Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 92
Filter
1.
Adv Virus Res ; 107: 383-416, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679455

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the global COVID-19 outbreak has once again made coronaviruses a hot topic. Vaccines are hoped to be an effective way to stop the spread of the virus. However, there are no clinically approved vaccines available for coronavirus infections. Reverse genetics technology can realize the operation of RNA virus genomes at the DNA level and provide new ideas and strategies for the development of new vaccines. In this review, we systematically describe the role of reverse genetics technology in studying the effects of coronavirus proteins on viral virulence and innate immunity, cell and tissue tropism and antiviral drug screening. An efficient reverse genetics platform is useful for obtaining the ideal attenuated strain to prepare an attenuated live vaccine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Genetics/methods
2.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7617-7627, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647565

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands its rapid, convenient, and large-scale diagnosis to downregulate its spread within as well as across the communities. But the reliability, reproducibility, and selectivity of majority of such diagnostic tests fail when they are tested either to a viral load at its early representation or to a viral gene mutated during its current spread. In this regard, a selective "naked-eye" detection of SARS-CoV-2 is highly desirable, which can be tested without accessing any advanced instrumental techniques. We herein report the development of a colorimetric assay based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), when capped with suitably designed thiol-modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) specific for N-gene (nucleocapsid phosphoprotein) of SARS-CoV-2, could be used for diagnosing positive COVID-19 cases within 10 min from the isolated RNA samples. The thiol-modified ASO-capped AuNPs agglomerate selectively in the presence of its target RNA sequence of SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrate a change in its surface plasmon resonance. Further, the addition of RNaseH cleaves the RNA strand from the RNA-DNA hybrid leading to a visually detectable precipitate from the solution mediated by the additional agglomeration among the AuNPs. The selectivity of the assay has been monitored in the presence of MERS-CoV viral RNA with a limit of detection of 0.18 ng/µL of RNA having SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Thus, the current study reports a selective and visual "naked-eye" detection of COVID-19 causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, without the requirement of any sophisticated instrumental techniques.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Colorimetry/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genes, Viral , Gold , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(26)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639489

ABSTRACT

Following SARS-CoV-2 emergence in China, a specific surveillance was implemented in France. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences retrieved through this surveillance suggests that detected initial introductions, involving non-clade G viruses, did not seed local transmission. Nevertheless, identification of clade G variants subsequently circulating in the country, with the earliest from a patient who neither travelled to risk areas nor had contact with travellers, suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might have been present before the first recorded local cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Sentinel Surveillance , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , France/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Theranostics ; 10(16): 7150-7162, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639991

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in Wuhan, China. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the seventh coronavirus known to infect humans, is highly contagious and has rapidly expanded worldwide since its discovery. Quantitative nucleic acid testing has become the gold standard for diagnosis and guiding clinical decisions regarding the use of antiviral therapy. However, the RT-qPCR assays targeting SARS-CoV-2 have a number of challenges, especially in terms of primer design. Primers are the pivotal components of a RT-qPCR assay. Once virus mutation and recombination occur, it is difficult to effectively diagnose viral infection by existing RT-qPCR primers. Some primers and probes have also been made available on the WHO website for reference. However, no previous review has systematically compared the previously reported primers and probes and described how to design new primers in the event of a new coronavirus infection. This review focuses on how primers and probes can be designed methodically and rationally, and how the sensitivity and specificity of the detection process can be improved. This brief review will be useful for the accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of the new coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Base Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Design , Genes, Viral , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA/chemistry , RNA Probes/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Sensitivity and Specificity , Theranostic Nanomedicine
5.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(7): 871-875, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630204

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic sweeps across the world, the availability of viral transport medium (VTM) has become severely limited, contributing to delays in diagnosis and rationing of diagnostic testing. Given that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA has demonstrated stability, we posited that phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) may be a viable transport medium, as an alternative to VTM, for clinical real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) testing. The intra-individual reliability and interindividual reliability of SARS-CoV-2 qPCR were assessed in clinical endotracheal secretion samples transported in VTM or PBS to evaluate the stability of the qPCR signal for three viral targets (N gene, ORF1ab, and S gene) when samples were stored in these media at room temperature for up to 18 hours. We report that the use of PBS as a transport medium allows high intra-individual and interindividual reliability, maintains viral stability, and compares with VTM in the detection of the three SARS-CoV-2 genes through 18 hours of storage. This study establishes PBS as a clinically useful medium that can be readily deployed for transporting and short-term preservation of specimens containing SARS-CoV-2. Use of PBS as a transport medium has the potential to increase testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2, aiding more widespread screening and early diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Saline Solution/chemistry , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Cultivation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Preservation, Biological , RNA, Viral/genetics
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 164: 112316, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628702

