Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.124
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114414, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636596

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has posed a worldwide public health challenge affecting millions of people in different countries. Rapid and efficient detection of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for pandemic control. Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of nasopharyngeal swabs is the gold standard method for the virus detection, but the high demand for tests has substantially increased the costs and reduced the availability of reagents, including genetic material purification kits. Thus, the present study aimed to compare two bead-based RNA extraction methods (an in-house and a commercial kit) from nasopharyngeal swabs and RT-qPCR detection of SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-five positive and five negative nasopharyngeal swab samples were subjected to extraction of nucleic acids using both methods in an automated platform. Both protocols revealed a high correlation between Cycle Quantifications (Cqs) (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). In addition, the in-house kit was 89.5 % cheaper when compared to the mean cost of commercial RNA extraction kits. The results show that the in-house protocol is an affordable and reliable option for RNA extraction for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal swabs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Magnetic Phenomena , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(1): 34, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633639

ABSTRACT

DNA is recognized as a powerful biomarker for clinical diagnostics because its specific sequences are closely related to the cause and development of diseases. However, achieving rapid, low-cost, and sensitive detection of short-length target DNA still remains a considerable challenge. Herein, we successfully combine the catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) technique with capillary action to develop a new and cost-effective method, a target DNA- and pH-responsive DNA hydrogel-based capillary assay, for the naked eye detection of 24 nt short single-stranded target DNA. Upon contact of target DNA, three individual hairpin DNAs hybridize with each other to sufficiently amplify Y-shaped DNA nanostructures (Y-DNA) until they are completely consumed via CHA cycling reactions. Each arm of the resultant Y-DNA contains sticky ends with i-motif DNA structure-forming sequences that can be self-assembled in an acidic environment (pH 5.0) to form target DNA- and pH-responsive DNA hydrogels by means of i-motif DNA-driven crosslinking. When inserting a capillary tube in the resultant solution, the liquid level inside clearly reduces due to the decrease in capillary force induced by the gels. In this way, the developed assay demonstrates sensitive and quantitative detection, with a detection limit of approximately 10 pM of 24 nt short complementary DNA (cDNA) targeting SARS-CoV-2 RNA genes at room temperature within 1 h. The assay is further shown to successfully detect target cDNA in serum, and it is also applied to detect several types of target sequences. Requiring no analytic equipment, precise temperature control, or enzymatic reactions, the developed DNA hydrogel-based capillary assay has potential as a promising naked eye detection platform for target DNA in resource-limited clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/methods , DNA, Catalytic/chemistry , DNA, Complementary/analysis , Hydrogels/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Capillary Action , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/instrumentation , DNA, Catalytic/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Inverted Repeat Sequences , Limit of Detection , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Nucleic Acid Hybridization
3.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114429, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630206

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led the world to a pandemic. Therefore, rapid, sensitive, and reproducible diagnostic tests are essential to indicate which measures should be taken during pandemics. We retrospectively tested unextracted nasopharyngeal samples from consecutive patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 334), and compared two different Ct cut-off values for interpretation of results using a modified Allplex protocol. Its performance was evaluated using the USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as reference. The reduction on Ct cut-off to 35 increased the test NPA from 79.65 to 88.00 %, reducing the number of false positives, from 10.48 to 6.29 %, resulting in an almost perfect agreement between the Allplex and the CDC protocol (Cohen's Kappa coefficient = 0.830 ± 0.032). This study demonstrates that the Seegene Allplex™ 2019-nCoV protocol skipping the viral RNA extraction step using the Ct cut-off of 35 is a rapid and efficient method to detect SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
J Biomol Tech ; 32(3): 137-147, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626499

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) control in the United States remains hampered, in part, by testing limitations. We evaluated a simple, outdoor, mobile, colorimetric reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay workflow where self-collected saliva is tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. From July 16, 2020, to November 19, 2020, surveillance samples (n = 4704) were collected from volunteers and tested for SARS-CoV-2 at 5 sites. Twenty-one samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-LAMP; 12 were confirmed positive by subsequent quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing, whereas 8 tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 1 could not be confirmed because the donor did not consent to further molecular testing. We estimated the false-negative rate of the RT-LAMP assay only from July 16, 2020, to September 17, 2020 by pooling residual heat-inactivated saliva that was unambiguously negative by RT-LAMP into groups of 6 or fewer and testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by qRT-PCR. We observed a 98.8% concordance between the RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR assays, with only 5 of 421 RT-LAMP-negative pools (2493 total samples) testing positive in the more-sensitive qRT-PCR assay. Overall, we demonstrate a rapid testing method that can be implemented outside the traditional laboratory setting by individuals with basic molecular biology skills and that can effectively identify asymptomatic individuals who would not typically meet the criteria for symptom-based testing modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
J Biomol Tech ; 32(3): 206-213, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625607

