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1.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 49(1): 204-218, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109121

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoo tonic, highly pathogenic virus. The new type of coronavirus with contagious nature spread from Wuhan (China) to the whole world in a very short time and caused the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 has turned into a global public health crisis due to spreading by close person-to-person contact with high transmission capacity. Thus, research about the treatment of the damages caused by the virus or prevention from infection increases everyday. Besides, there is still no approved and definitive, standardized treatment for COVID-19. However, this disaster experienced by human beings has made us realize the significance of having a system ready for use to prevent humanity from viral attacks without wasting time. As is known, nanocarriers can be targeted to the desired cells in vitro and in vivo. The nano-carrier system targeting a specific protein, containing the enzyme inhibiting the action of the virus can be developed. The system can be used by simple modifications when we encounter another virus epidemic in the future. In this review, we present a potential treatment method consisting of a nanoparticle-ribozyme conjugate, targeting ACE-2 receptors by reviewing the virus-associated ribozymes, their structures, types and working mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , RNA, Catalytic/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Carriers , Drug Compounding , Drug Design , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA Interference , RNA, Catalytic/administration & dosage , RNA, Catalytic/chemistry , RNA, Catalytic/classification , RNA, Untranslated/classification , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/therapeutic use , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954243

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 has caused a major health and economic crisis around the globe. Gaining knowledge about its attributes and interactions with human host cells is crucial. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the host cells' innate antiviral immune response. In RNA interference, microRNAs (miRNAs) may bind to complementary sequences of the viral RNA strand, forming an miRNA-induced silencing complex, which destroys the viral RNA, thereby inhibiting viral protein expression. There are several targets for human miRNAs on SARS-CoV-2's RNA, most of which are in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Mutations of the viral genome causing the creation or loss of miRNA binding sites may have crucial effects on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. In addition to mediating immunity, the ncRNA landscape of host cells further influences their susceptibility to virus infection, as certain miRNAs are essential in the regulation of cellular receptors that are necessary for virus invasion. Conversely, virus infection also changes the host ncRNA expression patterns, possibly augmenting conditions for viral replication and dissemination. Hence, ncRNAs typically upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be useful biomarkers for disease progression and severity. Understanding these mechanisms could provide further insight into the pathogenesis and possible treatment options against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , RNA Interference , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/genetics
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