ABSTRACT

Recent research suggests that SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals can be highly infectious while asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic, and that an infected person may infect 5.6 other individuals on average. This situation highlights the need for rapid, sensitive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assays capable of high-throughput operation that can preferably utilize existing equipment to facilitate broad, large-scale screening efforts. We have developed a CRISPR-based assay that can meet all these criteria. This assay utilizes a custom CRISPR Cas12a/gRNA complex and a fluorescent probe to detect target amplicons produced by standard RT-PCR or isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), to allow sensitive detection at sites not equipped with real-time PCR systems required for qPCR diagnostics. We found this approach allowed sensitive and robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples, with a sample-to-answer time of ~50 min, and a limit of detection of 2 copies per sample. CRISPR assay diagnostic results obtained nasal swab samples of individuals with suspected COVID-19 cases were comparable to paired results from a CDC-approved quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay performed in a state testing lab, and superior to those produced by same assay in a clinical lab, where the RT-qPCR assay exhibited multiple invalid or inconclusive results. Our assay also demonstrated greater analytical sensitivity and more robust diagnostic performance than other recently reported CRISPR-based assays. Based on these findings, we believe that a CRISPR-based fluorescent application has potential to improve current COVID-19 screening efforts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fluorescent Dyes , Genes, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Virol J ; 17(1): 86, 2020 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618211

ABSTRACT

The need for timely establishment of a complete diagnostic protocol of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is demanded worldwide. We selected 15 positive novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients with mild or no symptom. Initially, fecal samples were negative in the 67% (10/15) of the cases, while 33% (5/10) of the cases were positive. After serial virus RNA testing, 73% (11/15) of the cases resulted positive to fecal specimens. In particular, 15 days after the first positive respiratory specimens test, 6 fecal specimens became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, while 13 respiratory test returned negative result. In conclusion, qRT-PCR assays of fecal specimens, is an important step to control infection, suggesting that samples remained positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA longer time then respiratory tract samples. Our results enhance the recent knowledge on this emerging infectious disease and offer suggestions for a more complete diagnostic strategy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , Time Factors , Virus Shedding
8.
Pathog Dis ; 78(4)2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616775

ABSTRACT

The evidence of long-term clinical dynamic on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA re-positive case are less. We performed a 108 days follow-up on dynamic clinical presentations in a case, who hospitalized three times due to the positive recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge, to understand the prognosis of the 2019-Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this case, positive SARS-CoV-2 recurred even after apparent recovery (normal CT imaging, no clinical symptoms, negative SARS-CoV-2 on stool sample and negative serum IgM test) from COVID-19, viral shedding duration lasted for 65 days, the time from symptom onset to disappearance was up to 95 days. Erythrocyte-associated indicators, liver function and serum lipid metabolism presented abnormal throughout during the observation period. Awareness of atypical presentations such as this one is important to prompt the improvement of the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Recurrence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615846

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the acute respiratory disease COVID-19, which has become a global concern due to its rapid spread. Meanwhile, increased demand for testing has led to a shortage of reagents and supplies and compromised the performance of diagnostic laboratories in many countries. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend multi-step RT-PCR assays using multiple primer and probe pairs, which might complicate the interpretation of the test results, especially for borderline cases. In this study, we describe an alternative RT-PCR approach for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA that can be used for the probe-based detection of clinical isolates in diagnostics as well as in research labs using a low-cost SYBR green method. For the evaluation, we used samples from patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and performed RT-PCR assays along with successive dilutions of RNA standards to determine the limit of detection. We identified an M-gene binding primer and probe pair highly suitable for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for diagnostic and research purposes.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Humans , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
10.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 903-908, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613952

ABSTRACT

In this study, we collected a total of 610 hospitalized patients from Wuhan between February 2, 2020, and February 17, 2020. We reported a potentially high false negative rate of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 in the 610 hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 during the 2019 outbreak. We also found that the RT-PCR results from several tests at different points were variable from the same patients during the course of diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Our results indicate that in addition to the emphasis on RT-PCR testing, clinical indicators such as computed tomography images should also be used not only for diagnosis and treatment but also for isolation, recovery/discharge, and transferring for hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 during the current epidemic. These results suggested the urgent needs for the standard of procedures of sampling from different anatomic sites, sample transportation, optimization of RT-PCR, serology diagnosis/screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and distinct diagnosis from other respiratory diseases such as fluenza infections as well.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , False Negative Reactions , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Specimen Handling/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(7): 615-617, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611908

