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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(5): 2509-2521, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722548

ABSTRACT

Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral intermediates specifically activate the IFN response through MDA5-mediated sensing and accordingly induce ADAR1 p150 expression, which might lead to viral A-to-I RNA editing. Here, we developed an RNA virus-specific editing identification pipeline, surveyed 7622 RNA-seq data from diverse types of samples infected with SARS-CoV-2, and constructed an atlas of A-to-I RNA editing sites in SARS-CoV-2. We found that A-to-I editing was dynamically regulated, varied between tissue and cell types, and was correlated with the intensity of innate immune response. On average, 91 editing events were deposited at viral dsRNA intermediates per sample. Moreover, editing hotspots were observed, including recoding sites in the spike gene that affect viral infectivity and antigenicity. Finally, we provided evidence that RNA editing accelerated SARS-CoV-2 evolution in humans during the epidemic. Our study highlights the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to hijack components of the host antiviral machinery to edit its genome and fuel its evolution, and also provides a framework and resource for studying viral RNA editing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , RNA Editing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Base Sequence , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Mutation , Protein Binding , RNA Editing/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2420, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684102

ABSTRACT

The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is known to restrict viral replication by binding to the CpG rich regions of viral RNA, and subsequently inducing viral RNA degradation. This enzyme has recently been shown to be capable of restricting SARS-CoV-2. These data have led to the hypothesis that the low abundance of CpG in the SARS-CoV-2 genome is due to an evolutionary pressure exerted by the host ZAP. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed a detailed analysis of many coronavirus sequences and ZAP RNA binding preference data. Our analyses showed neither evidence for an evolutionary pressure acting specifically on CpG dinucleotides, nor a link between the activity of ZAP and the low CpG abundance of the SARS-CoV-2 genome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Dinucleoside Phosphates/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Dinucleoside Phosphates/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Nucleotide Motifs/genetics , Protein Binding , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642083

ABSTRACT

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) are RNA-editing enzymes that may restrict viral infection. We have utilized deep sequencing to determine adenosine to guanine (A→G) mutations, signifying ADAR activity, in clinical samples retrieved from 93 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. A→G mutations were detected in 0.035% (median) of RNA residues and were predominantly nonsynonymous. These mutations were rarely detected in the major viral population but were abundant in minor viral populations in which A→G was more prevalent than any other mutation (P < 0.001). The A→G substitutions accumulated in the spike protein gene at positions corresponding to amino acids 505 to 510 in the receptor binding motif and at amino acids 650 to 655. The frequency of A→G mutations in minor viral populations was significantly associated with low viral load (P < 0.001). We additionally analyzed A→G mutations in 288,247 SARS-CoV-2 major (consensus) sequences representing the dominant viral population. The A→G mutations observed in minor viral populations in the initial patient cohort were increasingly detected in European consensus sequences between March and June 2020 (P < 0.001) followed by a decline of these mutations in autumn and early winter (P < 0.001). We propose that ADAR-induced deamination of RNA is a significant source of mutated SARS-CoV-2 and hypothesize that the degree of RNA deamination may determine or reflect viral fitness and infectivity.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Point Mutation , RNA Editing , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Deamination , Female , Genetic Fitness , Genome, Viral , Guanine/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sweden/epidemiology , Viral Load , Virulence
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(3): 1551-1561, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636373

ABSTRACT

During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, large-scale genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has been useful in tracking its spread and in identifying variants of concern (VOC). Viral and host factors could contribute to variability within a host that can be captured in next-generation sequencing reads as intra-host single nucleotide variations (iSNVs). Analysing 1347 samples collected till June 2020, we recorded 16 410 iSNV sites throughout the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We found ∼42% of the iSNV sites to be reported as SNVs by 30 September 2020 in consensus sequences submitted to GISAID, which increased to ∼80% by 30th June 2021. Following this, analysis of another set of 1774 samples sequenced in India between November 2020 and May 2021 revealed that majority of the Delta (B.1.617.2) and Kappa (B.1.617.1) lineage-defining variations appeared as iSNVs before getting fixed in the population. Besides, mutations in RdRp as well as RNA-editing by APOBEC and ADAR deaminases seem to contribute to the differential prevalence of iSNVs in hosts. We also observe hyper-variability at functionally critical residues in Spike protein that could alter the antigenicity and may contribute to immune escape. Thus, tracking and functional annotation of iSNVs in ongoing genome surveillance programs could be important for early identification of potential variants of concern and actionable interventions.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , APOBEC-1 Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Immune Evasion/genetics , India/epidemiology , Phylogeny , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 364, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617003

ABSTRACT

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) interact with and determine the fate of many cellular RNAs directing numerous essential roles in cellular physiology. Nuclear Factor 90 (NF90) is an RBP encoded by the interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3 (ILF3) gene that has been found to influence RNA metabolism at several levels, including pre-RNA splicing, mRNA turnover, and translation. To systematically identify the RNAs that interact with NF90, we carried out iCLIP (individual-nucleotide resolution UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation) analysis in the human embryonic fibroblast cell line HEK-293. Interestingly, many of the identified RNAs encoded proteins involved in the response to viral infection and RNA metabolism. We validated a subset of targets and investigated the impact of NF90 on their expression levels. Two of the top targets, IRF3 and IRF9 mRNAs, encode the proteins IRF3 and IRF9, crucial regulators of the interferon pathway involved in the SARS-CoV-2 immune response. Our results support a role for NF90 in modulating key genes implicated in the immune response and offer insight into the immunological response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Immunoprecipitation/methods , Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/genetics , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/metabolism , Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins/genetics , Protein Binding , RNA/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580896

ABSTRACT

ADAR1-mediated deamination of adenosines in long double-stranded RNAs plays an important role in modulating the innate immune response. However, recent investigations based on metatranscriptomic samples of COVID-19 patients and SARS-COV-2-infected Vero cells have recovered contrasting findings. Using RNAseq data from time course experiments of infected human cell lines and transcriptome data from Vero cells and clinical samples, we prove that A-to-G changes observed in SARS-COV-2 genomes represent genuine RNA editing events, likely mediated by ADAR1. While the A-to-I editing rate is generally low, changes are distributed along the entire viral genome, are overrepresented in exonic regions, and are (in the majority of cases) nonsynonymous. The impact of RNA editing on virus-host interactions could be relevant to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , RNA Editing , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deamination , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inosine/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/immunology , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome , Vero Cells
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105188, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568934

ABSTRACT

The best and most effective way to combat pandemics is to use effective vaccines and live attenuated vaccines are among the most effective vaccines. However, one of the major problems is the length of time it takes to get the attenuated vaccines. Today, the CRISPR toolkit (Clustered Regularly Inerspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) has made it possible to make changes with high efficiency and speed. Using this toolkit to make point mutations on the RNA virus's genome in a coculture of permissive and nonpermissive cells and under controlled conditions can accelerate changes in the genome and accelerate natural selection to obtain live attenuated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , Endonucleases/genetics , Endonucleases/immunology , Gene Expression , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Proteins/immunology
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 586: 137-142, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520712

ABSTRACT

Nuclear pore complexes (NPC) regulate molecular traffics on nuclear envelope, which plays crucial roles during cell fate specification and diseases. The viral accessory protein NSP9 of SARS-CoV-2 is reported to interact with nucleoporin 62 (NUP62), a structural component of the NPC, but its biological impact on the host cell remain obscure. Here, we established new cell line models with ectopic NSP9 expression and determined the subcellular destination and biological functions of NSP9. Confocal imaging identified NSP9 to be largely localized in close proximity to the endoplasmic reticulum. In agreement with the subcellular distribution of NSP9, association of NSP9 with NUP62 was observed in cytoplasm. Furthermore, the overexpression of NSP9 correlated with a reduction of NUP62 expression on the nuclear envelope, suggesting that attenuating NUP62 expression might have contributed to defective NPC formation. Importantly, the loss of NUP62 impaired translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, upon TNF-α stimulation. Concordantly, NSP9 over-expression blocked p65 nuclear transport. Taken together, these data shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of host cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HeLa Cells , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Models, Biological , Nuclear Envelope/metabolism , Nuclear Envelope/virology , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
9.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487424

ABSTRACT

As the first intracellular host factors that directly interact with the genomes of RNA viruses, RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have a profound impact on the outcome of an infection. Recent discoveries brought about by new methodologies have led to an unprecedented ability to peer into the earliest events between viral RNA and the RBPs that act upon them. These discoveries have sparked a re-evaluation of current paradigms surrounding RBPs and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Here, we highlight questions that have bloomed from the implementation of these novel approaches. Canonical RBPs can impact the fates of both cellular and viral RNA during infection, sometimes in conflicting ways. Noncanonical RBPs, some of which were first characterized via interactions with viral RNA, may encompass physiological roles beyond viral pathogenesis. We discuss how these RBPs might discriminate between an RNA of either cellular or viral origin and thus exert either pro- or antiviral effects-which is a particular challenge as viruses contain mechanisms to mimic molecular features of cellular RNA.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Proviruses/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Proviruses/genetics , RNA Viruses , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 401, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486593

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus causing severe respiratory illness (COVID-19). This virus was initially identified in Wuhan city, a populated area of the Hubei province in China, and still remains one of the major global health challenges. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing that plays a crucial role in innate viral defense mechanisms by inhibiting the virus replication as well as expression of various viral proteins. Dicer, Drosha, Ago2, and DGCR8 are essential components of the RNAi system, which is supposed to be dysregulated in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the expression level of the mentioned mRNAs in COVID-19patients compared to healthy individuals. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that the expression of Dicer, Drosha, and Ago2 was statistically altered in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects. Ultimately, the RNA interference mechanism as a crucial antiviral defense system was suggested to be dysregulated in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , RNA Interference , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pathol Res Pract ; 228: 153647, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458650

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is more serious in people with underlying diseases, but the cause of healthy people with progressive disease is largely unknown. Host genetic factors such as ACE2 variants, IFITM-3, HLA, TMRSS2, and furin polymorphisms appear to be one of the agents involved in the progression of the COVID-19 and outcome of the disease. This review discusses the general characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, including viral features, receptors, cell entry, clinical findings, and the main human genetic factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and get the patients' situation more complex. Further knowledge in this context may help to find a way to prevent and treat this viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Furin/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 513-520, 2020 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454163

ABSTRACT

The alternative splicing is a mechanism increasing the number of expressed proteins and a variety of these functions. We uncovered the protein domains most frequently lacked or occurred in the splice variants. Proteins presented by several isoforms participate in such processes as transcription regulation, immune response, etc. Our results displayed the association of alternative splicing with branched regulatory pathways. By considering the published data on the protein proteins encoded by the 18th human chromosome, we noted that alternative products display the differences in several functional features, such as phosphorylation, subcellular location, ligand specificity, protein-protein interactions, etc. The investigation of alternative variants referred to the protein kinase domain was performed by comparing the alternative sequences with 3D structures. It was shown that large enough insertions/deletions could be compatible with the kinase fold if they match between the conserved secondary structures. Using the 3D data on human proteins, we showed that conformational flexibility could accommodate fold alterations in splice variants. The investigations of structural and functional differences in splice isoforms are required to understand how to distinguish the isoforms expressed as functioning proteins from the non-realized transcripts. These studies allow filling the gap between genomic and proteomic data.


Subject(s)
Alternative Splicing , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 , Databases, Protein , RNA-Binding Proteins , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18/metabolism , Humans , Protein Structure, Secondary , Proteomics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387195
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4584, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387354

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs 1, 2 and 3) can restrict viral pathogens, but pro- and anti-viral activities have been reported for coronaviruses. Here, we show that artificial overexpression of IFITMs blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, endogenous IFITM expression supports efficient infection of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells. Our results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein interacts with IFITMs and hijacks them for efficient viral infection. IFITM proteins were expressed and further induced by interferons in human lung, gut, heart and brain cells. IFITM-derived peptides and targeting antibodies inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in human lung cells, cardiomyocytes and gut organoids. Our results show that IFITM proteins are cofactors for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cell types representing in vivo targets for viral transmission, dissemination and pathogenesis and are potential targets for therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antigens, Differentiation/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects
15.
Scand J Immunol ; 94(5): e13100, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388399

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic infections in Australia during 2020 were small in number in epidemiological terms and are well described. The SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequence data of many infected patients have been largely curated in a number of publicly available databases, including the corresponding epidemiological data made available by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services. We have critically analysed the available SARS-CoV-2 haplotypes and genomic sequences in the context of putative deficits in innate immune APOBEC and ADAR deaminase anti-viral responses. It is now known that immune impaired elderly co-morbid patients display clear deficits in interferon type 1 (α/ß) and III (λ) stimulated innate immune gene cascades, of which APOBEC and ADAR induced expression are part. These deficiencies may help explain some of the clear genetic patterns in SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated in Victoria, Australia, during the 2nd Wave (June-September, 2020). We tested the hypothesis that predicted lowered innate immune APOBEC and ADAR anti-viral deaminase responses in a significant proportion of elderly patients would be consistent with/reflected in a low level of observed mutagenesis in many isolated SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Our findings are consistent with this expectation. The analysis also supports the conclusions of the Victorian government's Department of Health that essentially one variant or haplotype infected Victorian aged care facilities where the great majority (79%) of all 820 SARS-CoV-2 associated deaths occurred. The implications of our data analysis for other localized epidemics and efficient coronavirus vaccine design and delivery are discussed.


Subject(s)
APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , APOBEC Deaminases/metabolism , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Regulatory Networks , Haplotypes , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Interferon Type I/genetics , Male , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Victoria/epidemiology
16.
EMBO J ; 40(3): e106501, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389834

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) restrict infections by many viruses, but a subset of IFITMs enhance infections by specific coronaviruses through currently unknown mechanisms. We show that SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped virus and genuine SARS-CoV-2 infections are generally restricted by human and mouse IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3, using gain- and loss-of-function approaches. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 restriction occurred independently of IFITM3 S-palmitoylation, indicating a restrictive capacity distinct from reported inhibition of other viruses. In contrast, the IFITM3 amphipathic helix and its amphipathic properties were required for virus restriction. Mutation of residues within the IFITM3 endocytosis-promoting YxxФ motif converted human IFITM3 into an enhancer of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and cell-to-cell fusion assays confirmed the ability of endocytic mutants to enhance Spike-mediated fusion with the plasma membrane. Overexpression of TMPRSS2, which increases plasma membrane fusion versus endosome fusion of SARS-CoV-2, attenuated IFITM3 restriction and converted amphipathic helix mutants into infection enhancers. In sum, we uncover new pro- and anti-viral mechanisms of IFITM3, with clear distinctions drawn between enhancement of viral infection at the plasma membrane and amphipathicity-based mechanisms used for endosomal SARS-CoV-2 restriction.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Mice , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases , Virus Internalization
17.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389549

ABSTRACT

The product of the interferon-stimulated gene C19orf66, Shiftless (SHFL), restricts human immunodeficiency virus replication through downregulation of the efficiency of the viral gag/pol frameshifting signal. In this study, we demonstrate that bacterially expressed, purified SHFL can decrease the efficiency of programmed ribosomal frameshifting in vitro at a variety of sites, including the RNA pseudoknot-dependent signals of the coronaviruses IBV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and the protein-dependent stimulators of the cardioviruses EMCV and TMEV. SHFL also reduced the efficiency of stop-codon readthrough at the murine leukemia virus gag/pol signal. Using size-exclusion chromatography, we confirm the binding of the purified protein to mammalian ribosomes in vitro. Finally, through electrophoretic mobility shift assays and mutational analysis, we show that expressed SHFL has strong RNA binding activity that is necessary for full activity in the inhibition of frameshifting, but shows no clear specificity for stimulatory RNA structures.


