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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2204607119, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908385

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity remain poorly defined, especially for B cells. Here we used unbiased approaches to longitudinally dissect primary antibody, plasmablast, and memory B cell (MBC) responses to the two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive adults. Coordinated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses were preceded by bursts of spike-specific plasmablasts after both doses but earlier and more intensely after dose 2. While antibody and B cell cellular responses were generally robust, they also varied within the cohort and decreased over time after a dose-2 peak. Both antigen-nonspecific postvaccination plasmablast frequency after dose 1 and their spike-specific counterparts early after dose 2 correlated with subsequent antibody levels. This correlation between early plasmablasts and antibodies remained for titers measured at 6 months after vaccination. Several distinct antigen-specific MBC populations emerged postvaccination with varying kinetics, including two MBC populations that correlated with 2- and 6-month antibody titers. Both were IgG-expressing MBCs: one less mature, appearing as a correlate after the first dose, while the other MBC correlate showed a more mature and resting phenotype, emerging as a correlate later after dose 2. This latter MBC was also a major contributor to the sustained spike-specific MBC response observed at month 6. Thus, these plasmablasts and MBCs that emerged after both the first and second doses with distinct kinetics are potential determinants of the magnitude and durability of antibodies in response to mRNA-based vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
2.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667057

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still ongoing, as is research on the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular infection by coronaviruses, with the hope of developing therapeutic agents against this pandemic. Other important respiratory viruses such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV), influenza A viruses, are also responsible for a possible outbreak due to their respiratory susceptibility. However, the interaction of these viruses with host cells and the regulation of post-transcriptional genes remains unclear. In this study, we detected and analyzed the comparative transcriptome profiling of SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1 (A/California/07/2009), and H7N9 (A/Shanghai/1/2013) infected cells. The results showed that the commonly upregulated genes among the three groups were mainly involved in autophagy, pertussis, and tuberculosis, which indicated that autophagy plays an important role in viral pathogenicity. There are three groups of commonly downregulated genes involved in metabolic pathways. Notably, unlike panH1N1 and H7N9, SARS-CoV-2 infection can inhibit the m-TOR pathway and activate the p53 signaling pathway, which may be responsible for unique autophagy induction and cell apoptosis. Particularly, upregulated expression of IRF1 was found in SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection. Further analysis showed SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection-induced upregulation of lncRNA-34087.27 could serve as a competitive endogenous RNA to stabilize IRF1 mRNA by competitively binding with miR-302b-3p. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , RNA/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transcriptome/genetics
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662694

ABSTRACT

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) induced immune responses were investigated in human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells and mice. PEI rapidly induced ATP release from hBE cells and pretreatment with glutathione (GSH) blocked the response. PEI activated two conductive pathways, VDAC-1 and pannexin 1, which completely accounted for ATP efflux across the plasma membrane. Moreover, PEI increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was reduced by the pannexin 1 inhibitor, 10Panx (50 µM), the VDAC-1 inhibitor, DIDS (100 µM), and was nearly abolished by pretreatment with GSH (5 mM). The increase in [Ca2+]i involved Ca2+ uptake through two pathways, one blocked by oxidized ATP (oATP, 300 µM) and another that was blocked by the TRPV-1 antagonist A784168 (100 nM). PEI stimulation also increased IL-33 mRNA expression and protein secretion. In vivo experiments showed that acute (4.5 h) PEI exposure stimulated secretion of Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) into bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Conjugation of PEI with ovalbumin also induced eosinophil recruitment and secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 into BAL fluid, which was inhibited in IL-33 receptor (ST2) deficient mice. In conclusion, PEI-induced oxidative stress stimulated type 2 immune responses by activating ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake leading to IL-33 secretion, similar to allergens derived from Alternaria.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/immunology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Immunity/drug effects , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polyethyleneimine/pharmacology , Allergens/immunology , Animals , Calcium/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Oxidative Stress/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565522

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
6.
ESMO Open ; 7(1): 100350, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary analysis from the Vax-On study did not find a correlation between cancer treatment type and antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination. We carried out a secondary subgroup analysis to verify the effects of comprehensive cancer treatment classification on vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: The Vax-On study prospectively enrolled patients who started a two-dose messenger RNA-BNT162b2 vaccine schedule from 9 March 2021 to 12 April 2021 (timepoint-1). Those on active treatment within the previous 28 days accounted for the exposed cases. Patients who had discontinued such treatment by at least 28 days or received intravesical therapy represented the control cases. Quantification of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the receptor binding domain of the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was carried out before the second dose (timepoint-2) and 8 weeks thereafter (timepoint-3). Seroconversion response was defined at ≥50 arbitrary units/ml IgG titer. Classification of antineoplastic agents was based on their pharmacodynamic properties. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty-six patients were enrolled (86 and 260 as control and exposed cases, respectively). Univariate analysis revealed a significantly lower IgG titer after both doses of vaccine in subgroups treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), multiple cytotoxic agents, alkylating agents, and topoisomerase inhibitors. At timepoint-3, seroconversion response was significantly impaired in the topoisomerase inhibitors and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors subgroups. After multivariate testing, treatment with alkylating agents and TKIs was significantly associated with a reduced change in IgG titer at timepoint-2. Treatment with mTOR inhibitors resulted in a similar interaction at each timepoint. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor treatment was independently correlated with an incremental variation in IgG titer at timepoint-3. Specific subgroups (TKIs, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, and multiple-agent chemotherapy) predicted lack of seroconversion at timepoint-2, but their effect was not retained at timepoint-3. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 2, immunosuppressive corticosteroid dosing, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor use were independently linked to lower IgG titer after either dose of vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Drugs interfering with DNA synthesis, multiple-agent cytotoxic chemotherapy, TKIs, mTOR and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors differentially modulate humoral response to messenger RNA-BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Neoplasms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1990-2001, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526094

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccination in healthy individuals generates immune protection against COVID-19. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-induced responses in immunosuppressed patients. We investigated induction of antigen-specific antibody, B cell and T cell responses longitudinally in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on anti-CD20 antibody monotherapy (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 10) after BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccination. Treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (aCD20) significantly reduced spike-specific and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody and memory B cell responses in most patients, an effect ameliorated with longer duration from last aCD20 treatment and extent of B cell reconstitution. By contrast, all patients with MS treated with aCD20 generated antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Treatment with aCD20 skewed responses, compromising circulating follicular helper T (TFH) cell responses and augmenting CD8 T cell induction, while preserving type 1 helper T (TH1) cell priming. Patients with MS treated with aCD20 lacking anti-RBD IgG had the most severe defect in circulating TFH responses and more robust CD8 T cell responses. These data define the nature of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune landscape in aCD20-treated patients and provide insights into coordinated mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses in humans. Our findings have implications for clinical decision-making and public health policy for immunosuppressed patients including those treated with aCD20.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Immunotherapy/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Multiple Sclerosis/blood , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Rituximab/pharmacology , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vero Cells
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504541

ABSTRACT

A chance conversation with a nonscientist about the mRNA-COVID vaccines, conveyed here, reminded the author of our enduring responsibility to accurately portray science to the public.


Subject(s)
RNA/genetics , RNA/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Immunity ; 54(12): 2676-2680, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499987

ABSTRACT

The 2005 Immunity paper by Karikó et al. has been hailed as a cornerstone insight that directly led to the design and delivery of the mRNA vaccines against COVID-19. We asked experts in pathogen sensing, vaccine development, and public health to provide their perspective on the study and its implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , /immunology , Animals , History, 21st Century , Humans , RNA, Messenger/immunology , World Health Organization
11.
Cell Rep ; 36(6): 109504, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491797

ABSTRACT

Early responses to vaccination are important for shaping both humoral and cellular protective immunity. Dissecting innate vaccine signatures may predict immunogenicity to help optimize the efficacy of mRNA and other vaccine strategies. Here, we characterize the cytokine and chemokine responses to the 1st and 2nd dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNtech) vaccine in antigen-naive and in previously coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals (NCT04743388). Transient increases in interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels early after boost correlate with Spike antibody levels, supporting their use as biomarkers of effective humoral immunity development in response to vaccination. We identify a systemic signature including increases in IL-15, IFN-γ, and IP-10/CXCL10 after the 1st vaccination, which were enriched by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 after the 2nd vaccination. In previously COVID-19-infected individuals, a single vaccination results in both strong cytokine induction and antibody titers similar to the ones observed upon booster vaccination in antigen-naive individuals, a result with potential implication for future public health recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-15/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/immunology
12.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1186: 123015, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487818

ABSTRACT

The potential of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) as nucleic acid delivery vehicles has been demonstrated in recent years, culminating in the emergency use approval of LNP-based mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in late 2020. The determination of RNA content relative to LNP size can be important to the understanding of efficacy and adverse effects. This work presents the first description of a facile and rapid analytical method for online, size-dependent RNA payload distribution measurement using data from multi-angle light scattering, ultraviolet and refractive index detectors following separation of the LNPs by size-exclusion chromatography. The analysis was validated by size-based fractionation of the LNPs with subsequent offline analysis of the fractions. Four LNPs formulated with different PEG-lipids and different lipid compositions were tested. Good agreement was observed between the online and offline size-based RNA distributions among all four LNPs, demonstrating the utility of the online method for LNP-encapsulated RNA in general, and suggesting a means for simplified biophysical quantitation of a dosing-related critical quality attribute.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Chromatography, Gel/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Particle Size , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17975-17982, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483092

ABSTRACT

Targeted and efficient delivery of nucleic acids with viral and synthetic vectors is the key step of genetic nanomedicine. The four-component lipid nanoparticle synthetic delivery systems consisting of ionizable lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and a PEG-conjugated lipid, assembled by microfluidic or T-tube technology, have been extraordinarily successful for delivery of mRNA to provide Covid-19 vaccines. Recently, we reported a one-component multifunctional sequence-defined ionizable amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (IAJD) synthetic delivery system for mRNA relying on amphiphilic Janus dendrimers and glycodendrimers developed in our laboratory. Amphiphilic Janus dendrimers consist of functional hydrophilic dendrons conjugated to hydrophobic dendrons. Co-assembly of IAJDs with mRNA into dendrimersome nanoparticles (DNPs) occurs by simple injection in acetate buffer, rather than by microfluidic devices, and provides a very efficient system for delivery of mRNA to lung. Here we report the replacement of most of the hydrophilic fragment of the dendron from IAJDs, maintaining only its ionizable amine, while changing its interconnecting group to the hydrophobic dendron from amide to ester. The resulting IAJDs demonstrated that protonated ionizable amines play dual roles of hydrophilic fragment and binding ligand for mRNA, changing delivery from lung to spleen and/or liver. Replacing the interconnecting ester with the amide switched the delivery back to lung. Delivery predominantly to liver is favored by pairs of odd and even alkyl groups in the hydrophobic dendron. This simple structural change transformed the targeted delivery of mRNA mediated with IAJDs, from lung to liver and spleen, and expands the utility of DNPs from therapeutics to vaccines.


Subject(s)
Dendrimers/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Esters/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ions/chemistry , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/metabolism
14.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 114007, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482395

ABSTRACT

In recent years, nucleic acid-based therapeutics have gained increasing importance as novel treatment options for disease prevention and treatment. Synthetic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are promising nucleic acid-based drugs to transiently express desired proteins that are missing or defective. Recently, synthetic mRNA-based vaccines encoding viral proteins have been approved for emergency use against COVID-19. Various types of vehicles, such as lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) and liposomes, are being investigated to enable the efficient uptake of mRNA molecules into desired cells. In addition, the introduction of novel chemical modifications into mRNAs increased the stability, enabled the modulation of nucleic acid-based drugs, and increased the efficiency of mRNA-based therapeutic approaches. In this review, novel and innovative strategies for the delivery of synthetic mRNA-based therapeutics for tissue regeneration are discussed. Moreover, with this review, we aim to highlight the versatility of synthetic mRNA molecules for various applications in the field of regenerative medicine and also discuss translational challenges and required improvements for mRNA-based drugs.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine/trends , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy , Humans , RNA, Messenger/immunology
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 762006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477832

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing and new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are emerging, there is an urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines to control disease outbreaks by herd immunity. Surveillance of rare safety issues related to these vaccines is progressing, since more granular data emerge with regard to adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines during post-marketing surveillance. Interestingly, four cases of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) presenting with pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination have already been reported. We here expand our current knowledge of this rare but important association and report a case of AAV presenting with massive rhabdomyolysis and pauci-immune crescentic GN after Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. As huge vaccination programs are ongoing worldwide, post-marketing surveillance systems must continue to assess vaccine safety important for the detection of any events associated with COVID-19 vaccination. This is especially relevant in complex diseases where diagnosis is often challenging, as in our patient with AAV presenting with massive rhabdomyolysis and pauci-immune crescentic GN.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Rhabdomyolysis/pathology , Aged , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/immunology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/immunology
16.
Elife ; 102021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468709

ABSTRACT

Age is the major risk factor for mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection and older people have received priority consideration for COVID-19 vaccination. However, vaccine responses are often suboptimal in this age group and few people over the age of 80 years were included in vaccine registration trials. We determined the serological and cellular response to spike protein in 100 people aged 80-96 years at 2 weeks after the second vaccination with the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Antibody responses were seen in every donor with high titers in 98%. Spike-specific cellular immune responses were detectable in only 63% and correlated with humoral response. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection substantially increased antibody responses after one vaccine and antibody and cellular responses remained 28-fold and 3-fold higher, respectively, after dual vaccination. Post-vaccine sera mediated strong neutralization of live Victoria infection and although neutralization titers were reduced 14-fold against the P.1 variant first discovered in Brazil they remained largely effective. These data demonstrate that the mRNA vaccine platform delivers strong humoral immunity in people up to 96 years of age and retains broad efficacy against the P.1 variant of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
18.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 2002-2011, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447313

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have shown high efficacy, but immunocompromised participants were excluded from controlled clinical trials. In this study, we compared immune responses to the BNT162b2 mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 vaccine in patients with solid tumors (n = 53) who were on active cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy to a control cohort of participants without cancer (n = 50). Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 67% of patients with cancer after the first immunization, followed by a threefold increase in median titers after the second dose. Similar patterns were observed for spike protein-specific serum antibodies and T cells, but the magnitude of each of these responses was diminished relative to the control cohort. In most patients with cancer, we detected spike receptor-binding domain and other S1-specific memory B cell subsets as potential predictors of anamnestic responses to additional immunizations. We therefore initiated a phase 1 trial for 20 cancer cohort participants of a third vaccine dose of BNT162b2 ( NCT04936997 ); primary outcomes were immune responses, with a secondary outcome of safety. At 1 week after a third immunization, 16 participants demonstrated a median threefold increase in neutralizing antibody responses, but no improvement was observed in T cell responses. Adverse events were mild. These results suggest that a third dose of BNT162b2 is safe, improves humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and could be immunologically beneficial for patients with cancer on active chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Arizona , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
19.
Lancet ; 398(10309): 1407-1416, 2021 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine effectiveness studies have not differentiated the effect of the delta (B.1.617.2) variant and potential waning immunity in observed reductions in effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infections. We aimed to evaluate overall and variant-specific effectiveness of BNT162b2 (tozinameran, Pfizer-BioNTech) against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related hospital admissions by time since vaccination among members of a large US health-care system. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analysed electronic health records of individuals (≥12 years) who were members of the health-care organisation Kaiser Permanente Southern California (CA, USA), to assess BNT162b2 vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related hospital admissions for up to 6 months. Participants were required to have 1 year or more previous membership of the organisation. Outcomes comprised SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive tests and COVID-19-related hospital admissions. Effectiveness calculations were based on hazard ratios from adjusted Cox models. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04848584. FINDINGS: Between Dec 14, 2020, and Aug 8, 2021, of 4 920 549 individuals assessed for eligibility, we included 3 436 957 (median age 45 years [IQR 29-61]; 1 799 395 [52·4%] female and 1 637 394 [47·6%] male). For fully vaccinated individuals, effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infections was 73% (95% CI 72-74) and against COVID-19-related hospital admissions was 90% (89-92). Effectiveness against infections declined from 88% (95% CI 86-89) during the first month after full vaccination to 47% (43-51) after 5 months. Among sequenced infections, vaccine effectiveness against infections of the delta variant was high during the first month after full vaccination (93% [95% CI 85-97]) but declined to 53% [39-65] after 4 months. Effectiveness against other (non-delta) variants the first month after full vaccination was also high at 97% (95% CI 95-99), but waned to 67% (45-80) at 4-5 months. Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admissions for infections with the delta variant for all ages was high overall (93% [95% CI 84-96]) up to 6 months. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide support for high effectiveness of BNT162b2 against hospital admissions up until around 6 months after being fully vaccinated, even in the face of widespread dissemination of the delta variant. Reduction in vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infections over time is probably primarily due to waning immunity with time rather than the delta variant escaping vaccine protection. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organizations , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , United States , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
20.
J Biol Chem ; 297(5): 101266, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446794

ABSTRACT

Functional delivery of mRNA has high clinical potential. Previous studies established that mRNAs can be delivered to cells in vitro and in vivo via RNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Here we describe an alternative approach using exosomes, the only biologically normal nanovesicle. In contrast to LNPs, which elicited pronounced cellular toxicity, exosomes had no adverse effects in vitro or in vivo at any dose tested. Moreover, mRNA-loaded exosomes were characterized by efficient mRNA encapsulation (∼90%), high mRNA content, consistent size, and a polydispersity index under 0.2. Using an mRNA encoding the red light-emitting luciferase Antares2, we observed that mRNA-loaded exosomes were superior to mRNA-loaded LNPs at delivering functional mRNA into human cells in vitro. Injection of Antares2 mRNA-loaded exosomes also led to strong light emission following injection into the vitreous fluid of the eye or into the tissue of skeletal muscle in mice. Furthermore, we show that repeated injection of Antares2 mRNA-loaded exosomes drove sustained luciferase expression across six injections spanning at least 10 weeks, without evidence of signal attenuation or adverse injection site responses. Consistent with these findings, we observed that exosomes loaded with mRNAs encoding immunogenic forms of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Nucleocapsid proteins induced long-lasting cellular and humoral responses to both. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exosomes can be used to deliver functional mRNA to and into cells in vivo.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Gene Transfer Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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