Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 48
Filter
1.
J Infect ; 84(3): 329-336, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814745

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyse the diversity and taxonomic composition of the nasopharyngeal microbiota, to determine its association with COVID-19 clinical outcome. To study the microbiota, we utilized 16S rRNA sequencing of 177 samples that came from a retrospective cohort of COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Raw sequences were processed by QIIME2. The associations between microbiota, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and all-cause mortality were analysed by multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidity. The microbiota α diversity indexes were lower in patients with a fatal outcome, whereas the ß diversity analysis showed a significant clustering in these patients. After multivariate adjustment, the presence of Selenomonas spp., Filifactor spp., Actinobacillus spp., or Chroococcidiopsis spp., was associated with a reduction of more than 90% of IMV. Higher diversity and the presence of certain genera in the nasopharyngeal microbiota seem to be early biomarkers of a favourable clinical evolution in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Biomarkers , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(4): 663-669, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777740

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory data on newly described staphylococcal species is rare, which hampers decision-making when such pathogens are detected in clinical specimens. Here, we describe Staphylococcus massiliensis detected in three patients at a university hospital in southwest Germany. We report the discrepancy of microbiological findings between matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 16S-rRNA polymerase chain reaction, and whole-genome sequencing for all three isolates. Our findings highlight the diagnostic pitfalls pertinent to novel and non-model organisms in daily microbiological practice, in whom the correct identification is dependent on database accuracy.


Subject(s)
Blood Culture , Staphylococcus , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 824578, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775646

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a serious emerging global health problem, and little is known about the role of oropharynx commensal microbes in infection susceptibility and severity. Here, we present the oropharyngeal microbiota characteristics identified by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing through the NANOPORE platform of oropharynx swab specimens from 10 mild COVID-19 patients and 10 healthy controls. Our results revealed a distinct oropharyngeal microbiota composition in mild COVID-19 patients, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Pseudomonas stutzeri and depletion of Sphingomonas yabuuchiae, Agrobacterium sullae, and Pseudomonas veronii. Based on the relative abundance of the oropharyngeal microbiota at the species level, we built a microbial classifier to distinguish COVID-19 patients from healthy controls, in which P. veronii, Pseudomonas fragi, and S. yabuuchiae were identified as the most prominent signatures for their depletion in the COVID-19 group. Several members of the genus Campylobacter, especially Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter rectus, which were highly enriched in COVID-19 patients with higher severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and showed a significant correlation with disease status and several routine clinical blood indicators, indicate that several bacteria may transform into opportunistic pathogen in COVID-19 patients when facing the challenges of viral infection. We also found the diver taxa Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus alactolyticus in the network of disease patients, suggesting that these oropharynx microbiota alterations may impact COVID-19 severity by influencing the microbial association patterns. In conclusion, the low sample size of SARS-CoV-2 infection patients (n = 10) here makes these results tentative; however, we have provided the overall characterization that oropharyngeal microbiota alterations and microbial correlation patterns were associated with COVID-19 severity in Anhui Province.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Humans , Oropharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 93, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mycobacteria are found in many environmental conditions and infect a variety of species, including rodents and rabbits. Guinea pigs are used experimentally as a model for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but natural mycobacteriosis in guinea pigs has not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 1.5-year-old female guinea pig was found acutely deceased with no premonitory illness. On gross post-mortem examination, multifocal to coalescing, raised, firm, pale tan nodules with discrete, irregular margins were noted over the surfaces of all lung lobes. Histopathology revealed nodules composed of clustered foamy macrophages and multinucleated giant cells containing numerous bacterial rods. Similar bacteria-laden macrophages were noted within sections of the liver, heart, palpebral conjunctiva, duodenum, and cecum. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on tissues collected during post-mortem examination. The 16S rRNA gene product was sequenced and was identical to the Mycobacterium genavense type strain. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of the author's knowledge, this report details the first documented case of Mycobacterium genvaense infection in a guinea pig and a follow up investigation of close-contact animals. Given their experimental susceptibility and this clinical case report, mycobacteriosis should be considered as a differential in guinea pigs exhibiting weight loss in the absence of other clinical signs. With the potential for zoonotic transmission in immunosuppressed individuals, precautions should be taken to safeguard human health in cases of guinea pigs with suspected M. genavense infection.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Mycobacterium , Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Rabbits
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0168921, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731262