ABSTRACT

A highly efficient, selective, and sensitive method for analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in raw sewage was developed and tested to illustrate basic characteristics of the procedure. The method uses reverse transcriptase (RT) loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in a quantitative application, RT qLAMP. The applicability of this procedure to detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples has been documented in many reports since early 2020. Basic LAMP characteristics depending on the multiple primer design that produce highly selective and sensitive target amplification virtually free of interferences in complex sample media make it ideal for application to target recognition in raw sewage. Three previously described primer sets targeting ORF1a, E- and N-gene regions were selected and tested to define method performance characteristics and performance for SARS-CoV-2 detection in raw sewage samples from a municipal sewage system serving > 600 000, between July and October, 2020. The virus was detected in all samples from each of three independent interceptors near their treatment terminus. Virus quantities varied significantly between samples and between primer targets within samples. Sewage sampling dates corresponded to relatively low COVID-19 incidence rates reported by the local service area health department. The limited number of samples and aggregating downstream sampling locations did not permit resolving concentration differences. The most significant finding was the ability of the RT qLAMP method to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the raw sewage samples directly without preprocessing to isolate or concentrate the virus or to extract and concentrate viral RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sewage
6.
J Biomol Tech ; 32(3): 134-136, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625529

ABSTRACT

At this writing, over 100 million people have tested positive for Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19), and the global death toll from this disease has reached nearly 3 million. Despite the many tests currently available, we have not yet achieved the testing capacity needed to limit the spread of the virus and mitigate suffering worldwide. We have developed the One Hour COVID Test to address this challenge. Our test leverages an easy-to-use, commercially available oral swab kit for sample collection paired with a novel RNA processing protocol and a simple colorimetric assay that requires minimal equipment. The test can be easily scaled via automation and takes 1 h from sample collection to result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorimetry , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Prothrombin Time , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
J Biomol Tech ; 32(3): 172-179, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625349

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance for monitoring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important epidemiologic tool for the assessment of population-wide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This tool can be successfully implemented only if SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater can be accurately recovered and quantified. The lack of standardized procedure for wastewater virus analysis has resulted in varying SARS-CoV-2 concentrations for the same sample. This study reports the effect of 4 key factors-sample volume, percentage polyethylene glycol (PEG)-NaCl, incubation period, and storage duration at 4°C-on the recovery of spiked noninfectious SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw sewage and sludge samples. N1 and N2 genes of SARS-CoV-2 were quantified using the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and digital droplet PCR (RT-ddPCR) techniques. Results indicate that 1) for raw sewage, 50-ml sample volume, 30% PEG-NaCl addition, 6-h incubation, and sample analysis within 24 h of collection can result in much better RNA recovery (RT-qPCR: 72% for N1 and 82% for N2; RT-ddPCR: 55% for N1 and 85% for N2) when compared with commonly used PEG-based method; 2) for sludge, the sample analysis using raw sewage protocol and all other variations of each factor mostly resulted in false negatives for both N1 and N2. The absence of N1 and N2 suggests that sludge samples probably need a pretreatment step that releases RNA entrapped in sludge solids back into bulk solution. In conclusion, our modified PEG-based concentration method can cut down the analysis time at least by half, which in turn helps to implement early detection system for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sewage , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623660

