Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S201-S203, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496722

ABSTRACT

Structural racism is a root cause of poor health in the United States and underlies COVID-19-related disparities for Black and Latinx populations. We describe how one community-based organization responded to structural racism and COVID-19 in Florida. Informed by the literature on how public health practice changed from emphasizing prevention (Public Health 1.0) to collaboration between governmental and public health agencies (Public Health 2.0) and examining social determinants of health (Public Health 3.0), we call for a politically engaged Public Health 4.0. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S201-S203. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306408).


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Public Health , Racism/ethnology , Florida , Humans , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Determinants of Health , United States
4.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1507-1512, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493989

ABSTRACT

The harsh realities of racial inequities related to COVID-19 and civil unrest following police killings of unarmed Black men and women in the United States in 2020 heightened awareness of racial injustices around the world. Racism is deeply embedded in academic medicine, yet the nobility of medicine and nursing has helped health care professionals distance themselves from racism. Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), like many U.S. academic medical centers, affirmed its commitment to racial equity in summer 2020. A Racial Equity Task Force was charged with identifying barriers to achieving racial equity at the medical center and medical school and recommending key actions to rectify long-standing racial inequities. The task force, composed of students, staff, and faculty, produced more than 60 recommendations, and its work brought to light critical areas that need to be addressed in academic medicine broadly. To dismantle structural racism, academic medicine must: (1) confront medicine's racist past, which has embedded racial inequities in the U.S. health care system; (2) develop and require health care professionals to possess core competencies in the health impacts of structural racism; (3) recognize race as a sociocultural and political construct, and commit to debiologizing its use; (4) invest in benefits and resources for health care workers in lower-paid roles, in which racial and ethnic minorities are often overrepresented; and (5) commit to antiracism at all levels, including changing institutional policies, starting at the executive leadership level with a vision, metrics, and accountability.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/ethics , COVID-19/ethnology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Racism/ethnology , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/ethics , Female , Health Personnel/ethics , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/ethics , United States/epidemiology
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379372

ABSTRACT

Mounting reports in the media suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified prejudice and discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, especially Asians. Existing research has focused on discrimination against Asians and is primarily based on self-reported incidents or nonrepresentative samples. We investigate the extent to which COVID-19 has fueled prejudice and discrimination against multiple racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States by examining nationally representative survey data with an embedded vignette experiment about roommate selection (collected in August 2020; n = 5,000). We find that priming COVID-19 salience has an immediate, statistically significant impact: compared to the control group, respondents in the treatment group exhibited increased prejudice and discriminatory intent against East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic hypothetical room-seekers. The treatment effect is more pronounced in increasing extreme negative attitudes toward the three minority groups than decreasing extreme positive attitudes toward them. This is partly due to the treatment increasing the proportion of respondents who perceive these minority groups as extremely culturally incompatible (Asians and Hispanics) and extremely irresponsible (Asians). Sociopolitical factors did not moderate the treatment effects on attitudes toward Asians, but prior social contact with Hispanics mitigated prejudices against them. These findings suggest that COVID-19-fueled prejudice and discrimination have not been limited to East Asians but are part of a broader phenomenon that has affected Asians generally and Hispanics as well.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Prejudice , Attitude , COVID-19/ethnology , Humans , Intention , Minority Groups/psychology , Pandemics , Prejudice/ethnology , Racism/ethnology , Racism/psychology , United States
8.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(9): 1679-1694, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A steep rise in food insecurity is among the most pressing US public health problems that has resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) describe how food-insecure emerging adults are adapting their eating and child-feeding behaviors during COVID-19 and (2) identify barriers and opportunities to improve local food access and access to food assistance. DESIGN: The COVID-19 Eating and Activity Over Time study collected survey data from emerging adults during April to October 2020 and completed interviews with a diverse subset of food-insecure respondents. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: A total of 720 emerging adults (mean age: 24.7 ± 2.0 years; 62% female; 90% living in Minnesota) completed an online survey, and a predominately female subsample (n = 33) completed an interview by telephone or videoconference. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survey measures included the short-form of the US Household Food Security Survey Module and 2 items to assess food insufficiency. Interviews assessed eating and feeding behaviors along with barriers to healthy food access. ANALYSES PERFORMED: Descriptive statistics and a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Nearly one-third of survey respondents had experienced food insecurity in the past year. Interviews with food-insecure participants identified 6 themes with regard to changes in eating and feeding behavior (eg, more processed food, sporadic eating), 5 themes regarding local food access barriers (eg, limited enforcement of COVID-19 safety practices, experiencing discrimination), and 4 themes regarding barriers to accessing food assistance (eg, lack of eligibility, difficulty in locating pantries). Identified recommendations include (1) expanding the distribution of information about food pantries and meal distribution sites, and (2) increasing fresh fruit and vegetable offerings at these sites. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions of specific relevance to COVID-19 (eg, stronger implementation of safety practices) and expanded food assistance services are needed to improve the accessibility of healthy food for emerging adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/standards , Food Assistance/standards , Food Insecurity , Adult , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Minnesota/epidemiology , Prevalence , Racism/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Discrimination/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1455-1458, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301742

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Asian Americans have been subjected to rising overt discrimination and violent hate crimes, highlighting the health implications of racism toward Asian Americans. As Asian Americans are the only group for whom cancer is the leading cause of death, these manifestations of anti-Asian racism provoke the question of the impact of racism across the cancer continuum for Asian Americans. In this Commentary, we describe how the myth of the "model minority" overlooks the diversity of Asian Americans. Ignoring such diversity in sociocultural trends, immigration patterns, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and barriers to care masks disparities in cancer risk, access to care, and outcomes across Asian American populations. We recommend cancer epidemiologists, population science researchers, and oncology providers direct attention toward: (i) studying the impacts of structural and personally mediated racism on cancer risk and outcomes; (ii) ensuring studies reflect the uniqueness of individual ethnic groups, including intersectionality, and uncover underlying disparities; and (iii) applying a critical race theory approach that considers the unique lived experiences of each group. A more nuanced understanding of cancer health disparities, and how drivers of these disparities are associated with race and differ across Asian American ethnicities, may elucidate means through which these disparities can be alleviated.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Ethics, Research/education , Healthcare Disparities , Neoplasms/therapy , Racism/prevention & control , Asian Americans/psychology , Health Behavior , Humans , Racism/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Social Class
12.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1586-1591, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246779

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent national events, including the COVID-19 pandemic and protests of racial inequities, have drawn attention to the role of physicians in advocating for improvements in the social, economic, and political factors that affect health. Characterizing the current state of advocacy training in U.S. medical schools may help set expectations for physician advocacy and predict future curricular needs. METHOD: Using the member school directory provided by the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors compiled a list of 154 MD-granting medical schools in the United States in 2019-2020. They used multiple search strategies to identify online course catalogues and advocacy-related curricula using variations of the terms "advocacy," "policy," "equity," and "social determinants of health." They used an iterative process to generate a preliminary coding schema and to code all course descriptions, conducting content analysis to describe the structure of courses and topics covered. RESULTS: Of 134 medical schools with any online course catalogue available, 103 (76.9%) offered at least 1 advocacy course. Required courses were typically survey courses focused on general content in health policy, population health, or public health/epidemiology, whereas elective courses were more likely to focus specifically on advocacy skills building and to feature field experiences. Of 352 advocacy-specific courses, 93 (26.4%) concentrated on a specific population (e.g., children or persons with low socioeconomic status). Few courses (n = 8) focused on racial/ethnic minorities and racial inequities. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that while most U.S. medical schools offer at least 1 advocacy course, the majority are elective rather than required, and the structure and content of advocacy-related courses vary substantially. Given the urgency to address social, economic, and political factors affecting health and health equity, this study provides an important and timely overview of the prevalence and content of advocacy curricula at U.S. medical schools.


Subject(s)
Health Equity/standards , Patient Advocacy/education , Racism/ethnology , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , American Medical Association/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Physician's Role , Politics , Prevalence , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
13.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1518-1523, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207326

ABSTRACT

Public health crises palpably demonstrate how social determinants of health have led to disparate health outcomes. The staggering mortality rates among African Americans, Native Americans, and Latinx Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic have revealed how recalcitrant structural inequities can exacerbate disparities and render not just individuals but whole communities acutely vulnerable. While medical curricula that educate students about disparities are vital in rousing awareness, it is experience that is most likely to instill passion for change. The authors first consider the roots of health care disparities in relation to the current pandemic. Then, they examine the importance of salient learning experiences that may inspire a commitment to championing social justice. Experiences in diverse communities can imbue medical students with a desire for lifelong learning and advocacy. The authors introduce a 3-pillar framework that consists of trust building, structural competency, and cultural humility. They discuss how these pillars should underpin educational efforts to improve social determinants of health. Effecting systemic change requires passion and resolve; therefore, perseverance in such efforts is predicated on learners caring about the structural inequities in housing, education, economic stability, and neighborhoods-all of which influence the health of individuals and communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Medical/ethics , Racism/ethnology , African Americans , Awareness , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Education, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Problem-Based Learning/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/ethics , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Justice/ethics , Stakeholder Participation , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(3): e75-e80, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this evidence-based theoretically informed article was to provide an overview of how and why the COVID-19 outbreak is particularly detrimental for the health of older Black and Latinx adults. METHODS: We draw upon current events, academic literature, and numerous data sources to illustrate how biopsychosocial factors place older adults at higher risk for COVID-19 relative to younger adults, and how structural racism magnifies these risks for black and Latinx adults across the life course. RESULTS: We identify 3 proximate mechanisms through which structural racism operates as a fundamental cause of racial/ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 burden among older adults: (a) risk of exposure, (b) weathering processes, and (c) health care access and quality. DISCUSSION: While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented crisis, the racial/ethnic health inequalities among older adults it has exposed are longstanding and deeply rooted in structural racism within American society. This knowledge presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers and policymakers as they seek to address the needs of older adults. It is imperative that federal, state, and local governments collect and release comprehensive data on the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths by race/ethnicity and age to better gauge the impact of the outbreak across minority communities. We conclude with a discussion of incremental steps to be taken to lessen the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 among older Black and Latinx adults, as well as the need for transformative actions that address structural racism in order to achieve population health equity.


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , Aging/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racism/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(6): 1087-1091, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007111
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL