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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1722, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773975

ABSTRACT

The rapidly growing popularity of RNA structure probing methods is leading to increasingly large amounts of available RNA structure information. This demands the development of efficient tools for the identification of RNAs sharing regions of structural similarity by direct comparison of their reactivity profiles, hence enabling the discovery of conserved structural features. We here introduce SHAPEwarp, a largely sequence-agnostic SHAPE-guided algorithm for the identification of structurally-similar regions in RNA molecules. Analysis of Dengue, Zika and coronavirus genomes recapitulates known regulatory RNA structures and identifies novel highly-conserved structural elements. This work represents a preliminary step towards the model-free search and identification of shared and conserved RNA structural features within transcriptomes.


Subject(s)
Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Algorithms , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA, Guide , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Zika Virus/genetics
2.
Elife ; 112022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716085

ABSTRACT

Methyltransferase like-3 (METTL3) and METTL14 complex transfers a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to N6 amino group of adenosine bases in RNA (m6A) and DNA (m6dA). Emerging evidence highlights a role of METTL3-METTL14 in the chromatin context, especially in processes where DNA and RNA are held in close proximity. However, a mechanistic framework about specificity for substrate RNA/DNA and their interrelationship remain unclear. By systematically studying methylation activity and binding affinity to a number of DNA and RNA oligos with different propensities to form inter- or intra-molecular duplexes or single-stranded molecules in vitro, we uncover an inverse relationship for substrate binding and methylation and show that METTL3-METTL14 preferentially catalyzes the formation of m6dA in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), despite weaker binding affinity to DNA. In contrast, it binds structured RNAs with high affinity, but methylates the target adenosine in RNA (m6A) much less efficiently than it does in ssDNA. We also show that METTL3-METTL14-mediated methylation of DNA is largely restricted by structured RNA elements prevalent in long noncoding and other cellular RNAs.


Subject(s)
DNA Methylation/physiology , Methyltransferases/metabolism , DNA, Single-Stranded/metabolism , Deoxyadenosines/metabolism , Humans , RNA/chemistry , RNA/metabolism
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 601: 129-136, 2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699331

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has been spreading worldwide for more than two years and has led to immense challenges to human health. Despite the great efforts that have been made, our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 is still limited. The viral helicase, NSP13 is an important enzyme involved in SARS-CoV-2 replication and transcription. Here we highlight the important role of the stalk domain in the enzymatic activity of NSP13. Without the stalk domain, NSP13 loses its dsRNA unwinding ability due to the lack of ATPase activity. The stalk domain of NSP13 also provides a rigid connection between the ZBD and helicase domain. We found that the tight connection between the stalk and helicase is necessary for NSP13-mediated dsRNA unwinding. When a short flexible linker was inserted between the stalk and helicase domains, the helicase activity of NSP13 was impaired, although its ATPase activity remained intact. Further study demonstrated that linker insertion between the stalk and helicase domains attenuated the RNA binding ability and affected the thermal stability of NSP13. In summary, our results suggest the crucial role of the stalk domain in NSP13 enzymatic activity and provide mechanistic insight into dsRNA unwinding by SARS-CoV-2 NSP13.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme Stability , Humans , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/genetics , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Conformation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Temperature , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 203: 466-480, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630871

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N) is a multifunctional promiscuous nucleic acid-binding protein, which plays a major role in nucleocapsid assembly and discontinuous RNA transcription, facilitating the template switch of transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRS). Here, we dissect the structural features of the N protein N-terminal domain (N-NTD) and N-NTD plus the SR-rich motif (N-NTD-SR) upon binding to single and double-stranded TRS DNA, as well as their activities for dsTRS melting and TRS-induced liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). Our study gives insights on the specificity for N-NTD(-SR) interaction with TRS. We observed an approximation of the triple-thymidine (TTT) motif of the TRS to ß-sheet II, giving rise to an orientation difference of ~25° between dsTRS and non-specific sequence (dsNS). It led to a local unfavorable energetic contribution that might trigger the melting activity. The thermodynamic parameters of binding of ssTRSs and dsTRS suggested that the duplex dissociation of the dsTRS in the binding cleft is entropically favorable. We showed a preference for TRS in the formation of liquid condensates when compared to NS. Moreover, our results on DNA binding may serve as a starting point for the design of inhibitors, including aptamers, against N, a possible therapeutic target essential for the virus infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Binding Sites , DNA/chemistry , DNA/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , RNA/chemistry , RNA/metabolism , Spectrum Analysis , Structure-Activity Relationship
5.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101067, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595326

ABSTRACT

N 6 -methylation of adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification and is an important post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Here, we describe a protocol for methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) to detect and quantify m6A modifications in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. The protocol is optimized for low viral RNA levels and is readily adaptable for other applications. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Immunoprecipitation/methods , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Adenosine/analysis , Adenosine/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genetic Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Methylation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(83): 10911-10914, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488037

ABSTRACT

We present Zn2+-dependent dimethyl-dipyridophenazine PNA conjugates as efficient RNA cleaving artificial enzymes. These PNAzymes display site-specific RNA cleavage with 10 minute half-lives and cleave clinically relevant RNA models.


