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1.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 75(6): 321-332, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878523

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most dangerous pathogens commonly associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Sortase A is considered as a promising molecular target for the development of antistaphylococcal agents. Using hybrid virtual screening approach and FRET analysis, we have identified five compounds able to decrease the activity of sortase A by more than 50% at the concentration of 200 µM. The most promising compound was 2-(2-amino-3-chloro-benzoylamino)-benzoic acid which was able to inhibit S. aureus sortase A at the IC50 value of 59.7 µM. This compound was selective toward sortase A compared to other four cysteine proteases - cathepsin L, cathepsin B, rhodesain, and the SARS-CoV2 main protease. Microscale thermophoresis experiments confirmed that this compound bound sortase A with KD value of 189 µM. Antibacterial and antibiofilm assays also confirmed high specificity of the hit compound against two standard and three wild-type, S. aureus hospital infection isolates. The effect of the compound on biofilms produced by two S. aureus ATCC strains was also observed suggesting that the compound reduced biofilm formation by changing the biofilm structure and thickness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Staphylococcal Infections , Aminoacyltransferases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biofilms , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA, Viral/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 149(3): 81-84, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796436

ABSTRACT

Ciclesonide (Cic) is approved as an inhalant for asthma and was clinically tested as a candidate therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Its active metabolite Cic2 was recently reported to suppress genomic RNA replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this study, we designed and synthesized a set of ciclesonide-acetal (Cic-acetal) derivatives. Among designated compounds, some Cic-acetal derivatives with a linear alkyl chain exhibited strong viral copy-number reduction activities compared with Cic2. These compounds might serve as lead compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Acetals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pregnenediones , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/genetics
3.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(2): 115-118, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714695

ABSTRACT

In the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin II (AngII) converted by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) exerts a strong physiological activity via the AT1 receptor (AT1R). Thus, the ACE-AngII-AT1R axis positively regulates RAS. On the other hand, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is known to negatively regulate RAS by degrading AngII into angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7). In the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is characterized by pulmonary hyperinflammation, the AngII-AT1R axis acts to exacerbate ARDS and the ACE2-AT2R axis acts protectively. More recently, ACE2 has been shown to be a receptor for SARS-CoV, the causative virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and SARS-CoV2, the causative virus of the 2019 coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Therefore, inhibition of the binding between ACE2 and virus spike protein is a drug discovery target for antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2. In addition, when SARS and COVID-19 become severe, ARDS with cytokine storm is occured. We reported that soluble ACE2 protein and microbial-derived ACE2 like enzyme suppress pulmonary hyperinflammation due to SARS and COVID-19, respectively. In addition, it has been reported that the ACE2-soluble protein has an effect of suppressing the establishment of infection by inhibiting the binding between SARS-CoV2 and the cell membrane surface ACE2. Here, we describe the role of ACE2 in the pathophysiology of SARS/COVID-19 from the perspectives of inhibiting the progression to ARDS by suppressing pulmonary inflammation and suppressing the replication of the virus by inhibiting the binding of ACE2 to the spike protein.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA, Viral/pharmacology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
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