ABSTRACT

The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to describe pre-treatment characteristics, treatment patterns, health resource use, and clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States (US) who initiated common treatments for COVID-19. The Optum® COVID-19 electronic health records database was used to identify patients >18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to an inpatient setting and received treatments of interest for COVID-19 between September 2020 and January 2021. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on index treatment use. Patient demographics, medical history, care setting, medical procedures, subsequent treatment use, patient disposition, clinical improvement, and outcomes were summarized descriptively. Among a total of 26,192 patients identified, the most prevalent treatments initiated were dexamethasone (35.4%) and dexamethasone + remdesivir (14.9%), and dexamethasone was the most common subsequent treatment. At day 14 post-index, <10% of patients received any treatments of interest. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) patient age was 65.6 (15.6) years, and the most prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (44.8%), obesity (35.4%), and diabetes (25.7%). At the end of follow-up, patients had a mean (SD) 8.1 (6.6) inpatient days and 1.4 (4.1) days with ICU care. Oxygen supplementation, non-invasive, or invasive ventilation was required by 4.5%, 3.0%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 84.2% of patients had evidence of clinical improvement, 3.1% remained hospitalized, 83.8% were discharged, 4% died in hospital, and 9.1% died after discharge. Although the majority of patients were discharged alive, no treatments appeared to alleviate the inpatient morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This highlights an unmet need for effective treatment options for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262174, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test Kit, a rapid immunochromatographic assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Moreover, we sought to point out the strategy adopted by a local company to lift the lockdown without leading to an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, by performing a precise and timely health surveillance. METHODS: The rapid Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test was performed immediately after sampling following the manufacturer's instructions. RT-PCRs were performed within 24 hours of specimen collection. A total amount of 253 nasopharyngeal samples from 121 individuals were collected between March 16 and April 2, 2021 and tested. RESULTS: Of 253 nasopharyngeal samples, 11 (9.1%) were positive and 242 (90.9%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR assays. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test's mean sensitivity and specificity were 84,6% (95% CI, 54.6-98.1%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.6-100%), respectively. Two false negative test results were obtained from samples with high RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct). CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test can be introduced into daily diagnostic practice, as its mean sensitivity and specificity follow the standards recommended by WHO and IFCC Task Force. In addition, we underlined how the strategy adopted by a local company to risk assessment and health surveillance was appropriate for infection containment. This real-life scenario gave us the possibility to experience potential approaches aimed to preserve public health and work activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261853, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622346

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). "Extraction-less" or "direct" real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a transparent and accessible qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that direct RT-PCR assay methods can be clearly translated across sites utilizing readily available equipment and expertise and are thus a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Specimen Handling/methods
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622333

ABSTRACT

High viral transmission in the COVID-19 pandemic has enabled SARS-CoV-2 to acquire new mutations that may impact genome sequencing methods. The ARTIC.v3 primer pool that amplifies short amplicons in a multiplex-PCR reaction is one of the most widely used methods for sequencing the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We observed that some genomic intervals are poorly captured with ARTIC primers. To improve the genomic coverage and variant detection across these intervals, we designed long amplicon primers and evaluated the performance of a short (ARTIC) plus long amplicon (MRL) sequencing approach. Sequencing assays were optimized on VR-1986D-ATCC RNA followed by sequencing of nasopharyngeal swab specimens from fifteen COVID-19 positive patients. ARTIC data covered 94.47% of the virus genome fraction in the positive control and patient samples. Variant analysis in the ARTIC data detected 217 mutations, including 209 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and eight insertions & deletions. On the other hand, long-amplicon data detected 156 mutations, of which 80% were concordant with ARTIC data. Combined analysis of ARTIC + MRL data improved the genomic coverage to 97.03% and identified 214 high confidence mutations. The combined final set of 214 mutations included 203 SNVs, 8 deletions and 3 insertions. Analysis showed 26 SARS-CoV-2 lineage defining mutations including 4 known variants of concern K417N, E484K, N501Y, P618H in spike gene. Hybrid analysis identified 7 nonsynonymous and 5 synonymous mutations across the genome that were either ambiguous or not called in ARTIC data. For example, G172V mutation in the ORF3a protein and A2A mutation in Membrane protein were missed by the ARTIC assay. Thus, we show that while the short amplicon (ARTIC) assay provides good genomic coverage with high throughput, complementation of poorly captured intervals with long amplicon data can significantly improve SARS-CoV-2 genomic coverage and variant detection.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis/methods
12.
Biophys J ; 120(14): 2890-2901, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604873