Subject(s)
Peptide Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Phenazines/chemistry , Pyridines/chemistry , RNA/chemistry , Catalysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Ribonucleases/chemistry , Zinc/chemistry
7.
Mol Cell ; 81(21): 4467-4480.e7, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473419

ABSTRACT

Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) are a target for broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutic agents. Recently, we demonstrated that incorporation of the T-1106 triphosphate, a pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotide, into nascent RNA increases pausing and backtracking by the poliovirus RdRp. Here, by monitoring enterovirus A-71 RdRp dynamics during RNA synthesis using magnetic tweezers, we identify the "backtracked" state as an intermediate used by the RdRp for copy-back RNA synthesis and homologous recombination. Cell-based assays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments further demonstrate that the pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotide stimulates these processes during infection. These results suggest that pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotides do not induce lethal mutagenesis or chain termination but function by promoting template switching and formation of defective viral genomes. We conclude that RdRp-catalyzed intra- and intermolecular template switching can be induced by pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotides, defining an additional mechanistic class of antiviral ribonucleotides with potential for broad-spectrum activity.


Subject(s)
Pyrazines/chemistry , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Ribonucleotides/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Catalysis , Cells, Cultured , Genetic Techniques , Genome , Genome, Viral , Homologous Recombination , Humans , Kinetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis , Nucleotides/genetics , Protein Conformation , RNA/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Transgenes , Virulence
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5113, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373413

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a major threat to global health. Here, we investigate the RNA structure and RNA-RNA interactions of wildtype (WT) and a mutant (Δ382) SARS-CoV-2 in cells using Illumina and Nanopore platforms. We identify twelve potentially functional structural elements within the SARS-CoV-2 genome, observe that subgenomic RNAs can form different structures, and that WT and Δ382 virus genomes fold differently. Proximity ligation sequencing identify hundreds of RNA-RNA interactions within the virus genome and between the virus and host RNAs. SARS-CoV-2 genome binds strongly to mitochondrial and small nucleolar RNAs and is extensively 2'-O-methylated. 2'-O-methylation sites are enriched in viral untranslated regions, associated with increased virus pair-wise interactions, and are decreased in host mRNAs upon virus infection, suggesting that the virus sequesters methylation machinery from host RNAs towards its genome. These studies deepen our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity and provide a platform for targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , DNA Methylation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Small Methods ; 5(9): e2100402, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330355

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the main quest of science has been the pioneering of the groundbreaking biomedical strategies needed for achieving a personalized medicine. Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are outstanding bioactive macromolecules identified as pivotal actors in regulating a wide range of biochemical pathways. The ability to intimately control the cell fate and tissue activities makes RNA-based drugs the most fascinating family of bioactive agents. However, achieving a widespread application of RNA therapeutics in humans is still a challenging feat, due to both the instability of naked RNA and the presence of biological barriers aimed at hindering the entrance of RNA into cells. Recently, material scientists' enormous efforts have led to the development of various classes of nanostructured carriers customized to overcome these limitations. This work systematically reviews the current advances in developing the next generation of drugs based on nanotechnology-assisted RNA delivery. The features of the most used RNA molecules are presented, together with the development strategies and properties of nanostructured vehicles. Also provided is an in-depth overview of various therapeutic applications of the presented systems, including coronavirus disease vaccines and the newest trends in the field. Lastly, emerging challenges and future perspectives for nanotechnology-mediated RNA therapies are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Nanotechnology/methods , RNA/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , RNA/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305735

ABSTRACT

The frontiers of our knowledge about RNA structure are rapidly moving [...].


Subject(s)
RNA/chemistry , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA/metabolism
11.
Cell Chem Biol ; 28(5): 594-609, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271598

ABSTRACT

Initial successes in developing small molecule ligands for non-coding RNAs have underscored their potential as therapeutic targets. More recently, these successes have been aided by advances in biophysical and structural techniques for identification and characterization of more complex RNA structures; these higher-level folds present protein-like binding pockets that offer opportunities to design small molecules that could achieve a degree of selectivity often hard to obtain at the primary and secondary structure level. More specifically, identification and small molecule targeting of RNA tertiary and quaternary structures have allowed researchers to probe several human diseases and have resulted in promising clinical candidates. In this review we highlight a selection of diverse and exciting successes and the experimental approaches that led to their discovery. These studies include examples of recent developments in RNA-centric assays and ligands that provide insight into the features responsible for the affinity and biological outcome of RNA-targeted chemical probes. This report highlights the potential and emerging opportunities to selectively target RNA tertiary and quaternary structures as a route to better understand and, ultimately, treat many diseases.


Subject(s)
RNA/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Humans , Ligands , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry
12.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282535

ABSTRACT

Peptides and their synthetic analogs are a class of molecules with enormous relevance as therapeutics for their ability to interact with biomacromolecules like nucleic acids and proteins, potentially interfering with biological pathways often involved in the onset and progression of pathologies of high social impact. Nucleobase-bearing peptides (nucleopeptides) and pseudopeptides (PNAs) offer further interesting possibilities related to their nucleobase-decorated nature for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, thanks to their reported ability to target complementary DNA and RNA strands. In addition, these chimeric compounds are endowed with intriguing self-assembling properties, which are at the heart of their investigation as self-replicating materials in prebiotic chemistry, as well as their application as constituents of innovative drug delivery systems and, more generally, as novel nanomaterials to be employed in biomedicine. Herein we describe the properties of nucleopeptides, PNAs and related supramolecular systems, and summarize some of the most relevant applications of these systems.


Subject(s)
Nanostructures/chemistry , Peptide Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Animals , DNA/chemistry , Humans , Prebiotics , RNA/chemistry
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(56): 6871-6874, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281748

ABSTRACT

The trans-cleavage activity of the target-activated CRISPR/Cas12a liberated an RNA crosslinker from a molecular transducer, which facilitated the assembly of gold nanoparticles. Integration of the molecular transducer with isothermal amplification and CRISPR/Cas12a resulted in visual detection of the N gene and E gene of SARS-CoV-2 in 45 min.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genes, Viral/genetics , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Colorimetry , Cross-Linking Reagents , RNA/chemistry
14.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 155, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory viral infection with unique features including a more chronic course and systemic disease manifestations including multiple organ involvement; and there are differences in disease severity between ethnic groups. The immunological basis for disease has not been fully characterised. Analysis of whole-blood RNA expression may provide valuable information on disease pathogenesis. METHODS: We studied 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection within 10 days from onset of illness and a control group of 19 asymptomatic healthy volunteers with no known exposure to COVID-19 in the previous 14 days. Relevant demographic and clinical information was collected and a blood sample was drawn from all participants for whole-blood RNA sequencing. We evaluated differentially-expressed genes in COVID-19 patients (log2 fold change ≥ 1 versus healthy controls; false-discovery rate < 0.05) and associated protein pathways and compared these to published whole-blood signatures for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. We developed a disease score reflecting the overall magnitude of expression of internally-validated genes and assessed the relationship between the disease score and clinical disease parameters. RESULTS: We found 135 differentially-expressed genes in the patients with COVID-19 (median age 35 years; 82% male; 36% Chinese, 53% South Asian ethnicity). Of the 117 induced genes, 14 were found in datasets from RSV and 40 from influenza; 95 genes were unique to COVID-19. Protein pathways were mostly generic responses to viral infections, including apoptosis by P53-associated pathway, but also included some unique pathways such as viral carcinogenesis. There were no major qualitative differences in pathways between ethnic groups. The composite gene-expression score was correlated with the time from onset of symptoms and nasal swab qPCR CT values (both p < 0.01) but was not related to participant age, gender, ethnicity or the presence or absence of chest X-ray abnormalities (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The whole-blood transcriptome of COVID-19 has overall similarity with other respiratory infections but there are some unique pathways that merit further exploration to determine clinical relevance. The approach to a disease score may be of value, but needs further validation in a population with a greater range of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , RNA/blood , Transcriptome , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/metabolism , Carrier State/pathology , Female , Gene Ontology , Humans , Male , RNA/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Up-Regulation
16.
Chem Rev ; 121(13): 7398-7467, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243272

ABSTRACT

RNA nanotechnology is the bottom-up self-assembly of nanometer-scale architectures, resembling LEGOs, composed mainly of RNA. The ideal building material should be (1) versatile and controllable in shape and stoichiometry, (2) spontaneously self-assemble, and (3) thermodynamically, chemically, and enzymatically stable with a long shelf life. RNA building blocks exhibit each of the above. RNA is a polynucleic acid, making it a polymer, and its negative-charge prevents nonspecific binding to negatively charged cell membranes. The thermostability makes it suitable for logic gates, resistive memory, sensor set-ups, and NEM devices. RNA can be designed and manipulated with a level of simplicity of DNA while displaying versatile structure and enzyme activity of proteins. RNA can fold into single-stranded loops or bulges to serve as mounting dovetails for intermolecular or domain interactions without external linking dowels. RNA nanoparticles display rubber- and amoeba-like properties and are stretchable and shrinkable through multiple repeats, leading to enhanced tumor targeting and fast renal excretion to reduce toxicities. It was predicted in 2014 that RNA would be the third milestone in pharmaceutical drug development. The recent approval of several RNA drugs and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines by FDA suggests that this milestone is being realized. Here, we review the unique properties of RNA nanotechnology, summarize its recent advancements, describe its distinct attributes inside or outside the body and discuss potential applications in nanotechnology, medicine, and material science.


