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1.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199805

ABSTRACT

Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) is an RNA gene located on the minus strand of chromosome 19. This lncRNA acts as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-4458, miR-379-5p, miR-551b-5p, miR-3619-5p, miR-424-5p, miR-9-5p, miR-214-3p, miR-126-5p, miR-149-3p, miR-379-5p, miR-665, miR-34a-5p, miR-186-5p, miR-138-5p, miR-181c-5p, miR-98, miR-195-5p, miR-224-5p, miR-3619, miR-708, miR-101, miR-1224-5p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-142-5p. Via influencing expression of these miRNAs, it can enhance expression of a number of oncogenes. Moreover, LINC00665 can influence activity of Wnt/ß-Catenin, TGF-ß, MAPK1, NF-κB, ERK, and PI3K/AKT signaling. Function of this lncRNA has been assessed through gain-of-function tests and/or loss-of-function studies. Furthermore, diverse research groups have evaluated its expression levels in tissue samples using microarray and RT-qPCR techniques. In this manuscript, we have summarized the results of these studies and categorized them in three sections, i.e., cell line studies, animal studies, and investigations in clinical samples.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Neoplasms , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1041682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141716

ABSTRACT

Understanding the targets and interactions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) related to the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) signaling pathway is essential for developing interventions, which would enable directing the host inflammatory response regulation toward protective immunity. In the RIG-I signaling pathway, lncRNAs are involved in the important processes of ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and glycolysis, thus promoting the transport of the interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3 and IRF7) and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) into the nucleus, and activating recruitment of type I interferons (IFN-I) and inflammatory factors to the antiviral action site. In addition, the RIG-I signaling pathway has recently been reported to contain the targets of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related lncRNAs. The molecules in the RIG-I signaling pathway are directly regulated by the lncRNA-microRNAs (miRNAs)-messenger RNA (mRNA) axis. Therefore, targeting this axis has become a novel strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, the studies on the regulation of the RIG-I signaling pathway by lncRNAs during viral infections and cancer are comprehensively analyzed. The aim is to provide a solid foundation of information for conducting further detailed studies on lncRNAs and RIG-I in the future and also contribute to clinical drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitination , Interferon Type I/genetics
3.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 136(21): 1571-1590, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117548

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, it may affect also the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disorder (CVD) develop a more severe disease course with a significantly higher mortality rate than non-CVD patients. A common denominator of CVD is the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs), increased vascular permeability, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, coagulation, and inflammation. It has been assumed that clinical complications in COVID-19 patients suffering from CVD are caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection of ECs through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the cellular transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and the consequent dysfunction of the infected vascular cells. Meanwhile, other factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells have been described, including disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17), the C-type lectin CD209L or heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Here, we discuss the current data about the putative entry of SARS-CoV-2 into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, we highlight the potential role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) affecting vascular permeability in CVD, a process that might exacerbate disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099580

ABSTRACT

Transcriptome studies have reported the dysregulation of cell cycle-related genes and the global inhibition of host mRNA translation in COVID-19 cases. However, the key genes and cellular mechanisms that are most affected by the severe outcome of this disease remain unclear. For this work, the RNA-seq approach was used to study the differential expression in buffy coat cells of two groups of people infected with SARS-CoV-2: (a) Mild, with mild symptoms; and (b) SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), who were admitted to the intensive care unit with the severe COVID-19 outcome. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 1009 up-regulated and 501 down-regulated genes in the SARS group, with 10% of both being composed of long non-coding RNA. Ribosome and cell cycle pathways were enriched among down-regulated genes. The most connected proteins among the differentially expressed genes involved transport dysregulation, proteasome degradation, interferon response, cytokinesis failure, and host translation inhibition. Furthermore, interactome analysis showed Fibrillarin to be one of the key genes affected by SARS-CoV-2. This protein interacts directly with the N protein and long non-coding RNAs affecting transcription, translation, and ribosomal processes. This work reveals a group of dysregulated processes, including translation and cell cycle, as key pathways altered in severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Gene Expression Profiling , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Cell Cycle/genetics
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039865

ABSTRACT

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), in the form of structural, catalytic or regulatory RNAs, have emerged to be critical effectors of many biological processes. With the advent of new technologies, we have begun to appreciate how intracellular and circulatory ncRNAs elegantly choreograph the regulation of gene expression and protein function(s) in the cell. Armed with this knowledge, the clinical utility of ncRNAs as biomarkers has been recently tested in a wide range of human diseases. In this review, we examine how critical factors govern the success of interrogating ncRNA biomarker expression in liquid biopsies and tissues to enhance our current clinical management of human diseases, particularly in the context of cancer. We also discuss strategies to overcome key challenges that preclude ncRNAs from becoming standard-of-care clinical biomarkers, including sample pre-analytics standardization, data cross-validation with closer attention to discordant findings, as well as correlation with clinical outcomes. Although harnessing multi-modal information from disease-associated noncoding RNome (ncRNome) in biofluids or in tissues using artificial intelligence or machine learning is at the nascent stage, it will undoubtedly fuel the community adoption of precision population health.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Artificial Intelligence , Biomarkers , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Precision Medicine , RNA/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 297, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective transmission mode of Neospora caninum, with infection leading to reproductive failure in ruminants, is vertical transmission. The uterus is an important reproductive organ that forms the maternal-fetal interface. Neospora caninum can successfully invade and proliferate in the uterus, but the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that host long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in cellular molecular regulatory networks, with reports that these RNA molecules are closely related to the pathogenesis of apicomplexan parasites. However, the expression profiles of host lncRNAs during N. caninum infection has not been reported. METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to investigate the expression profiles of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and lncRNAs in caprine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ_24h) and 48 h (TZ_48 h), and the potential functions of differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs were predicted by using Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of their mRNA targets. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis identified 1280.15 M clean reads in 12 RNA samples, including six samples infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ1_24h-TZ3_24h) and 48 h (TZ1_48h-TZ3_48h), and six corresponding control samples (C1_24h-C3_24h and C1_48h-C3_48h). Within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, there were 934 (665 upregulated and 269 downregulated), 1238 (785 upregulated and 453 downregulated) and 489 (252 upregulated and 237 downregulated) DEmRNAs, respectively. GO enrichment and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEmRNAs were mainly involved in the regulation of host immune response (e.g. TNF signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway), signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). A total of 88 (59 upregulated and 29 downregulated), 129 (80 upregulated and 49 downregulated) and 32 (20 upregulated and 12 downregulated) DElncRNAs were found within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, respectively. Functional prediction indicated that these DElncRNAs would be involved in signal transduction (e.g. MAPK signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway), neural transmission (e.g. GABAergic synapse, serotonergic synapse, cholinergic synapse), metabolism processes (e.g. glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-lacto and neolacto series, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate/heparin) and signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation of global gene expression profiles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection. The results provide valuable information for further studies of the roles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis , Neospora , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Goats , Humans , Neospora/genetics , Neospora/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2210321119, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001009

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, yet their contribution to immune regulation in humans remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the primate-specific lncRNA CHROMR is induced by influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection and coordinates the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that execute antiviral responses. CHROMR depletion in human macrophages reduces histone acetylation at regulatory regions of ISG loci and attenuates ISG expression in response to microbial stimuli. Mechanistically, we show that CHROMR sequesters the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-2-dependent transcriptional corepressor IRF2BP2, thereby licensing IRF-dependent signaling and transcription of the ISG network. Consequently, CHROMR expression is essential to restrict viral infection of macrophages. Our findings identify CHROMR as a key arbitrator of antiviral innate immune signaling in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , RNA, Long Noncoding , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcription Factors/metabolism
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(36): e2120680119, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001001

ABSTRACT

The systemic immune response to viral infection is shaped by master transcription factors, such as NF-κB, STAT1, or PU.1. Although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested as important regulators of transcription factor activity, their contributions to the systemic immunopathologies observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection have remained unknown. Here, we employed a targeted single-cell RNA sequencing approach to reveal lncRNAs differentially expressed in blood leukocytes during severe COVID-19. Our results uncover the lncRNA PIRAT (PU.1-induced regulator of alarmin transcription) as a major PU.1 feedback-regulator in monocytes, governing the production of the alarmins S100A8/A9, key drivers of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Knockout and transgene expression, combined with chromatin-occupancy profiling, characterized PIRAT as a nuclear decoy RNA, keeping PU.1 from binding to alarmin promoters and promoting its binding to pseudogenes in naïve monocytes. NF-κB-dependent PIRAT down-regulation during COVID-19 consequently releases a transcriptional brake, fueling alarmin production. Alarmin expression is additionally enhanced by the up-regulation of the lncRNA LUCAT1, which promotes NF-κB-dependent gene expression at the expense of targets of the JAK-STAT pathway. Our results suggest a major role of nuclear noncoding RNA networks in systemic antiviral responses to SARS-CoV-2 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Monocytes , RNA, Long Noncoding , SARS-CoV-2 , Alarmins/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinases/genetics , Monocytes/immunology , NF-kappa B/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis
9.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(8): e1026, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999847

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is persistently threatening the lives of thousands of individuals globally. It triggers pulmonary oedema, driving to dyspnoea and lung failure. Viral infectivity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a genuine challenge due to the mutagenic genome and mysterious immune-pathophysiology. Early reports highlighted that extracellular vesicles (exosomes, Exos) work to enhance COVID-19 progression by mediating viral transmission, replication and mutations. Furthermore, recent studies revealed that Exos derived from immune cells play an essential role in the promotion of immune cell exhaustion by transferring regulatory lncRNAs and miRNAs from exhausted cells to the active cells. Fortunately, there are great chances to modulate the immune functions of Exos towards a sustained repression of COVID-19. Engineered Exos hold promising immunotherapeutic opportunities for remodelling cytotoxic T cells' function. Immune cell-derived Exos may trigger a stable epigenetic repression of viral infectivity, restore functional cytokine-producing T cells and rebalance immune response in severe infections by inducing functional T regulatory cells (Tregs). This review introduces a view on the current outcomes of immunopathology, and immunotherapeutic applications of immune cell-derived Exos in COVID-19, besides new perspectives to develop novel patterns of engineered Exos triggering novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Exosomes/transplantation , Humans , Lymphocytes/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993936

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle is a pivotal organ in humans that maintains locomotion and homeostasis. Muscle atrophy caused by sarcopenia and cachexia, which results in reduced muscle mass and impaired skeletal muscle function, is a serious health condition that decreases life longevity in humans. Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms by which long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate skeletal muscle mass and function through transcriptional regulation, fiber-type switching, and skeletal muscle cell proliferation. In addition, lncRNAs function as natural inhibitors of microRNAs and induce muscle hypertrophy or atrophy. Intriguingly, muscle atrophy modifies the expression of thousands of lncRNAs. Therefore, although their exact functions have not yet been fully elucidated, various novel lncRNAs associated with muscle atrophy have been identified. Here, we comprehensively review recent knowledge on the regulatory roles of lncRNAs in skeletal muscle atrophy. In addition, we discuss the issues and possibilities of targeting lncRNAs as a treatment for skeletal muscle atrophy and muscle wasting disorders in humans.


Subject(s)
Muscular Diseases , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , Muscle Development/genetics , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscular Atrophy/genetics , Muscular Atrophy/metabolism , Muscular Diseases/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism
11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 586, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that seriously affects the swine industry. MicroRNAs and long noncoding RNAs are two relevant non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) class and play crucial roles in a variety of physiological processes. Increased evidence indicates a complex interaction between mRNA and ncRNA. However, our understanding of the function of ncRNA involved in host-PEDV interaction is limited. RESULTS: A total of 1,197 mRNA transcripts, 539 lncRNA transcripts, and 208 miRNA transcripts were differentially regulated at 24 h and 48 h post-infection. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that DE mRNAs and DE lncRNAs were mainly involved in biosynthesis, innate immunity, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, we constructed a miRNA-mRNA-pathway network using bioinformatics, including 12 DE mRNAs, 120 DE miRNAs, and 11 pathways. Finally, the target genes of DE miRNAs were screened by bioinformatics, and we constructed immune-related lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA networks. Then, the selected DE genes were validated by qRT-PCR, which were consistent with the results from RNA-Seq data. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the comprehensive analysis of the expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs during PEDV infection. We characterize the ceRNA networks which can provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PEDV.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Gene Regulatory Networks , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Swine
12.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 486, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are pivotal regulators involved in the pathogenic mechanism of multiple coronaviruses. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has evolved multiple strategies to escape the innate immune response of host cells, but whether ncRNAs are involved in this process during PDCoV infection is still unknown. RESULTS: In this study, the expression profiles of miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs in IPEC-J2 cells infected with PDCoV at 0, 12 and 24 hours postinfection (hpi) were identified through small RNA and RNA sequencing. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs), lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) and mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were screened from the comparison group of IPEC-J2 cells at 0 and 12 hpi as well as the comparison group of IPEC-J2 cells at 12 and 24 hpi. The target genes of these DEncRNAs were predicted. The bioinformatics analysis of the target genes revealed multiple significantly enriched functions and pathways. Among them, the genes that were associated with innate immunity were specifically screened. The expression of innate immunity-related ncRNAs and mRNAs was validated by RT-qPCR. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks among innate immunity-related ncRNAs and their target mRNAs were established. Moreover, we found that the replication of PDCoV was significantly inhibited by two innate immunity-related miRNAs, ssc-miR-30c-3p and ssc-miR-374b-3p, in IPEC-J2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a data platform to conduct studies of the pathogenic mechanism of PDCoV from a new perspective and will be helpful for further elucidation of the functional role of ncRNAs involved in PDCoV escaping the innate immune response.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Immunity, Innate/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Untranslated , Swine
13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(13): 4901-4913, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964519

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2019, the coronavirus pandemic emerged, resulting in the highest mortality and morbidity rate globally. It has a prevailing transmission rate and continues to be a global burden. There is a paucity of data regarding the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in COVID-19. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate lncRNAs, particularly NEAT1 and TUG1, and their association with IL-6, CCL2, and TNF-α in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease. Methods: The study was conducted on 80 COVID-19 patients (35 with severe and 45 with moderate infection) and 40 control subjects. Complete blood count (CBC), D-dimer assay, serum ferritin, and CRP were assayed. qRT-PCR was used to measure RNAs and lncRNAs. Results: NEAT1 and TUG1 expression levels were higher in COVID-19 patients compared with controls (P<0.001). Furthermore, CCL2, IL-6, and TNF-α expressions were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (P<0.001). CCL2 and IL-6 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with severe compared to those with moderate COVID-19 infection (P<0.001). IL-6 had the highest accuracy in distinguishing COVID-19 patients (AUC=1, P<0.001 at a cutoff of 0.359), followed by TUG1 (AUC=0.999, P<0.001 at a cutoff of 2.28). NEAT1 and TUG1 had significant correlations with the measured cytokines, and based on the multivariate regression analysis, NEAT1 is the independent predictor for survival in COVID-19 patients (P=0.02). Conclusion: In COVID-19 patients, significant overexpression of NEAT1 and TUG1 was observed, consistent with cytokine storm. TUG1 could be an efficient diagnostic biomarker, whereas NEAT1 was an independent predictor for overall survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , RNA, Long Noncoding , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Incidence , Interleukin-6 , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(7): 6971-6973, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955990

ABSTRACT

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) like miRNAs, siRNA, lncRNAs, circRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs etc. form a collective group of RNAs that is instrumental to the various functions of the genome. With the advent of cutting-edge molecular biology tools and techniques, scientists have unearthed several mechanisms through which these ncRNAs act. Although our understanding may still be limited, yet scientists have been able to establish ncRNAs as major regulators of genetic inter-plays that dictate various pathophysiological conditions. This special issue of Molecular Biology Reports features a collection of research and review articles on ncRNAs and their involvement in different pathophysiological conditions that include different types of cancers. It is expected that this special issue will motivate researchers in the field to delve deeper into the world of ncRNAs and attempt to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for challenging clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering , RNA, Small Nucleolar , RNA, Untranslated/genetics
15.
Theranostics ; 12(8): 3946-3962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934549

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Viral infections are complex processes based on an intricate network of molecular interactions. The infectious agent hijacks components of the cellular machinery for its profit, circumventing the natural defense mechanisms triggered by the infected cell. The successful completion of the replicative viral cycle within a cell depends on the function of viral components versus the cellular defenses. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important cellular modulators, either promoting or preventing the progression of viral infections. Among these ncRNAs, the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) family is especially relevant due to their intrinsic functional properties and ubiquitous biological roles. Specific lncRNAs have been recently characterized as modulators of the cellular response during infection of human host cells by single stranded RNA viruses. However, the role of host lncRNAs in the infection by human RNA coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 remains uncharacterized. Methods: In the present work, we have performed a transcriptomic study of a cohort of patients with different SARS-CoV-2 viral load and analyzed the involvement of lncRNAs in supporting regulatory networks based on their interaction with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Results: Our results revealed the existence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection-dependent pattern of transcriptional up-regulation in which specific lncRNAs are an integral component. To determine the role of these lncRNAs, we performed a functional correlation analysis complemented with the study of the validated interactions between lncRNAs and RBPs. This combination of in silico functional association studies and experimental evidence allowed us to identify a lncRNA signature composed of six elements - NRIR, BISPR, MIR155HG, FMR1-IT1, USP30-AS1, and U62317.2 - associated with the regulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions: We propose a competition mechanism between the viral RNA genome and the regulatory lncRNAs in the sequestering of specific RBPs that modulates the interferon response and the regulation of RNA surveillance by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , COVID-19/genetics , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thiolester Hydrolases/metabolism
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934138

ABSTRACT

Long-chain noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs that do not code for proteins, widely present in eukaryotes. They regulate gene expression at multiple levels through different mechanisms at epigenetic, transcription, translation, and the maturation of mRNA transcripts or regulation of the chromatin structure, and compete with microRNAs for binding to endogenous RNA. Adipose tissue is a large and endocrine-rich functional tissue in mammals. Excessive accumulation of white adipose tissue in mammals can cause metabolic diseases. However, unlike white fat, brown and beige fats release energy as heat. In recent years, many lncRNAs associated with adipogenesis have been reported. The molecular mechanisms of how lncRNAs regulate adipogenesis are continually investigated. In this review, we discuss the classification of lncRNAs according to their transcriptional location. lncRNAs that participate in the adipogenesis of white or brown fats are also discussed. The function of lncRNAs as decoy molecules and RNA double-stranded complexes, among other functions, is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , RNA, Long Noncoding , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipocytes, Brown/metabolism , Adipogenesis/genetics , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Mammals/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism
18.
Adv Biol (Weinh) ; 6(8): e2101310, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877544

ABSTRACT

Although transcriptomic studies of SARS-CoV-2-infected brains have depicted variability in gene expression, the landscape of deregulated cell-specific regulatory circuits has not been elucidated yet. Hence, bulk and single-cell RNA-seq data are analyzed to gain detailed insights. Initially, two ceRNA networks with 19 and 3 differentially expressed (DE) hub lncRNAs are reconstructed in SARS-CoV-2 infected Frontal Cortex (FC) and Choroid Plexus (CP), respectively. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses of downstream mRNAs of deregulated ceRNA axes demonstrate impairment of neurological processes. Mapping of hub lncRNA-mRNA pairs from bulk RNA-seq with snRNA-seq data has indicated that NORAD, NEAT1, and STXBP5-AS1 are downregulated across 4, 4, and 2 FC cell types, respectively. At the same time, MIRLET7BHG and MALAT1 are upregulated in excitatory neurons of FC and neurons of CP, respectively. Here, it is hypothesized that downregulation of NORAD, NEAT1, and STXBP5-AS1, and upregulation of MIRLET7BHG and MALAT1 might deregulate respectively 51, 6, and 37, and 31 and 19 mRNAs in cell types of FC and CP. Afterward, 13 therapeutic miRNAs are traced that might safeguard against deregulated lncRNA-mRNA pairs of NORAD, NEAT1, and MIRLET7BHG in FC. This study helps to explain the plausible mechanism of post-COVID neurological manifestation and also to devise therapeutics against it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , COVID-19/genetics , Choroid Plexus/metabolism , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/genetics
19.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(6): e2364, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858914

ABSTRACT

Some viral infections lead to tumourigenesis explained by a variety of underlying molecular mechanisms. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have the potential to be added to this list due to their diverse mechanisms in biological functions and disease processes via gene alternation, transcriptional regulation, protein modification, microRNA sponging and interaction with RNA/DNA/proteins. In this review, we summarise the dysregulation and mechanism of lncRNAs in virus-related cancers focussing on Hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Human Papillomavirus. We will also discuss the potential implications of lncRNAs in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatitis B , Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications
20.
Mamm Genome ; 33(2): 281-292, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850321

ABSTRACT

The number of human LncRNAs has now exceeded all known protein-coding genes. Most studies of human LncRNAs have been conducted in cell culture systems where various mechanisms of action have been worked out. On the other hand, efforts to elucidate the function of human LncRNAs in an in vivo setting have been limited. In this brief review, we highlight some strengths and weaknesses of studying human LncRNAs in the mouse. Special consideration is given to bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis and genome editing. The integration of these technical innovations offers an unprecedented opportunity to complement and extend the expansive literature of cell culture models for the study of human LncRNAs. Two different examples of how BAC transgenesis and genome editing can be leveraged to gain insight into human LncRNA regulation and function in mice are presented: the random integration of a vascular cell-enriched LncRNA and a targeted approach for a new LncRNA immediately upstream of the ACE2 gene, which encodes the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent underlying the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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