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid phosphoprotein N plays critical roles in multiple processes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection cycle: it protects and packages viral RNA in N assembly, interacts with the inner domain of spike protein, binds to structural membrane (M) protein during virion packaging and maturation, and to proteases causing replication of infective virus particle. Even with its importance, very limited biophysical studies are available on the N protein because of its high level of disorder, high propensity for aggregation, and high susceptibility for autoproteolysis. Here, we successfully prepare the N protein and a 1000-nucleotide fragment of viral RNA in large quantities and purity suitable for biophysical studies. A combination of biophysical and biochemical techniques demonstrates that the N protein is partially disordered and consists of an independently folded RNA-binding domain and a dimerization domain, flanked by disordered linkers. The protein assembles as a tight dimer with a dimerization constant of sub-micromolar but can also form transient interactions with other N proteins, facilitating larger oligomers. NMR studies on the ∼100-kDa dimeric protein identify a specific domain that binds 1-1000-nt RNA and show that the N-RNA complex remains highly disordered. Analytical ultracentrifugation, isothermal titration calorimetry, multiangle light scattering, and cross-linking experiments identify a heterogeneous mixture of complexes with a core corresponding to at least 70 dimers of N bound to 1-1000 RNA. In contrast, very weak binding is detected with a smaller construct corresponding to the RNA-binding domain using similar experiments. A model that explains the importance of the bivalent structure of N to its binding on multivalent sites of the viral RNA is presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphoproteins , Protein Binding , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732756, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started out as an outbreak of pneumonia, has now turned into a pandemic due to its rapid transmission. Besides developing a vaccine, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis is essential for monitoring and combating the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its related variants on time with precision and accuracy. Currently, the gold standard for detection of SARS-CoV-2 is Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), but it lacks accuracy, is time-consuming and cumbersome, and fails to detect multi-variant forms of the virus. Herein, we have summarized conventional diagnostic methods such as Chest-CT (Computed Tomography), RT-PCR, Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP), Reverse Transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP), as well new modern diagnostics such as CRISPR-Cas-based assays, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), Lateral Flow Assays (LFA), Graphene-Field Effect Transistor (GraFET), electrochemical sensors, immunosensors, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs)-based assays, and microarrays for SARS-CoV-2 detection. This review will also provide an insight into an ongoing research and the possibility of developing more economical tools to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Oligonucleotide Probes/genetics , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Cell Rep ; 37(13): 110167, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596401

ABSTRACT

Cross-reactivity and direct killing of target cells remain underexplored for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific CD8+ T cells. Isolation of T cell receptors (TCRs) and overexpression in allogeneic cells allows for extensive T cell reactivity profiling. We identify SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp/NSP12) as highly conserved, likely due to its critical role in the virus life cycle. We perform single-cell TCRαß sequencing in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A∗02:01-restricted, RdRp-specific T cells from SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals. Human T cells expressing these TCRαß constructs kill target cell lines engineered to express full-length RdRp. Three TCR constructs recognize homologous epitopes from common cold coronaviruses, indicating CD8+ T cells can recognize evolutionarily diverse coronaviruses. Analysis of individual TCR clones may help define vaccine epitopes that can induce long-term immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/immunology , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Culture Techniques , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-A Antigens/immunology , HLA-A2 Antigen/genetics , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 774776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581334

ABSTRACT

Both RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of SARS-CoV-2 and immune characteristics of the human body have been reported to play an important role in COVID-19, but how the m6A methylation modification of leukocytes responds to the virus infection remains unknown. Based on the RNA-seq of 126 samples from the GEO database, we disclosed that there is a remarkably higher m6A modification level of blood leukocytes in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients without COVID-19, and this difference was related to CD4+ T cells. Two clusters were identified by unsupervised clustering, m6A cluster A characterized by T cell activation had a higher prognosis than m6A cluster B. Elevated metabolism level, blockage of the immune checkpoint, and lower level of m6A score were observed in m6A cluster B. A protective model was constructed based on nine selected genes and it exhibited an excellent predictive value in COVID-19. Further analysis revealed that the protective score was positively correlated to HFD45 and ventilator-free days, while negatively correlated to SOFA score, APACHE-II score, and crp. Our works systematically depicted a complicated correlation between m6A methylation modification and host lymphocytes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and provided a well-performing model to predict the patients' outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology/methods , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve
16.
Clin Lab ; 68(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a huge threat to public health. Therefore, clinical laboratories must have the ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. With the enhanced detection in Chongqing, many laboratories rapidly implemented assays for the molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays. This study aimed to improve the detection capabilities of clinical laboratories by evaluating their performance for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection through the external quality assessment (EQA) programs of 2020 in Chongqing to contribute to the prevention of this epidemic. METHODS: The EQA panels consist of eight positive samples with concentrations within 2.7 - 5.0 log10 copies/mL quantified by digital PCR and two negative samples with other human coronaviruses clinically validated by four commercial assays. All 21 samples from four rounds were distributed to the participating laboratories through cold-chain transportation. Depending on the results from each sample, laboratories were asked to use one or two assays to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Test results and raw data were also required. All data were evaluated, and the testing performance of commercial assays was compared. For the rounds, all laboratories used commercial assays. RESULTS: Four rounds of EQA programs were performed, and the percent agreements of participants were 97.5% (39/40), 97.5% (39/40), 98.9% (88/89), 100.0% (131/131). Only three false negative results and one false positive result were obtained. Statistical significance in the Ct values of the ORF region and N region of SARS-CoV-2-RNA was found by using one-step, one-step concentration, and magnetic bead methods (p < 0.05). The Ct values of the ORF region of SARS-CoV-2-RNA in P5 and P6 were significantly different in the different batches of reagent A (p < 0.05). The ORF region of SARS-CoV-2-RNA was not detected in a batch of reagent B. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of laboratories in Chongqing have reliable diagnostic ability for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Our data emphasized the importance of EQA for monitoring the performance of clinical laboratories. However, clinical laboratories must first effectively evaluate the performance of reagents prior to their use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 200: 113900, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588212

