Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 75
Filter
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 958999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119875

ABSTRACT

Racism against people of Asian descent increased by over 300% after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in the United States, with one in five Asian Americans reporting direct experiences with overt discrimination. Large-scale efforts and resources initially, and quite understandably, prioritized investigating the physiological impact of the coronavirus, which has partially delayed research studies targeting the psychological effects of the pandemic. Currently, two studies tracked the unique relationships between psychosocial factors, such as experiencing everyday racism, and the self-reported wellbeing of Asian Americans in the United States and compared these associations with Latinx Americans. Study 1 (April 2020-April 2021) examined how Asian and Latinx Americans varied in their levels of wellbeing, fear of the coronavirus, internalized racism, and everyday experiences with racism. Study 2 (September 2021-April 2022) included the same variables with additional assessments for victimization distress. We used the CDC Museum COVID-19 Timeline to pair collected data from our studies with specific moments in the pandemic-from its known origins to springtime 2022. Results highlighted how slow and deleterious forms of racist violence could wear and tear at the wellbeing of targeted people of color. Overall, this research underscores the possible hidden harms associated with slow-moving forms of racism, as well as some of the unseen stressors experienced by people of color living in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Racism/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Violence
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2212183119, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119279

ABSTRACT

About one in six Asian Americans have fallen victim to anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic [J. Lee, K. Ramakrishnan, aapidata.com/blog/discrimination-survey-2022/]. By examining anti-Asian racism in the United States primarily as a domestic issue, most prior studies have overlooked the connections between shifting US-China relations and Americans' prejudices against the Chinese in China and, by extension, East Asian Americans. This study investigates the patterns and perceptual bases of nationality-based prejudices against Chinese amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Our nationally representative online survey experiment reveals that Americans assess a hypothetical Chinese person in China as inferior in multiple social and psychological characteristics to an otherwise identical Japanese person in Japan or East Asian American. Furthermore, subjects who perceive China as more threatening to America's national interests assess Chinese more negatively, especially in terms of trustworthiness and morality, suggesting that perceived China threats propel Americans' negative stereotypes about Chinese. A contextual analysis further indicates that counties with a higher share of Trump voters in 2016 tend to perceive all East Asian-origin groups similarly as a racial outgroup. By contrast, residents in predominantly Democrat-voting counties tend to perceive Chinese in China more negatively relative to Asian Americans, despite broadly viewing East Asians more favorably. Overall, this study underscores the often-overlooked relationships between the prevailing anti-Asian sentiments in the United States and the US-China geopolitical tensions and America's domestic political polarization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prejudice , Racism/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , Morals , China
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 961215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109876

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-Asian racism has surged, yet little is known about Asian Americans' experiences of social support. Therefore, we designed a qualitative, intrinsic, revelatory case study to examine the nature and quality of social support for Asian Americans during the first 6 months of the pandemic. Our sample consisted of 193 Asian Americans (from over 32 U.S. states) disclosing their experiences of inadequate social support. They described their support network as (1) Being unable to relate, (2) Encouraging their silence, (3) Minimizing anti-Asian racism, (4) Denying anti-Asian racism, and (5) Victim-blaming. Regarding our participants' recommendations for increasing social support for Asian Americans, a total of seven recommendations emerged: (1) Legitimize anti-Asian racism, (2) Teach Asian American history, (3) Destigmatize mental health resources to make them accessible for Asian American families (4) Promote bystander intervention trainings, (5) Build solidarity with and beyond Asian Americans to dismantle racism, (6) Increase media attention on anti-Asian racism, and (7) Elect political leaders who will advocate for Asian Americans. Altogether, our findings underscore the need for systemic forms of advocacy to combat anti-Asian racism, and shed light on the injurious nature of social support for Asian American victims of racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , Asian Americans/psychology , Racism/psychology , Pandemics , Social Support
5.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 64: 103459, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042054