ABSTRACT

The role of the intestinal microbiota in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being elucidated. Here, we analyzed the temporal changes in microbiota composition and the correlation between inflammation biomarkers/cytokines and microbiota in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We obtained stool specimens, blood samples, and patient records from 22 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and performed 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis of stool samples over the course of disease onset compared to 40 healthy individual stool samples. We analyzed the correlation between the changes in the gut microbiota and plasma proinflammatory cytokine levels. Immediately after admission, differences in the gut microbiota were observed between COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects, mainly including enrichment of the classes Bacilli and Coriobacteriia and decrease in abundance of the class Clostridia. The bacterial profile continued to change throughout the hospitalization, with a decrease in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria including Faecalibacterium and an increase in the facultatively anaerobic bacteria Escherichia-Shigella. A consistent increase in Eggerthella belonging to the class Coriobacteriia was observed. The abundance of the class Clostridia was inversely correlated with interferon-γ level and that of the phylum Actinobacteria, which was enriched in COVID-19, and was positively correlated with gp130/sIL-6Rb levels. Dysbiosis was continued even after 21 days from onset. The intestines tended to be an aerobic environment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Because the composition of the gut microbiota correlates with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, this finding emphasizes the need to understand how pathology is related to the temporal changes in the specific gut microbiota observed in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE There is growing evidence that the commensal microbiota of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts regulates local and systemic inflammation (gut-lung axis). COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, but the involvement of microbiota changes in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. The composition of the gut microbiota of patients with COVID-19 changed over time during hospitalization, and the intestines tended to be an aerobic environment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. These changes in gut microbiota may induce increased intestinal permeability, called leaky gut, allowing bacteria and toxins to enter the circulatory system and further aggravate the systemic inflammatory response. Since gut microbiota composition correlates with levels of proinflammatory cytokines, this finding highlights the need to understand how pathology relates to the gut environment, including the temporal changes in specific gut microbiota observed in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteria/genetics , Cytokines , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
6.
mBio ; 13(2): e0380121, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731259

ABSTRACT

With the increase in total coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection cases, post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, defined as experiencing ongoing health problems 4 or more weeks after the first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a new arising public health concern. As part of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms might be associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, which has the potential to become a target for intervention. In this study, a patient with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome with long-lasting severe gastrointestinal symptoms was provided 2-month expanded access to a high-fiber formula with investigational new drug (IND) status developed to alleviate COVID-19-related symptoms by modulating the gut microbiota. Symptoms including severe "loss of appetite," palpitation, and anxiety were significantly alleviated by the end of the intervention. The medication dosage for controlling nausea decreased during the intervention. The serum lipid profile, insulin level, and leptin level were improved compared to the baseline values. Significant structural changes of the patient's gut microbiota and reduced microbial fermentation activity in the small intestine were found during the intervention. Eighteen amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene significantly responded to this nutritional intervention. Six out of the 18 ASVs were also found to be negatively correlated with symptom severity/medication dosage. Five of the six ASVs (ASV0AKS_Oscillibacter, ASV009F_Anaerofustis, ASV02YT_Blautia, ASV07LA_Blautia, and ASV0AM6_Eubacterium hallii) were potential short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, which might be associated with the alleviation of symptoms. Our study indicates the feasibility of alleviating gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome by way of nutritional modulation of their gut microbiota. IMPORTANCE It has become evident that the care of patients with COVID-19 does not end at the time of negative SARS-CoV-2 detection, as the number of patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome increases with an ever-increasing total infected patient population. This case report shows the possibility of alleviating the gastrointestinal symptoms of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome via microbiota-targeted nutritional intervention. As a promising strategy, it might not only improve the quality of life of patients but also reduce the burden to the public health system when the end of the COVID-19 pandemic is not in sight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 50, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports suggest that the microbiome of the digestive system affects vaccine efficacy and that the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with decreased diversity of the oral and/or intestinal microbiome. The present study examined the effects of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine on the oral microbiome. METHODS: Forty healthy Japanese oral healthcare personnel were recruited, and unstimulated saliva was collected before vaccination, after the 1st vaccination, and after the 2nd vaccination. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples, and PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology 2. In addition, alterations in microbial function were assessed using PICRUSt2. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination significantly increased oral bacterial diversity and significantly decreased the proportion of the genus Bacteroides. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine alters the oral microbiome; accordingly, vaccination might have beneficial effects on oral health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
J Intern Med ; 291(6): 801-812, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory infection, mounting evidence suggests that the gastrointestinal tract is involved in the disease, with gut barrier dysfunction and gut microbiota alterations being related to disease severity. Whether these alterations persist and are related to long-term respiratory dysfunction remains unknown. METHODS: Plasma was collected during hospital admission and after 3 months from the NOR-Solidarity trial (n = 181) and analyzed for markers of gut barrier dysfunction and inflammation. At the 3-month follow-up, pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO ). Rectal swabs for gut microbiota analyses were collected (n = 97) and analyzed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: Gut microbiota diversity was reduced in COVID-19 patients with respiratory dysfunction, defined as DLCO below the lower limit of normal 3 months after hospitalization. These patients also had an altered global gut microbiota composition, with reduced relative abundance of 20 bacterial taxa and increased abundance of five taxa, including Veillonella, potentially linked to fibrosis. During hospitalization, increased plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) were strongly associated with respiratory failure, defined as pO2 /fiO2 (P/F ratio) <26.6 kPa. LBP levels remained elevated during and after hospitalization and were associated with low-grade inflammation and respiratory dysfunction after 3 months. CONCLUSION: Respiratory dysfunction after COVID-19 is associated with altered gut microbiota and persistently elevated LBP levels. Our results should be regarded as hypothesis generating, pointing to a potential gut-lung axis that should be further investigated in relation to long-term pulmonary dysfunction and long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Inflammation , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Affect Disord ; 303: 187-195, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a key pathway perturbed by prolonged stressors to produce brain and behavioral disorders. Frontline healthcare workers (FHWs) fighting against COVID-19 typically experience stressful event sequences and manifest some mental symptoms; however, the role of gut microbiota in such stress-induced mental problems remains unclear. We investigated the association between the psychological stress of FHW and gut microbiota. METHODS: We used full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the longitudinal changes in gut microbiota and investigated the impact of microbial changes on FHWs' mental status. RESULTS: Stressful events induced significant depression, anxiety, and stress in FHWs and disrupted the gut microbiome; gut dysbiosis persisted for at least half a year. Different microbes followed discrete trajectories during the half-year of follow-up. Microbes associated with mental health were mainly Faecalibacterium spp. and [Eubacterium] eligens group spp. with anti-inflammatory effects. Of note, the prediction model indicated that low abundance of [Eubacterium] hallii group uncultured bacterium and high abundance of Bacteroides eggerthii at Day 0 (immediately after the two-month frontline work) were significant determinants of the reappearance of post-traumatic stress symptoms in FHWs. LIMITATIONS: The lack of metabolomic evidence and animal experiments result in the unclear mechanism of gut dysbiosis-related stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: The stressful event sequences of fighting against COVID-19 induce characteristic longitudinal changes in gut microbiota, which underlies dynamic mental state changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Animals , Dysbiosis/epidemiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622609

ABSTRACT

Kiwifruit is moderately sweet and sour and quite popular among consumers; it has been widely planted in some areas of the world. In 2019, the crown gall disease of kiwifruit was discovered in the main kiwifruit-producing area of Guizhou Province, China. This disease can weaken and eventually cause the death of the tree. The phylogeny, morphological and biological characteristics of the bacteria were described, and were related to diseases. The pathogenicity of this species follows the Koch hypothesis, confirming that A. fabacearum is the pathogen of crown gall disease of kiwifruit in China. In this study, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) analysis for genome-specific gene sequences was developed for the specific detection of A. fabacearum. The detection limit of the LAMP method is 5 × 10-7 ng/µL, which has high sensitivity. At the same time, the amplified product is stained with SYBR Green I after the reaction is completed, so that the amplification can be detected with the naked eye. LAMP analysis detected the presence of A. fabacearum in the roots and soil samples of the infected kiwifruit plant. The proposed LAMP detection technology in this study offers the advantages of ease of operation, visibility of results, rapidity, accuracy and high sensitivity, making it suitable for the early diagnosis of crown gall disease of kiwifruit.


Subject(s)
Actinidia/microbiology , Agrobacterium/physiology , Fruit/microbiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Plant Tumors/microbiology , Agrobacterium/pathogenicity , Base Sequence , China , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Species Specificity
11.
J Water Health ; 19(6): 895-906, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606294

ABSTRACT

The continuous introduction of cleaning products containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC) from household discharges can mold the microbial communities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in a way still poorly understood. In this study, we performed an in vitro exposure of activated sludge from a WWTP in Costa Rica to BAC, quantified the changes in intI1, sul2, and qacE/qacEΔ1 gene profiles, and determined alterations in the bacterial community composition. The analysis of the qPCR data revealed elevated charges of antibiotic resistance genes in the microbial community; after BAC's exposure, a significant increase in the qacE/qacEΔ1 gene, which is related to ammonium quaternary resistance, was observed. The 16S rRNA gene sequences' analysis showed pronounced variations in the structure of the bacterial communities, including reduction of the alpha diversity values and an increase of the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, particularly of Rhodospseudomonas and Rhodobacter. We confirmed that the microbial communities presented high resilience to BAC at the mg/mL concentration, probably due to constant exposure to this pollutant. They also presented antibiotic resistance-related genes with similar mechanisms to tolerate this substance. These mechanisms should be explored more thoroughly, especially in the context of high use of disinfectant.


Subject(s)
Benzalkonium Compounds , Sewage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/genetics , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Waste Water
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 747816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556003

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota contributes to maintaining human health and regulating immune responses. Severe COVID-19 illness is associated with a dysregulated pro-inflammatory immune response. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on altering the gut microbiome and the relevance of the gut microbiome on COVID-19 severity needs to be clarified. In this prospective study, we analyzed the gut microbiome of 212 patients of a tertiary care hospital (117 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 95 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V3-V4 region. Inflammatory markers and immune cells were quantified from blood. The gut microbiome in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients was characterized by a lower bacterial richness and distinct differences in the gut microbiome composition, including an enrichment of the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and a decrease of Actinobacteria compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. The relative abundance of several genera including Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Collinsella was lower in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients while the abundance of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae was increased. Higher pro-inflammatory blood markers and a lower CD8+ T cell number characterized patients with severe COVID-19 illness. The gut microbiome of patients with severe/critical COVID-19 exhibited a lower abundance of butyrate-producing genera Faecalibacterium and Roseburia and a reduction in the connectivity of a distinct network of anti-inflammatory genera that was observed in patients with mild COVID-19 illness and in SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome associated with a pro-inflammatory signature may contribute to the hyperinflammatory immune response characterizing severe COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 81, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526078

ABSTRACT

The oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Saliva is highly enriched with human DNA and reducing it prior to shotgun sequencing may increase the depth of bacterial reads. We examined both the effect of saliva collection method and sequence processing on measurement of microbiome depth and diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. We collected 56 samples from 22 subjects. Each subject provided saliva samples with and without preservative, and a subset provided a second set of samples the following day. 16S rRNA gene (V4) sequencing was performed on all samples, and shotgun metagenomics was performed on a subset of samples collected with preservative with and without human DNA depletion before sequencing. We observed that the beta diversity distances within subjects over time was smaller than between unrelated subjects, and distances within subjects were smaller in samples collected with preservative. Samples collected with preservative had higher alpha diversity measuring both richness and evenness. Human DNA depletion before extraction and shotgun sequencing yielded higher total and relative reads mapping to bacterial sequences. We conclude that collecting saliva with preservative may provide more consistent measures of the oral microbiome and depleting human DNA increases yield of bacterial sequences.


Subject(s)
Microbiota/genetics , Saliva/microbiology , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , DNA/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenome/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , Middle Aged , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496537

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of infants with possible and confirmed pertussis compared to healthy controls. METHODS: This prospective study included all infants <1 year with microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of pertussis attended at a University Hospital over a 12-month period. For each confirmed case, up to 2 consecutive patients within the same age range and meeting the clinical case definition of pertussis but testing PCR-negative were included as possible cases. A third group of asymptomatic infants (healthy controls) were also included. Nasopharyngeal microbiota was characterized by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infection was tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Twelve confirmed cases, 21 possible cases and 9 healthy controls were included. Confirmed whooping cough was primarily driven by detection of Bordetella with no other major changes on nasopharyngeal microbiota. Possible cases had limited abundance or absence of Bordetella and a distinctive microbiota with lower bacterial richness and diversity and higher rates of viral co-infection than both confirmed cases and healthy controls. Bordetella reads determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were found in all 12 confirmed cases (100%), 3 out of the 21 possible cases (14.3%) but in any healthy control. CONCLUSION: This study supports the usefulness of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for improved sensitivity on pertussis diagnosis compared to real-time PCR and to understand other microbial changes occurring in the nasopharynx in children <1 year old with suspected whooping cough compared to healthy controls.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Whooping Cough/microbiology , Bordetella/genetics , Bordetella/isolation & purification , Bordetella/pathogenicity , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Pharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Whooping Cough/diagnosis
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21297, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493220

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused over three million deaths worldwide. Understanding the pathology of the disease and the factors that drive severe and fatal clinical outcomes is of special relevance. Studying the role of the respiratory microbiota in COVID-19 is especially important as the respiratory microbiota is known to interact with the host immune system, contributing to clinical outcomes in chronic and acute respiratory diseases. Here, we characterized the microbiota in the respiratory tract of patients with mild, severe, or fatal COVID-19, and compared it to healthy controls and patients with non-COVID-19-pneumonia. We comparatively studied the microbial composition, diversity, and microbiota structure between the study groups and correlated the results with clinical data. We found differences in the microbial composition for COVID-19 patients, healthy controls, and non-COVID-19 pneumonia controls. In particular, we detected a high number of potentially opportunistic pathogens associated with severe and fatal levels of the disease. Also, we found higher levels of dysbiosis in the respiratory microbiota of patients with COVID-19 compared to the healthy controls. In addition, we detected differences in diversity structure between the microbiota of patients with mild, severe, and fatal COVID-19, as well as the presence of specific bacteria that correlated with clinical variables associated with increased risk of mortality. In summary, our results demonstrate that increased dysbiosis of the respiratory tract microbiota in patients with COVID-19 along with a continuous loss of microbial complexity structure found in mild to fatal COVID-19 cases may potentially alter clinical outcomes in patients. Taken together, our findings identify the respiratory microbiota as a factor potentially associated with the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Respiratory System/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Young Adult
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0005521, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467670

ABSTRACT

Bacterial-viral interactions in saliva have been associated with morbidity and mortality for respiratory viruses such as influenza and SARS-CoV. However, such transkingdom relationships during SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently unknown. Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between saliva microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of newly hospitalized COVID-19 patients and controls. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to compare microbiome diversity and taxonomic composition between COVID-19 patients (n = 53) and controls (n = 59) and based on saliva SARS-CoV-2 viral load as measured using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The saliva microbiome did not differ markedly between COVID-19 patients and controls. However, we identified significant differential abundance of numerous taxa based on saliva SARS-CoV-2 viral load, including multiple species within Streptococcus and Prevotella. IMPORTANCE Alterations to the saliva microbiome based on SARS-CoV-2 viral load indicate potential biologically relevant bacterial-viral relationships which may affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/pathology , Microbial Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Viral Load
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(8): 5267-5273, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465844

ABSTRACT

In the summers of 2019 and 2020, a previously undescribed disease occurred in both juvenile and adult shellfish, causing mass mortalities in cultured pearl production, characterized by the major symptom of extreme atrophy of the soft tissues, including the mantle. However, the causative organism was uncertain. We isolated Vibrio sp. strain MA3 from the mantles of diseased pearl oysters Pinctada fucata. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene and DNA gyrase sequence homologies and its biochemical and morphological characteristics suggested that strain MA3 is a new strain of Vibrio alginolyticus. In addition, a hemolysin gene (Vhe1) of strain MA3 was detected as one of the virulence factors, and the complete sequence was determined. BLAST searches showed that Vhe1 shares 99.8% nucleotide sequence identity with Vibrio alginolyticus strain A056 lecithin-dependent hemolysin (ldh) gene, complete cds. Experimental infection of healthy oysters via injection with strain MA3 indicated it could cause high mortalities of the typically affected oysters from which the strain was isolated. These results suggest that the newly isolated Vibrio sp. strain MA3 is a putative causal agent of the recent disease outbreaks in Akoya pearl oysters.


Subject(s)
Pinctada , Animals , Pinctada/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Vibrio alginolyticus/genetics
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127152, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401614

ABSTRACT

Chlorine disinfection is a key global public health strategy for the prevention and control of diseases, such as COVID-19. However, little is known about effects of low levels of residual chlorine on freshwater microbial communities and antibiotic resistomes. Here, we treated freshwater microcosms with continuous low concentrations of chlorine and quantified the effects on aquatic and zebrafish intestinal microbial communities and antibiotic resistomes, using shotgun metagenome and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although chlorine rapidly degraded, it altered the aquatic microbial community composition over time and disrupted interactions among microbes, leading to decreases in community complexity and stability. However, community diversity was unaffected. The majority of ecological functions, particularly metabolic capacities, recovered after treatment with chlorine for 14 d, due to microbial community redundancy. There were also increased levels of antibiotic-resistance gene dissemination by horizontal and vertical gene transfer under chlorine treatment. Although the zebrafish intestinal microbial community recovered from temporary dysbiosis, growth and behavior of zebrafish adults were negatively affected by chlorine. Overall, our findings demonstrate the negative effects of residual chlorine on freshwater ecosystems and highlight a possible long-term risk to public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Animals , Chlorine/toxicity , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Fresh Water , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378302

ABSTRACT

According to the hygiene and biodiversity hypotheses, increased hygiene levels and reduced contact with biodiversity can partially explain the high prevalence of immune-mediated diseases in developed countries. A disturbed commensal microbiota, especially in the gut, has been linked to multiple immune-mediated diseases. Previous studies imply that gut microbiota composition is associated with the everyday living environment and can be modified by increasing direct physical exposure to biodiverse materials. In this pilot study, the effects of rural-second-home tourism were investigated on the gut microbiota for the first time. Rural-second-home tourism, a popular form of outdoor recreation in Northern Europe, North America, and Russia, has the potential to alter the human microbiota by increasing exposure to nature and environmental microbes. The hypotheses were that the use of rural second homes is associated with differences in the gut microbiota and that the microbiota related to health benefits are more diverse or common among the rural-second-home users. Based on 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing of stool samples from 10 urban elderly having access and 15 lacking access to a rural second home, the first hypothesis was supported: the use of rural second homes was found to be associated with lower gut microbiota diversity and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway levels. The second hypothesis was not supported: health-related microbiota were not more diverse or common among the second-home users. The current study encourages further research on the possible health outcomes or causes of the observed microbiological differences. Activities and diet during second-home visits, standard of equipment, surrounding environment, and length of the visits are all postulated to play a role in determining the effects of rural-second-home tourism on the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Aged , Europe , Finland , Humans , North America , Pilot Projects , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Russia
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374403

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains a global health issue for several reasons, such as the low vaccination rates and a lack of developed herd immunity to the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its potential inclination to elude neutralizing antibodies. It should be noted that the severity of the COVID-19 disease is significantly affected by the presence of co-infections. Comorbid conditions are caused not only by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms but also by some representatives of the environmental microbiome. The presence of patients with moderate and severe forms of the disease in hospitals indicates the need for epidemiological monitoring of (1) bacterial pathogens circulating in hospitals, especially the ESKAPE group pathogens, and (2) the microbiome of various surfaces in hospitals. In our study, we used combined methods based on PCR and NGS sequencing, which are widely used for epidemiological monitoring. Through this approach, we identified the DNA of pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, CoNS, and Achromobacter spp.) on various surfaces. We also estimated the microbiome diversity of surfaces and identified the potential reservoirs of infections using 16S rRNA profiling. Although we did not assess the viability of identified microorganisms, our results indicate the possible risks of insufficient regular disinfection of surfaces, regardless of department, at the Infectious Diseases Hospital. Controlling the transmission of nosocomial diseases is critical to the successful treatment of COVID-19 patients, the rational use of antimicrobial drugs, and timely decontamination measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bacteria/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL