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1.
Development ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799075

ABSTRACT

Imprinting control region (ICR1) controls the expression of the Igf2 and H19 genes in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Appropriate expression of the Igf2-H19 locus is fundamental for normal fetal development, yet the importance of ICR1 in the placental production of hormones that promote maternal nutrient allocation to the fetus is unknown. To address this, we used a novel mouse model to selectively delete ICR1 in the endocrine junctional zone (Jz) of the mouse placenta (Jz-ΔICR1). The Jz-ΔICR1 mice exhibit increased Igf2 and decreased H19 expression specifically in the Jz. This was accompanied by an expansion of Jz endocrine cell types due to enhanced rates of proliferation and increased expression of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 23 in the placenta of both fetal sexes. However, changes in the endocrine phenotype of the placenta were related to sexually-dimorphic alterations to the abundance of Igf2 receptors and downstream signalling pathways (Pi3k-Akt and Mapk). There was no effect of Jz-ΔICR1 on the expression of targets of the H19-embedded miR-675 or on fetal weight. Our results demonstrate that ICR1 controls placental endocrine capacity via sex-dependent changes in signalling.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/genetics , Locus Control Region , Placenta/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Signal Transduction , Animals , Female , Genetic Loci , Genomic Imprinting , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Proteins/genetics , Pregnancy Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism
2.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667057

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still ongoing, as is research on the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular infection by coronaviruses, with the hope of developing therapeutic agents against this pandemic. Other important respiratory viruses such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV), influenza A viruses, are also responsible for a possible outbreak due to their respiratory susceptibility. However, the interaction of these viruses with host cells and the regulation of post-transcriptional genes remains unclear. In this study, we detected and analyzed the comparative transcriptome profiling of SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1 (A/California/07/2009), and H7N9 (A/Shanghai/1/2013) infected cells. The results showed that the commonly upregulated genes among the three groups were mainly involved in autophagy, pertussis, and tuberculosis, which indicated that autophagy plays an important role in viral pathogenicity. There are three groups of commonly downregulated genes involved in metabolic pathways. Notably, unlike panH1N1 and H7N9, SARS-CoV-2 infection can inhibit the m-TOR pathway and activate the p53 signaling pathway, which may be responsible for unique autophagy induction and cell apoptosis. Particularly, upregulated expression of IRF1 was found in SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection. Further analysis showed SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection-induced upregulation of lncRNA-34087.27 could serve as a competitive endogenous RNA to stabilize IRF1 mRNA by competitively binding with miR-302b-3p. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , RNA/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transcriptome/genetics
3.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105195, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586990

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the RNA virus responsible for COVID-19, the prognosis of which has been found to be slightly worse in men. The present study aimed to analyze the expression of different mRNAs and their regulatory molecules (miRNAs and lncRNAs) to consider the potential existence of sex-specific expression patterns and COVID-19 susceptibility using bioinformatics analysis. The binding sites of all human mature miRNA sequences on the SARS-CoV-2 genome nucleotide sequence were predicted by the miRanda tool. Sequencing data was excavated using the Galaxy web server from GSE157103, and the output of feature counts was analyzed using DEseq2 packages to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and DEG annotation analyses were performed using the ToppGene and Metascape tools. Using the RNA Interactome Database, we predicted interactions between differentially expressed lncRNAs and differentially expressed mRNAs. Finally, their networks were constructed with top miRNAs. We identified 11 miRNAs with three to five binding sites on the SARS-COVID-2 genome reference. MiR-29c-3p, miR-21-3p, and miR-6838-5p occupied four binding sites, and miR-29a-3p had five binding sites on the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Moreover, miR-29a-3p, and miR-29c-3p were the top miRNAs targeting DEGs. The expression levels of miRNAs (125, 181b, 130a, 29a, b, c, 212, 181a, 133a) changed in males with COVID-19, in whom they regulated ACE2 expression and affected the immune response by affecting phagosomes, complement activation, and cell-matrix adhesion. Our results indicated that XIST lncRNA was up-regulated, and TTTY14, TTTY10, and ZFY-AS1 lncRN as were down-regulated in both ICU and non-ICU men with COVID-19. Dysregulation of noncoding-RNAs has critical effects on the pathophysiology of men with COVID-19, which is why they may be used as biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Overall, our results indicated that the miR-29 family target regulation patterns and might become promising biomarkers for severity and survival outcome in men with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus M Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/classification , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , RNA, Long Noncoding/classification , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
J Virol ; 95(12)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501541

ABSTRACT

Long disregarded as junk DNA or genomic dark matter, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have turned out to represent important components of the antiviral immune response. These remnants of once-infectious retroviruses not only regulate cellular immune activation, but may even directly target invading viral pathogens. In this Gem, we summarize mechanisms by which retroviral fossils protect us from viral infections. One focus will be on recent advances in the role of ERVs as regulators of antiviral gene expression.


Subject(s)
Endogenous Retroviruses/physiology , Retroelements , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology
5.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(4): 252-258, 2021 09 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431290

ABSTRACT

This review presents the literature data of new approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 with low doses of radiation (LDR). In addition, data on the use of LDR for the treatment of various disorders, in particular pneumonia, a number of inflammatory processes of various etiology, as well as Alzheimer's disease are discussed. The mechanisms of LDR action are briefly described, associated with the activation of the immune system and antiinflammatory response due to the effect on the processes of oxidative stress, which is reflected in an increase in the activity of cytokines (interleukin- (IL-) 6), changes in the expression of a number of genes (such as P53 and NF-κB (p65)) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) (the authors' own data are presented). Based on the analysis of the material presented, it can be assumed that further clinical trials of the effect of MDR (5-10 cGy) on patients with COVID-19, who are at different stages of the disease, will reveal the optimal conditions for the development and use of an effective treatment regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365542

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has high incidence rates with rapid rate of transmission, is a pandemic that spread across the world, resulting in more than 3,000,000 deaths globally. Currently, several drugs have been used for the clinical treatment of COVID-19, such as antivirals (radecivir, baritinib), monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), and glucocorticoids (dexamethasone). Accumulating evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are essential regulators of virus infections and antiviral immune responses including biological processes that are involved in the regulation of COVID-19 and subsequent disease states. Upon viral infections, cellular lncRNAs directly regulate viral genes and influence viral replication and pathology through virus-mediated changes in the host transcriptome. Additionally, several host lncRNAs could help the occurrence of viral immune escape by inhibiting type I interferons (IFN-1), while others could up-regulate IFN-1 production to play an antiviral role. Consequently, understanding the expression and function of lncRNAs during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection will provide insights into the development of lncRNA-based methods. In this review, we summarized the current findings of lncRNAs in the regulation of the strong inflammatory response, immune dysfunction and thrombosis induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, discussed the underlying mechanisms, and highlighted the therapeutic challenges of COVID-19 treatment and its future research directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Immunity, Innate/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Thrombosis/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Long Noncoding/analysis , RNA, Long Noncoding/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/genetics , Thrombosis/virology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
7.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(2): e2275, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305140

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are defined as RNA molecules longer than 200 nucleotides that can regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Both human lncRNAs and lncRNAs encoded by viruses can modulate the expression of host genes which are critical for viral replication, latency, activation of signalling pathways, cytokine and chemokine production, RNAi processing, expression of interferons (IFNs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Studies on lncRNAs as key regulators of host-virus interactions may give new insights into therapeutic strategies for the treatment of related diseases. This current review focuses on the role of lncRNAs, and their interactions with respiratory viruses including influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Interferons/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
8.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270010

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) facilitates ACE2-mediated virus entry. Moreover, the expression of ACE2 in the testes of infertile men is higher than normal, which indicates that infertile men may be susceptible to be infected and SARS-CoV-2 may cause reproductive disorder through the pathway induced by ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Little is known about the pathway regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in male reproductive disorder. Since the regulation of gene expression is mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) at the post-transcriptional level, the aim of this study was to analyze the dysregulated miRNA-lncRNA interactions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in male reproductive disorder. Using bioinformatics analysis, we speculate that the predicted miRNAs including miR-125a-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-574-5p, and miR-936 as regulators of ACE2 and miR-204-5p as a modulator of TMPRSS2 are associated with male infertility. The lncRNAs with a tissue-specific expression for testis including GRM7-AS3, ARHGAP26-AS1, BSN-AS1, KRBOX1-AS1, CACNA1C-IT3, AC012361.1, FGF14-IT1, AC012494.1, and GS1-24F4.2 were predicted. The identified miRNAs and lncRNAs are proposed as potential biomarkers to study the possible association between COVID-19 and male infertility. This study encourages further studies of miRNA-lncRNA interactions to explain the molecular mechanisms of male infertility in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gene Regulatory Networks , Infertility, Male/virology , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Computer Simulation , Gene-Environment Interaction , Humans , Infertility, Male/genetics , Male , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , Testis/virology , Virus Internalization
9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(12): 5823-5827, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221608