Subject(s)
Nanomedicine/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , RNA Stability , RNA/chemistry , Animals , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Thermodynamics
17.
Nat Methods ; 18(5): 439, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242026
18.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 163: 252-265, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144592

ABSTRACT

Lipid-based nanoparticles for RNA delivery (LNP-RNA) are revolutionizing the nanomedicine field, with one approved gene therapy formulation and two approved vaccines against COVID-19, as well as multiple ongoing clinical trials. As for other innovative nanopharmaceuticals (NPhs), the advancement of robust methods to assess their quality and safety profiles-in line with regulatory needs-is critical for facilitating their development and clinical translation. Asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multiple online optical detectors (MD-AF4) is considered a very versatile and robust approach for the physical characterisation of nanocarriers, and has been used successfully for measuring particle size, polydispersity and physical stability of lipid-based systems, including liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. However, the unique core structure of LNP-RNA, composed of ionizable lipids electrostatically complexed with RNA, and the relatively labile lipid-monolayer coating, is more prone to destabilization during focusing in MD-AF4 than previously characterised nanoparticles, resulting in particle aggregation and sample loss. Hence characterisation of LNP-RNA by MD-AF4 needs significant adaptation of the methods developed for liposomes. To improve the performance of MD-AF4 applied to LNP-RNA in a systematic and comprehensive manner, we have explored the use of the frit-inlet channel where, differently from the standard AF4 channel, the particles are relaxed hydrodynamically as they are injected. The absence of a focusing step minimizes contact between the particle and the membrane, reducing artefacts (e.g. sample loss, particle aggregation). Separation in a frit-inlet channel enables satisfactory reproducibility and acceptable sample recovery in the commercially available MD-AF4 instruments. In addition to slice-by-slice measurements of particle size, MD-AF4 also allows to determine particle concentration and the particle size distribution, demonstrating enhanced versatility beyond standard sizing measurements.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA/administration & dosage , RNA/chemistry , Fractionation, Field Flow/methods , Humans , Nanomedicine/methods , Particle Size , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
19.
Talanta ; 228: 122227, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100758

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection and quantification have been known to be important at various fields, from genetically modified organisms and gene expression to virus detection. For DNA molecules, digital PCR has been developed as an absolute quantification method which is not dependent on external calibrators. While when it comes to RNA molecules, reverse transcription (RT) step must be taken before PCR amplification to obtain cDNA. With different kinds of reverse transcriptase (RTase) and RT reaction conditions being used in laboratory assays, the efficiency of RT process differs a lot which led variety in quantification results of RNA molecules. In this study, we developed HPLC method combined with enzymatic digestion of RNA to nucleotides for quantification of RNA without RT process. This method was metrologically traceable to four nuceloside monophosphate (NMP) Certification Reference Materials of National Institute of Metrology, China (NIMC) for insurance of accuracy. The established method was used to evaluate the reverse transcription digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-dPCR) of three target genes of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) RNA, including open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), nucleocapsid protein (N) and envelope protein (E) gene. Three available RT kits had been evaluated and disparities were observed for the RT efficiency varied from 9% to 182%. It is thus demonstrated that HPLC combined with enzymatic digestion could be a useful method to quantify RNA molecules and evaluate RT efficiency. It is suggested that RT process should be optimized and identified in RNA quantification assays.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Phosphodiesterase I/chemistry , Proteolysis , RNA/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/standards , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Crotalinae , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Purine Nucleotides/standards , Pyrimidine Nucleotides/standards , RNA/chemistry , Reference Standards
20.
Med Hypotheses ; 149: 110543, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087147

ABSTRACT

The socio-economic implications of COVID-19 are devastating. Considerable morbidity is attributed to 'long-COVID' - an increasingly recognized complication of infection. Its diverse symptoms are reminiscent of vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition in which methylation status is compromised. We suggest why SARS-CoV-2 infection likely leads to increased methyl-group requirements and other disturbances of one-carbon metabolism. We propose these might explain the varied symptoms of long-COVID. Our suggested mechanismmight also apply to similar conditions such as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. The hypothesis is evaluable by detailed determination of vitamin B12and folate status, including serum formate as well as homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, and correlation with viral and host RNA methylation and symptomatology. If confirmed, methyl-group support should prove beneficial in such individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Folic Acid/blood , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/diagnosis , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Folic Acid Deficiency , Formates/blood , Genome, Viral , Glutathione/blood , Homocysteine/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Methylation , Methylmalonic Acid/blood , Oxidative Stress , RNA/chemistry , Serine/blood , Vitamin B 12/blood
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