Subject(s)
Codon, Terminator/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Base Sequence , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , Leukemia Virus, Murine/genetics , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Replication
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 732, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322464

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by symptoms of lymphopenia and multiorgan damage, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the function of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in COVID-19, we performed microarray analyses to comprehensively characterize the m6A epitranscriptome. The results revealed distinct global m6A profiles in severe and mild COVID-19 patients. Programmed cell death and inflammatory response were the major biological processes modulated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Further, RBM15, a major m6A methyltransferase, was significantly elevated and positively correlated with disease severity. Silencing RBM15 drastically reduced lymphocyte death in vitro. Knockdown of RBM15 remarkably suppressed the expression levels of multitarget genes related to programmed cell death and inflammatory response. This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 infection alters the m6A epitranscriptome of lymphocytes, particularly in the case of severe patients. RBM15 regulated host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 by elevating m6A modifications of multitarget genes. These findings indicate that RBM15 can serve as a target for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptome , Adenosine/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , THP-1 Cells
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253458, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286869

ABSTRACT

L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is the most significantly co-expressed gene with ACE2, which encodes for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the interferon-inducible truncated isoform dACE2. Our group previously showed the importance of DDC in viral infections. We hereby aimed to investigate DDC expression in COVID-19 patients and cultured SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, also in association with ACE2 and dACE2. We concurrently evaluated the expression of the viral infection- and interferon-stimulated gene ISG56 and the immune-modulatory, hypoxia-regulated gene EPO. Viral load and mRNA levels of DDC, ACE2, dACE2, ISG56 and EPO were quantified by RT-qPCR in nasopharyngeal swab samples from COVID-19 patients, showing no or mild symptoms, and from non-infected individuals. Samples from influenza-infected patients were analyzed in comparison. SARS-CoV-2-mediated effects in host gene expression were validated in cultured virus-permissive epithelial cells. We found substantially higher gene expression of DDC in COVID-19 patients (7.6-fold; p = 1.2e-13) but not in influenza-infected ones, compared to non-infected subjects. dACE2 was more elevated (2.9-fold; p = 1.02e-16) than ACE2 (1.7-fold; p = 0.0005) in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. ISG56 (2.5-fold; p = 3.01e-6) and EPO (2.6-fold; p = 2.1e-13) were also increased. Detected differences were not attributed to enrichment of specific cell populations in nasopharyngeal tissue. While SARS-CoV-2 virus load was positively associated with ACE2 expression (r≥0.8, p<0.001), it negatively correlated with DDC, dACE2 (r≤-0.7, p<0.001) and EPO (r≤-0.5, p<0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant correlation between DDC and dACE2 expression was observed in nasopharyngeal swab and whole blood samples of both COVID-19 and non-infected individuals (r≥0.7). In VeroE6 cells, SARS-CoV-2 negatively affected DDC, ACE2, dACE2 and EPO mRNA levels, and induced cell death, while ISG56 was enhanced at early hours post-infection. Thus, the regulation of DDC, dACE2 and EPO expression in the SARS-CoV-2-infected nasopharyngeal tissue is possibly related with an orchestrated antiviral response of the infected host as the virus suppresses these genes to favor its propagation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Dopa Decarboxylase/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Area Under Curve , Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases , COVID-19/virology , Dopa Decarboxylase/genetics , Down-Regulation , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Erythropoietin/genetics , Erythropoietin/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Up-Regulation , Viral Load
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282298

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a devastating global pandemic, infecting over 43 million people and claiming over 1 million lives, with these numbers increasing daily. Therefore, there is urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms governing SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and disease progression. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can block IRF3 and NF-κB activation early during virus infection. We also identify that the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins NSP1 and NSP13 can block interferon activation via distinct mechanisms. NSP1 antagonizes interferon signaling by suppressing host mRNA translation, while NSP13 downregulates interferon and NF-κB promoter signaling by limiting TBK1 and IRF3 activation, as phospho-TBK1 and phospho-IRF3 protein levels are reduced with increasing levels of NSP13 protein expression. NSP13 can also reduce NF-κB activation by both limiting NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Last, we also show that NSP13 binds to TBK1 and downregulates IFIT1 protein expression. Collectively, these data illustrate that SARS-CoV-2 bypasses multiple innate immune activation pathways through distinct mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Nucleus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/genetics , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Nucleus/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Phosphorylation/genetics , Phosphorylation/immunology , /immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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