ABSTRACT

The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical regulatory role in the host response to the viral infection. However, little is understood about the transcriptome architecture, especially lncRNAs pattern during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, using publicly available RNA sequencing data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) samples from COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals, three interesting findings highlighted: (a) More than half of the interactions between lncRNAs-PCGs of BALF samples established by three trans-acting lncRNAs (HOTAIRM1, PVT1 and AL392172.1), which also exhibited the high affinity for binding to the SARS-CoV-2 genome, suggesting the major regulatory role of these lncRNAs during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. (b) lncRNAs of MALAT1 and NEAT1 are possibly contributed to the inflammation development in the SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. (c) In contrast to the 3' part of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, the 5' part can interact with many human lncRNAs. Therefore, the mRNA-based vaccines will not show any side effects because of the off-label interactions with the human lncRNAs. Overall, the putative functionalities of lncRNAs can be promising to design the non-coding RNA-based drugs and to inspect the efficiency of vaccines to overcome the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 130: 110548, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679603

ABSTRACT

Although 70 % of the genome is transcribed to RNA in humans, only ∼2% of these transcripts are translated into proteins. The rest of the transcripts are defined as noncoding RNAs, including Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) and MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that mostly function post-transcriptionally to regulate the gene expression. The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has caused a major public health concern across the globe. The SARS-CoV is the seventh coronavirus that is known to cause human disease. There are currently no promising antiviral drugs with proven efficacy nor are there vaccines for its prevention. As of August 10, 2020, SARS-CoV has been infected more than 13 million cases in more than 213 countries, with an estimated mortality rate of ∼3 %. Thus, it is of utmost important priority to develop novel therapies for COVID-19. It is not fully investigated whether noncoding RNAs regulate signaling pathways that SARS-CoV involved in. Hence, computational analysis of the noncoding RNA interactions and determining importance of key regulatory noncoding RNAs in antiviral defense mechanisms will likely be helpful in developing new drugs to attack SARS-CoV infection. To elucidate this, we utilized bioinformatic approaches to find the interaction network of SARS-CoV/human proteins, miRNAs, and lncRNAs. We found TGF-beta signaling pathway as one of the potential interactive pathways. Furthermore, potential miRNAs/lncRNAs networks that the virus might engage during infection in human host cells have been shown. Altogether, TGF-beta signaling pathway as well as hub miRNAs, and LncRNAs involve during SARS-CoV pathogenesis can be considered as potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(7)2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640013

ABSTRACT

The global spread of COVID-19, caused by pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for an imminent response from medical research communities to better understand this rapidly spreading infection. Employing multiple bioinformatics and computational pipelines on transcriptome data from primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) during SARS-CoV-2 infection revealed activation of several mechanistic networks, including those involved in immunoglobulin G (IgG) and interferon lambda (IFNL) in host cells. Induction of acute inflammatory response and activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was prominent in SARS-CoV-2 infected NHBE cells. Additionally, disease and functional analysis employing ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) revealed activation of functional categories related to cell death, while those associated with viral infection and replication were suppressed. Several interferon (IFN) responsive gene targets (IRF9, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFITM1, MX1, OAS2, OAS3, IFI44 and IFI44L) were highly upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infected NBHE cell, implying activation of antiviral IFN innate response. Gene ontology and functional annotation of differently expressed genes in patient lung tissues with COVID-19 revealed activation of antiviral response as the hallmark. Mechanistic network analysis in IPA identified 14 common activated, and 9 common suppressed networks in patient tissue, as well as in the NHBE cell model, suggesting a plausible role for these upstream regulator networks in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Our data revealed expression of several viral proteins in vitro and in patient-derived tissue, while several host-derived long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified. Our data highlights activation of IFN response as the main hallmark associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in human, and identified several differentially expressed lncRNAs during the course of infection, which could serve as disease biomarkers, while their precise role in the host response to SARS-CoV-2 remains to be investigated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/metabolism , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome
12.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA ; 11(5): e1614, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637124

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses, including SARS-Cov-2, are RNA-based pathogens that interface with a large variety of RNA-related cellular processes during infection. These processes include capping, polyadenylation, localization, RNA stability, translation, and regulation by RNA binding proteins or noncoding RNA effectors. The goal of this article is to provide an in-depth perspective on the current state of knowledge of how various coronaviruses interact with, usurp, and/or avoid aspects of these cellular RNA biology machineries. A thorough understanding of how coronaviruses interact with RNA-related posttranscriptional processes in the cell should allow for new insights into aspects of viral pathogenesis as well as identify new potential avenues for the development of anti-coronaviral therapeutics. This article is categorized under: RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay , Polyadenylation , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA Editing , RNA Splicing , RNA Stability , RNA, Circular/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
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