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the major shortcoming of healthcare systems globally in their inability to diagnose the disease rapidly and accurately. At present, the molecular approaches for diagnosing COVID-19 primarily use reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to create and amplify cDNA from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Although molecular tests are reported to be specific, false negatives are quite common. Furthermore, literally all these tests require a step involving RNA isolation which does not make them point-of-care (POC) in the true sense. Here, we report a lateral flow strip-based RNA extraction and amplification-free nucleic acid test (NAT) for rapid diagnosis of positive COVID-19 cases at POC. The assay uses highly specific 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) and biotin labeled antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) as probes those are designed to target N-gene sequence of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we utilized cysteamine capped gold-nanoparticles (Cyst-AuNPs) to augment the signal further for enhanced sensitivity. Without any large-stationary equipment and highly trained staffers, the entire sample-to-answer approach in our case would take less than 30 min from a patient swab sample collection to final diagnostic result. Moreover, when evaluated with 60 clinical samples and verified with an FDA-approved TaqPath RT-PCR kit for COVID-19 diagnosis, the assay obtained almost 99.99% accuracy and specificity. We anticipate that the newly established low-cost amplification-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA will aid in the development of a platform technology for rapid and POC diagnosis of COVID-19 and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Testing , Gold , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 200: 113925, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588208

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is raging, seriously threatening people's lives. The establishment of rapid and accurate pathogen detection technology is not only critical in this epidemic, but also a reminder that we must always be prepared for possible future outbreaks. Therefore, we developed a Palm Germ-Radar (PaGeR) device for rapid and simple detection of COVID-19 from extracted patient sample RNA by RT-LAMP. The whole procedure of rapid COVID-19 detection is based on 4 simple steps: inactivation, extraction, amplification, and detection. SARS-CoV-2 down to 1 copy/µL could be detected selectively with naked-eye. Three detection methods (colorimetric, fluorometric and lateral dipstick readout) could be performed in PaGeR instrument. By employing the PaGeR, we successfully detected SARS-CoV-2 in clinical RNA samples isolated from swab specimens. The results showed that 15 out of 17 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as positive while all 55 normal samples were diagnosed as negative. Therefore, the developed PaGeR instrument can realize the detection of COVID-19 with easily visualized results, providing a promising instrument for rapid detection in the community as well as at home.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Radar , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24234, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585791

ABSTRACT

The main strategy for response and control of COVID-19 demands the use of rapid, accurate diagnostic tests aimed at the first point of health care. During the emergency, an increase in asymptomatic and symptomatic cases results in a great demand for molecular tests, which is promoting the development and application of rapid diagnostic technologies. In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of RT-LAMP to detect SARS-CoV-2 based on three genes (ORF1ab, M and N genes) in monoplex and triplex format. RT-LAMP assays were compared with the gold standard method RT-qPCR. The triplex format (RdRp, M and N genes) allowed obtaining comparable results with de RT-qPCR (RdRp and E genes), presented a sensitivity of 98.9% and a specificity of 97.9%, opening the opportunity to apply this method to detect SARS-CoV-2 at primary health-care centers.


Subject(s)
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...