infectious agents. This review focuses on the release of human RNA virus particles from both sides of polarized human cells grown on transwells. Most viruses that infect the mucosa leave their host cells mainly via the apical side while basolateral release is linked to virus propagation within the host. Viruses do this by hijacking the cellular factors involved in polarization and trafficking. Thus, understanding epithelial polarization is essential for a clear understanding of virus pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , RNA Viruses/physiology , Virus Release , Cell Polarity , Humans , Virion/physiology , Virus Assembly , Virus Replication
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686819

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has evidenced the urgent need for the discovery of broad-spectrum antiviral therapies that could be deployed in the case of future emergence of novel viral threats, as well as to back up current therapeutic options in the case of drug resistance development. Most current antivirals are directed to inhibit specific viruses since these therapeutic molecules are designed to act on a specific viral target with the objective of interfering with a precise step in the replication cycle. Therefore, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as promising antiviral agents that could help to overcome this limitation and provide compounds able to act on more than a single viral family. We evaluated the antiviral activity of an amphibian peptide known for its strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, namely Temporin L (TL). Previous studies have revealed that TL is endowed with widespread antimicrobial activity and possesses marked haemolytic activity. Therefore, we analyzed TL and a previously identified TL derivative (Pro3, DLeu9 TL, where glutamine at position 3 is replaced with proline, and the D-Leucine enantiomer is present at position 9) as well as its analogs, for their activity against a wide panel of viruses comprising enveloped, naked, DNA and RNA viruses. We report significant inhibition activity against herpesviruses, paramyxoviruses, influenza virus and coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we further modified our best candidate by lipidation and demonstrated a highly reduced cytotoxicity with improved antiviral effect. Our results show a potent and selective antiviral activity of TL peptides, indicating that the novel lipidated temporin-based antiviral agents could prove to be useful additions to current drugs in combatting rising drug resistance and epidemic/pandemic emergencies.


Subject(s)
Amphibian Proteins/pharmacology , Amphibians/metabolism , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , DNA Viruses/drug effects , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Amphibian Proteins/chemistry , Amphibian Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 939, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634211

ABSTRACT

With the advent of highly sensitive real-time PCR, multiple pathogens have been identified from nasopharyngeal swabs of patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). However, the detection of microorganisms in the upper respiratory tract does not necessarily indicate disease causation. We conducted a matched case-control study, nested within a broader fever aetiology project, to facilitate determination of the aetiology of ARIs in hospitalised patients in Northeastern Laos. Consenting febrile patients of any age admitted to Xiengkhuang Provincial Hospital were included if they met the inclusion criteria for ARI presentation (at least one of the following: cough, rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion, sore throat, difficulty breathing, and/or abnormal chest auscultation). One healthy control for each patient, matched by sex, age, and village of residence, was recruited for the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from participants and tested for 33 pathogens by probe-based multiplex real-time RT-PCR (FastTrack Diagnostics Respiratory pathogen 33 kit). Attributable fraction of illness for a given microorganism was calculated by comparing results between patients and controls (= 100 * [OR - 1]/OR) (OR = odds ratio). Between 24th June 2019 and 24th June 2020, 205 consenting ARI patients and 205 matching controls were recruited. After excluding eight pairs due to age mismatch, 197 pairs were included in the analysis. Males were predominant with sex ratio 1.2:1 and children < 5 years old accounted for 59% of participants. At least one potential pathogen was detected in 173 (88%) patients and 175 (89%) controls. ARI in admitted patients were attributed to influenza B virus, influenza A virus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 17.8%, 17.2%, 7.5%, and 6.5% of participants, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any cases or controls. Determining ARI aetiology in individual patients remains challenging. Among hospitalised patients with ARI symptoms presenting to a provincial hospital in Northeastern Laos, half were determined to be caused by one of several respiratory viruses, in particular influenza A virus, influenza B virus, HMPV, and RSV.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , RNA Virus Infections , RNA Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Laos/epidemiology , Male , RNA Virus Infections/diagnosis , RNA Virus Infections/epidemiology , RNA Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sex Factors
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