ABSTRACT

Preliminary investigations of human corneal tissues from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cadaveric donors indicated that no severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is present. Current eye banking guidelines do not recommend any type of routine testing for SARS-CoV­2 RNA in post-mortem donor tissue. This is partly based on factors that can influence the test results of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics , Humans
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S38-S43, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has taken the world by storm in the ongoing pandemic. The virus responsible for COVID-19 disease is 'severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2' SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped RNA beta-coronavirus from the family Coronaviridae. There have been similar beta-coronavirus disease outbreaks previously: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS - 2002) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS - 2012) epidemics. SARS-CoV-2 origins have been traced to bat reservoirs. A virus with a high capacity for mutation, SARS-CoV-2 poses unique challenges both in the current form of disease control and management, while also leaving the door open for future novel diseases and pandemics. An understanding of the virion structure and genomic organisation will help us in understanding their origins and likely course of future evolution. Moreover, novel cost-effective methodologies for genetic surveillance may help in mitigating the emergence of these viral infections in future. In this manuscript, the authors have detailed the unique aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus genome and its clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Asia , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genome, Viral/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virion/genetics
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1393-1396, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607850

ABSTRACT

The RNA purification is the gold standard for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in swab samples, but it is dependent on the availability of chemical reagents. In this study, we evaluated the heat treatment method without RNA extraction as a reliable option to nucleic acid purification.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , Specimen Handling , Viral Proteins/genetics
14.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(7): 615-617, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603783

ABSTRACT

Preliminary investigations of human corneal tissues from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cadaveric donors indicated that no severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is present. Current eye banking guidelines do not recommend any type of routine testing for SARS-CoV­2 RNA in post-mortem donor tissue. This is partly based on factors that can influence the test results of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics , Humans
15.
Ann Lab Med ; 40(6): 439-447, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599917

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early detection of COVID-19 and immediate isolation of infected patients from the naive population are important to prevent further pandemic spread of the infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA is currently the most reliable diagnostic method for confirming COVID-19 worldwide. Guidelines for clinical laboratories on the COVID-19 diagnosis have been recently published by Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, these formal guidelines do not address common practical laboratory issues related to COVID-19 real-time RT-PCR testing and their solutions. Therefore, this guideline is intended as a practical and technical supplement to the "Guidelines for Laboratory Diagnosis of COVID-19 in Korea".


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Guanidines/chemistry , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Thiocyanates/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
16.
J Infect Dis ; 222(1): 38-43, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599712

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been reported in almost all countries globally. No effective therapy has been documented for COVID-19, and the role of convalescent plasma therapy is unknown. In the current study, 6 patients with COVID-19 and respiratory failure received convalescent plasma a median of 21.5 days after viral shedding was first detected, all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA within 3 days after infusion, and 5 eventually died. In conclusion, convalescent plasma treatment can end SARS-CoV-2 shedding but cannot reduce the mortality rate in critically ill patients with end-stage COVID-19, and treatment should be initiated earlier.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Virus Shedding/immunology , Adult , Aged , Blood Donors , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(14): 5661-5667, 2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598380

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses may produce severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). As a matter of fact, a new SARS-type virus, SARS-CoV-2, is responsible for the global pandemic in 2020 with unprecedented sanitary and economic consequences for most countries. In the present contribution we study, by all-atom equilibrium and enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, the interaction between the SARS Unique Domain and RNA guanine quadruplexes, a process involved in eluding the defensive response of the host thus favoring viral infection of human cells. Our results evidence two stable binding modes involving an interaction site spanning either the protein dimer interface or only one monomer. The free energy profile unequivocally points to the dimer mode as the thermodynamically favored one. The effect of these binding modes in stabilizing the protein dimer was also assessed, being related to its biological role in assisting the SARS viruses to bypass the host protective response. This work also constitutes a first step in the possible rational design of efficient therapeutic agents aiming at perturbing the interaction between SARS Unique Domain and guanine quadruplexes, hence enhancing the host defenses against the virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , G-Quadruplexes/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Dimerization , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(7): 947-954, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597734

ABSTRACT

The last day of 2019 delivered the first report to the World Health Organization (WHO) about a group of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China. Subsequent investigations identified the new comer, a novel coronavirus related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and thus was termed as SARS-CoV-2. Being very contagious, the new virus led the era of "COVID-19" which is the acronym of "coronavirus disease 2019," evoking an imminent threat to global health security with unprecedented devastating challenges to human kind. In this article, we provide a molecular overview on the SARS-CoV-2 virus and summarize tremendous efforts that have been made to develop a rapid confirmatory diagnostic test for COVID-19. The diagnostic performances of the available tests are analyzed based on the best current information from the early research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , China , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1189-1190, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596275

ABSTRACT

Public health measures are needed to resolve the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, although a looming economic fallout merits close attention. Early safe reintroduction of immune individuals into the workforce may be essential to protecting the economic welfare of communities. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing, our primary diagnostic tool to date, has sensitivity and timing concerns, owing to sampling/handling errors, as well as a complex virus-host interaction. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays do not establish immune status once the virus has been cleared. Targeted serosurveillance for the determination of individuals' potential for transmissibility, particularly if paired with direct pathogen testing, may aid in "cleared for business" decision-making.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoassay/standards , Immunologic Surveillance , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , United States/epidemiology
20.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594583

ABSTRACT

Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Farms , Mink , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/veterinary , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Genome, Viral , Netherlands , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL