Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 2 de 2
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690219


The development of prophylactic agents against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health priority in the search for new surrogate markers of active virus replication. Early detection markers are needed to follow disease progression and foresee patient negativization. Subgenomic RNA transcripts (with a focus on sgN) were evaluated in oro/nasopharyngeal swabs from COVID-19-affected patients with an analysis of 315 positive samples using qPCR technology. Cut-off Cq values for sgN (Cq < 33.15) and sgE (Cq < 34.06) showed correlations to high viral loads. The specific loss of sgN in home-isolated and hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients indicated negativization of patient condition, 3-7 days from the first swab, respectively. A new detection kit for sgN, gene E, gene ORF1ab, and gene RNAse P was developed recently. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that 2'-O-methyl antisense RNA (related to the sgN sequence) can impair SARS-CoV-2 N protein synthesis, viral replication, and syncytia formation in human cells (i.e., HEK-293T cells overexpressing ACE2) upon infection with VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7)-SARS-CoV-2 variant, defining the use that this procedure might have for future therapeutic actions against SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Giant Cells/drug effects , Giant Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Antisense/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , Ribonuclease P/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Social Isolation , Viral Load , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
Pharmacol Rev ; 72(4): 862-898, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767668


RNA-based therapies, including RNA molecules as drugs and RNA-targeted small molecules, offer unique opportunities to expand the range of therapeutic targets. Various forms of RNAs may be used to selectively act on proteins, transcripts, and genes that cannot be targeted by conventional small molecules or proteins. Although development of RNA drugs faces unparalleled challenges, many strategies have been developed to improve RNA metabolic stability and intracellular delivery. A number of RNA drugs have been approved for medical use, including aptamers (e.g., pegaptanib) that mechanistically act on protein target and small interfering RNAs (e.g., patisiran and givosiran) and antisense oligonucleotides (e.g., inotersen and golodirsen) that directly interfere with RNA targets. Furthermore, guide RNAs are essential components of novel gene editing modalities, and mRNA therapeutics are under development for protein replacement therapy or vaccination, including those against unprecedented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pandemic. Moreover, functional RNAs or RNA motifs are highly structured to form binding pockets or clefts that are accessible by small molecules. Many natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic antibiotics (e.g., aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, oxazolidinones, and phenicols) can directly bind to ribosomal RNAs to achieve the inhibition of bacterial infections. Therefore, there is growing interest in developing RNA-targeted small-molecule drugs amenable to oral administration, and some (e.g., risdiplam and branaplam) have entered clinical trials. Here, we review the pharmacology of novel RNA drugs and RNA-targeted small-molecule medications, with a focus on recent progresses and strategies. Challenges in the development of novel druggable RNA entities and identification of viable RNA targets and selective small-molecule binders are discussed. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: With the understanding of RNA functions and critical roles in diseases, as well as the development of RNA-related technologies, there is growing interest in developing novel RNA-based therapeutics. This comprehensive review presents pharmacology of both RNA drugs and RNA-targeted small-molecule medications, focusing on novel mechanisms of action, the most recent progress, and existing challenges.

RNA/drug effects , RNA/pharmacology , Aptamers, Nucleotide/pharmacology , Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/methods , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/standards , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Development/organization & administration , Drug Discovery , Humans , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA/adverse effects , RNA, Antisense/pharmacology , RNA, Antisense/therapeutic use , RNA, Guide, Kinetoplastida/pharmacology , RNA, Guide, Kinetoplastida/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal/drug effects , RNA, Ribosomal/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Ribonucleases/metabolism , Riboswitch/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2