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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(7)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684240

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic affected mental health and increased food insecurity across the general population, less is known about the virus's impact on college students. A fall 2020 survey of more than 100,000 students at 202 colleges and universities in 42 states reveals sociodemographic variation in self-reported infections, as well as associations between self-reported infection and food insecurity and mental health. We find that 7% of students self-reported a COVID-19 infection, with sizable differences by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parenting status, and student athlete status. Students who self-reported COVID-19 infections were more likely to experience food insecurity, anxiety, and depression. Implications for higher education institutions, policy makers, and students are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Race Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/psychology
3.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 234-238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643029

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased risk of poor health outcomes from respiratory infections, including COVID-19 illness. We used US death data to investigate changes in SCD-related mortality before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated annual age- and quarter-adjusted SCD-related mortality rates for 2014-2020. We estimated the number of excess deaths in 2020 compared with 2019 using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). We found 1023 SCD-related deaths reported in the United States during 2020, of which 86 (8.4%) were associated with COVID-19. SCD-related deaths, both associated and not associated with COVID-19, occurred most frequently among adults aged 25-59 years. The SCD-related mortality rate changed <5% year to year from 2014 to 2019 but increased 12% in 2020; the sharpest increase was among adults aged ≥60 years. The SMR comparing 2020 with 2019 was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.06-1.19). Overall, 113 (95% CI, 54-166) excess SCD-related deaths occurred in 2020.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
4.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(4): 1667-1675, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593038

ABSTRACT

In-hospital acute kidney injury (IH-AKI) has been reported in a significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 and is associated with increased disease burden and poor outcomes. However, the mechanisms of injury are not fully understood. We sought to determine the significance of race on cardiopulmonary outcomes and in-hospital mortality of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients hospitalized in Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia between February and July 2020, who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on qualitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay. We evaluated the primary composite outcome of in-hospital cardiac events, and mortality in blacks with AKI versus non-blacks with AKI. In a subgroup analysis, we evaluated the impact of AKI in all blacks and in all non-blacks. Of 293 patients, effective sample size was 267 after all exclusion criteria were applied. The mean age was 61.4 ± 16.7, 39% were female, and 75 (28.1%) had IH-AKI. In multivariable analyses, blacks with IH-AKI were not more likely to have in-hospital cardiac events (aOR 0.3, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.04-1.86, p = 0.18), require ICU stay (aOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.20-3.25, p = 0.75), acute respiratory distress syndrome (aOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.16-3.65, p = 0.74), require mechanical ventilation (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.12-2.10, p = 0.35), and in-hospital mortality (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 0.26-7.50, p = 0.70) when compared to non-blacks with IH-AKI. Regardless of race, the presence of AKI was associated with worse outcomes. Black race is not associated with higher risk of in-hospital cardiac events and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who develop AKI. However, blacks with IH-AKI are more likely to have ARDS or die from any cause when compared to blacks without IH-AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 166-173, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes associated with readmission in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched to retrieve articles on readmitted COVID-19 patients, available up to September 25, 2021. All studies comparing characteristics of readmitted and non-readmitted COVID-19 patients were included. We also included articles reporting the reasons for readmission in COVID-19 patients. Data were pooled and meta-analyzed using random or fixed-effect models, as appropriate. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the place and duration of readmission. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 4823 readmitted and 63,413 non-readmitted COVID-19 patients. The re-hospitalization rate was calculated at 9.3% with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [5.5%-15.4%], mostly associated with respiratory or cardiac complications (48% and 14%, respectively). Comorbidities including cerebrovascular disease (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.812; 95% CI [1.547-2.121]), cardiovascular (2.173 [1.545-3.057]), hypertension (1.608 [1.319-1.960]), ischemic heart disease (1.998 [1.495-2.670]), heart failure (2.556 [1.980-3.300]), diabetes (1.588 [1.443-1.747]), cancer (1.817 [1.526-2.162]), kidney disease (2.083 [1.498-2.897]), chronic pulmonary disease (1.601 [1.438-1.783]), as well as older age (1.525 [1.175-1.978]), male sex (1.155 [1.041-1.282]), and white race (1.263 [1.044-1.528]) were significantly associated with higher readmission rates (P < 0.05 for all instances). The mortality rate was significantly lower in readmitted patients (OR = 0.530 [0.329-0.855], P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Male sex, white race, comorbidities, and older age were associated with a higher risk of readmission among previously admitted COVID-19 patients. These factors can help clinicians and policy-makers predict, and conceivably reduce the risk of readmission in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Diabetes Complications , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Race Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 144-153, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559717

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe associations between neighborhood racial and economic segregation and violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. For 13 US cities, we obtained zip code-level data on 5 violence outcomes from March through July 2018 through 2020. Using negative binomial regressions and marginal contrasts, we estimated differences between quintiles of racial, economic, and racialized economic segregation using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes as a measure of neighborhood privilege (1) in 2020 and (2) relative to 2018 through 2019 (difference-in-differences). Results. In 2020, violence was higher in less-privileged neighborhoods than in the most privileged. For example, if all zip codes were in the least privileged versus most privileged quintile of racialized economic segregation, we estimated 146.2 additional aggravated assaults (95% confidence interval = 112.4, 205.8) per zip code on average across cities. Differences over time in less-privileged zip codes were greater than differences over time in the most privileged for firearm violence, aggravated assault, and homicide. Conclusions. Marginalized communities endure endemically high levels of violence. The events of 2020 exacerbated disparities in several forms of violence. Public Health Implications. To reduce violence and related disparities, immediate and long-term investments in low-income neighborhoods of color are warranted. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):144-153. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306540).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gun Violence/statistics & numerical data , Race Factors , Residence Characteristics/classification , Social Segregation , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Homicide/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Theft/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs may be at elevated SARS-CoV-2 risk due to their living conditions and/or exposures when seeking or using drugs. No study to date has reported upon risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among people who inject drugs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between October, 2020 and June, 2021, participants aged ≥18 years from San Diego, California, USA and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico who injected drugs within the last month underwent interviews and testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies. Binomial regressions identified correlates of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Of 386 participants, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 36.3% (95% CI: 31.5%-41.1%); 92.1% had detectable IgM antibodies. Only 37.5% had previously been tested. Seroprevalence did not differ by country of residence. None tested RNA-positive. Most (89.5%) reported engaging in ≥1 protective behavior [e.g., facemasks (73.5%), social distancing (46.5%), or increasing handwashing/sanitizers (22.8%)]. In a multivariate model controlling for sex, older age, and Hispanic/Latinx/Mexican ethnicity were independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, as was engaging in sex work (AdjRR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.18-2.27) and having been incarcerated in the past six months (AdjRR: 1.49; 95% CI: 0.97-2.27). Comorbidities and substance using behaviors were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based study of people who inject drugs in the San Diego-Tijuana border region, over one third were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, exceeding estimates from the general population in either city. We found no evidence that substance use behaviors were associated with an elevated risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but observed that circumstances in the risk environment, notably sex work and incarceration, were independently associated with higher SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. Our findings suggest that a binational policy response to COVID-19 mitigation is warranted beyond the closure of the U.S.-Mexico border. Furthermore, decriminalizing sex work and drug use could reduce the burden of COVID-19 among people who inject drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , California , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259676, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound physical and mental health effects on populations around the world. Limited empirical research has used a gender-based lens to evaluate the mental health impacts of the pandemic, overlooking the impact of public health measures on marginalized groups, such as women, and the gender diverse community. This study used a gender-based analysis to determine the prevalence of psychosocial symptoms and substance use (alcohol and cannabis use in particular) by age, ethnicity, income, rurality, education level, Indigenous status, and sexual orientation. METHODS: Participants in the study were recruited from previously established cohorts as a part of the COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Study of a Provincial Population-Based Cohort for Gender and Sex (RESPPONSE) study. Those who agreed to participate were asked to self-report symptoms of depression, anxiety, pandemic stress, loneliness, alcohol use, and cannabis use across five phases of the pandemic as well as retrospectively before the pandemic. RESULTS: For all psychosocial outcomes, there was a significant effect of time with all five phases of the pandemic being associated with more symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness relative to pre-COVID levels (p < .0001). Gender was significantly associated with all outcomes (p < .0001) with men exhibiting lower scores (i.e., fewer symptoms) than women and gender diverse participants, and women exhibiting lower scores than the gender diverse group. Other significant predictors were age (younger populations experiencing more symptoms, p < .0001), ethnicity (Chinese/Taiwanese individuals experiencing fewer symptoms, p = .005), and Indigenous status (Indigenous individuals experiencing more symptoms, p < .0001). Alcohol use and cannabis use increased relative to pre-pandemic levels, and women reported a greater increase in cannabis use than men (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need for policy makers and leaders to prioritize women, gender-diverse individuals, and young people when tailoring public health measures for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2104, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that demographic differences affect COVID-19 vaccination rates. Trust, in both the vaccine itself and institutional trust, is one possible factor. The present study examines racial differences in institutional trust and vaccine status among a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. METHODS: Data for the current study was collected as part of Wave 8 Omnibus 2000 survey conducted by RAND ALP and consisted of 2080 participants. Responses were collected through the online RAND ALP survey in March 2021. RESULTS: Trust in the scientific community was the strongest predictor for already receiving at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine at the time of study. Asians had a significantly higher trust in the scientific community compared to all other groups. Results also showed a significant difference in level of trust of the government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic with Indian/Alaskan Natives reporting lower trust compared to Whites, Blacks and Asians. Asians also had a significantly higher level of trust when compared to those who identified as racial Other. Those who identify as American Indian/Alaskan Natives had the lowest levels of institutional trust. Trust in the government's response was not indicative of vaccination within the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to increase trust of the scientific community can be employed to address vaccine hesitancy through community-based initiatives and building of partnerships between the scientific community and local community stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , United States
12.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 4496488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495709

ABSTRACT

When managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, radiological imaging complements clinical evaluation and laboratory parameters. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of chest radiography findings in detecting COVID-19, describe those findings, and assess the association of positive chest radiography findings with clinical and laboratory findings. A multicentre, cross-sectional study was conducted involving all primary health care corporation-registered patients (2485 patients) enrolled over a 1-month period during the peak of the 2020 pandemic wave in Qatar. These patients had reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 and underwent chest radiography within 72 hours of the swab test. A positive result on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19. The sensitivity of chest radiography was calculated. The airspace opacities were mostly distributed in the peripheral and lower lung zones, and most of the patients had bilateral involvement. Pleural effusion was detected in some cases. The risk of having positive chest X-ray findings increased with age, Southeast Asian nationality, fever, or a history of fever and diarrhoea. Patients with cardiac disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were at a higher risk of having positive chest X-ray findings. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean serum albumin, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and serum C-reactive protein, hepatic enzymes, and total bilirubin with an increase in the radiographic severity score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fever , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Noncommunicable Diseases , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Primary Health Care , Qatar/epidemiology , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serum Albumin , X-Rays , Young Adult
13.
Vaccine ; 39(43): 6351-6355, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492723

ABSTRACT

Given high COVID-19 infection and mortality ratesamong racial minorities in the US and their higher rates of religiosity, it is important to examine how the intersection of race and religion influences perceptions of COVID-19 vaccinations.Data for this study come from online surveys conducted in twelve congregations between October and December 2020 (N = 1,609). Based on logistic regression analyses, this study demonstrates a severe disparity of 24 percentage points (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.33) in anticipated COVID-19 vaccine acceptance between African Americans and White Americans, even when controlling for trust in COVID-19 information from scientists and levels of worrying about COVID-19 as well as religiosity and demographic factors. Religiosity is negatively associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance across racial groups. The findings suggest that the intersection of race and religion should be considered when designing immunization programs, for instance by fostering collaborations and dialogue with faith leaders of racial minority congregations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19906, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462027

ABSTRACT

We combined survey, mobility, and infections data in greater Boston, MA to simulate the effects of racial disparities in the inclination to become vaccinated on continued infection rates and the attainment of herd immunity. The simulation projected marked inequities, with communities of color experiencing infection rates 3 times higher than predominantly White communities and reaching herd immunity 45 days later on average. Persuasion of individuals uncertain about vaccination was crucial to preventing the worst inequities but could only narrow them so far because 1/5th of Black and Latinx individuals said that they would never vaccinate. The results point to a need for well-crafted, compassionate messaging that reaches out to those most resistant to the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Race Factors , Vaccination , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Persuasive Communication , Race Factors/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , Uncertainty , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114379, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401871

ABSTRACT

Efforts to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 rely on trust in public health organizations and practices. These practices include contact tracing, which requires people to share personal information with public health organizations. The central role of trust in these practices has gained more attention during the pandemic, resurfacing endemic questions about public trust and potential racial trust disparities, especially as they relate to participation in public health efforts. Using an explanatory mixed methods design, we conducted quantitative analysis of state-level survey data in the United States from a representative sample of Michigan residents (n = 1000) in May 2020. We used unadjusted and adjusted linear regressions to examine differences in trust in public health information and willingness to participate in public health efforts by race. From July to September 2020, we conducted qualitative interviews (n = 26) to further explain quantitative results. Using unadjusted linear regression, we observed higher willingness to participate in COVID-19 public health efforts among Black survey respondents compared to White respondents. In adjusted analysis, that difference disappeared, yielding no statistically significant difference between Black and White respondents in either trust in public health information sources or willingness to participate. Qualitative interviews were conducted to explain these findings, considering their contrast with assumptions that Black people would exhibit lower trust in public health organizations during COVID-19. Altruism, risk acknowledgement, trust in public health organizations during COVID-19, and belief in efficacy of public health efforts contributed to willingness to participate in public health efforts among interviewees. Our findings underscore the contextual nature of trust, and the importance of this context when analyzing protective health behaviors among communities disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Assumptions about mistrust among Black individuals and communities may be inaccurate because they overlook the specific context of the public health crisis. These findings are important because they indicate that Black respondents are exhibiting strategic trust during COVID-19 despite systemic, contemporary, and historic barriers to trust. Conceptual specificity rather than blanket generalizations is warranted, especially given the harms of stereotyping and discrimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attitude , Humans , Public Health , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 522, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 lacks sentience and can only be spread through human behaviour. Government instructions to the general public include: (a) limiting time spent outside the home, (b) staying more than 1 m away from people outside the household at all times, and (c) maintaining hand hygiene. Current evidence suggests high rates of adherence to such instructions, but interventions to sustain adherence to government instructions in the long term can only be developed if we know why people do or do not adhere to them. The aims were to assess levels of public adherence to government instructions to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but more importantly to gauge why people were or were not adhering to instructions. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 2252 adults who were representative of the UK population. Data were analysed descriptively, and using one-sample t-tests, within-participants ANOVA and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: The sample reported mostly adhering to UK government instructions to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, with 5% or fewer people reporting active resistance to instructions. People generally reported high levels of capability, opportunity and motivation to follow the instructions, but perceived relatively few physical and social opportunities. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that better adherence was associated with older age, being a woman, having a white ethnic background, and with perceiving greater levels of capabilities, opportunities and motivations. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions targeted at people with black, Asian and minority ethnic backgrounds, men and younger people that focus on increasing capabilities, providing greater opportunities and boosting motivations are needed to support continued adherence to government instructions to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Further research is required to track changes in people's capabilities, opportunities, motivations and behaviours in response to the ongoing emergency, any changes in government instructions, and to adapt the present procedures to other emergency situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Motivation , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Class , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021204, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352600

ABSTRACT

Background Limited information is available regarding in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in patients with COVID-19. Methods and Results We leveraged the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease (AHA COVID-19 CVD) Registry to conduct a cohort study of adults hospitalized for COVID-19. IHCA was defined as those with documentation of cardiac arrest requiring medication or electrical shock for resuscitation. Mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to identify independent predictors of IHCA and mortality while accounting for clustering at the hospital level. The study cohort included 8518 patients (6080 not in the intensive care unit [ICU]) with mean age of 61.5 years (SD 17.5). IHCA occurred in 509 (5.9%) patients overall with 375 (73.7%) in the ICU and 134 (26.3%) patients not in the ICU. The majority of patients at the time of ICHA were not in a shockable rhythm (76.5%). Independent predictors of IHCA included older age, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.4; P<0.001), and non-Hispanic Black race (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.1-1.9; P=0.004). Other predictors included oxygen use on admission, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on admission, and hypertension. Overall, 35 (6.9%) patients with IHCA survived to discharge, with 9.1% for ICU and 0.7% for non-ICU patients. Conclusions Older age, Black race, and Hispanic ethnicity are independent predictors of IHCA in patients with COVID-19. Although the incidence is much lower than in ICU patients, approximately one-quarter of IHCA events in patients with COVID-19 occur in non-ICU settings, with the latter having a substantially lower survival to discharge rate.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest/ethnology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Patient Admission , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/ethnology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Race Factors , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
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