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to explore the thoughts and feelings of Asian American nursing students regarding Anti-Asian racism that they might anticipate or experience during their clinical training. BACKGROUND: Asian Americans have long been viewed as perpetual foreigners and coronavirus disease 2019 has reinforced that negative view. Asian American nursing students may anticipate and experience racial discrimination during their clinical training, which could negatively affect their mental health. DESIGN: This is a qualitative research study using focus group discussions. METHOD: Focus group discussions were conducted over Zoom and audiotaped. The audiotapes were transcribed and validated for accuracy. A thematic analysis was performed using NVivo10. Emerging themes and subthemes were compared and discussed until agreements were made. RESULTS: Nineteen students participated in four focus group meetings, of which, 13 (68 %) had clinical training and six (32 %) were preclinical students. Four major themes emerged: (a) looking forward to hands-on learning opportunities, (b) enduring racial microaggressions, (c) maintaining professionalism in the face of racial microaggressions and (d) standing up for oneself and other Asian American healthcare workers. Preclinical students were anxiously waiting for clinical training so that they could have hands-on learning experiences. They anticipated that anti-Asian racism in clinical settings would be similar to what they had experienced on the streets and therefore, they were not afraid of it. Students who had clinical training reported experiencing a variety of racial microaggressions that varied from "side-eyes" to "verbal assault" and occurred at three levels: patients, nurses and clinical instructors. They reported that most of the microaggressions were familiar to them, but some, especially coming from their clinical instructors, were unique to clinical settings. CONCLUSION: Asian American nursing students experienced racial microaggressions during their clinical training which came from patients, nurses on the unit and their clinical instructors. Nevertheless, the students strove to maintain professionalism and stand up for themselves and other Asian healthcare workers as they gained confidence in clinical knowledge and skills.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Students, Nursing , Aggression/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , Focus Groups , Humans , Microaggression , Pandemics , Racism/psychology
6.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 24(4): 970-976, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971770

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine how perceived racial discrimination is associated with mental distress among diverse Asian Americans and to explore the potential moderators in the relationship. Based on the 2015 Asian American Quality of Life (AAQoL) survey (n = 2609), direct influences were tested of the contextual (demographic, health-related, and immigration-related) variables and perceived racial discrimination on mental distress, as well as their interactions. About 30% of the sample reported perceived racial discrimination, and 44% fell into the category of having mental distress. Perceived racial discrimination was associated with 1.90 times higher odds of mental distress and had significant interactions with age, education, and ethnicity. The association of mental distress with perceived racial discrimination was higher among those who were 60 or older, less educated, and Vietnamese than among their respective counterparts. Findings can guide strategic and targeted interventions for high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Racism , Asian Americans/psychology , Ethnicity , Humans , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Racism/psychology
7.
ANS Adv Nurs Sci ; 44(3): 183-194, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961172

ABSTRACT

In this article, we apply Agamben's theory of biopower and other related concepts to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. We explore the similarities between the COVID-19 pandemic and the pandemic of racism. Concepts such as bios, zoe, homo sacer, and states of exception can be applied to understand inequities among marginalized communities in the COVID-19 pandemic. We recommend that nurses and health care workers use critical conscientization and structural competency to increase awareness and develop interventions to undo the injustices related to biopower faced by many in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Racism/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Public Health , Racism/psychology , Social Environment , United States
8.
Sociol Health Illn ; 43(8): 1831-1839, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901518
9.
Perspect Med Educ ; 10(2): 130-134, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872783

ABSTRACT

Major racial disparities continue to exist in our healthcare education, from the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities when teaching about clinical signs to health management in primary and secondary care. A multi-centre group of students discuss what needs to change in medical education to cultivate physicians who are better prepared to care for patients of all backgrounds. We argue that the accurate portrayal of race in medical education is a vital step towards educating medical students to consider alternative explanations to biology when considering health inequities.


Subject(s)
Perception , Racism/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/standards , Humans , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259803, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793587

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic disparities are among the top-selective underlying determinants associated with the disproportional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human mobility and health outcomes. This study jointly examined county-level racial/ethnic differences in compliance with stay-at-home orders and COVID-19 health outcomes during 2020, leveraging two-year geo-tracking data of mobile devices across ~4.4 million point-of-interests (POIs) in the contiguous United States. Through a set of structural equation modeling, this study quantified how racial/ethnic differences in following stay-at-home orders could mediate COVID-19 health outcomes, controlling for state effects, socioeconomics, demographics, occupation, and partisanship. Results showed that counties with higher Asian populations decreased most in their travel, both in terms of reducing their overall POIs' visiting and increasing their staying home percentage. Moreover, counties with higher White populations experienced the lowest infection rate, while counties with higher African American populations presented the highest case-fatality ratio. Additionally, control variables, particularly partisanship, median household income, percentage of elders, and urbanization, significantly accounted for the county differences in human mobility and COVID-19 health outcomes. Mediation analyses further revealed that human mobility only statistically influenced infection rate but not case-fatality ratio, and such mediation effects varied substantially among racial/ethnic compositions. Last, robustness check of racial gradient at census block group level documented consistent associations but greater magnitude. Taken together, these findings suggest that US residents' responses to COVID-19 are subject to an entrenched and consequential racial/ethnic divide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , African Americans/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Income , Mediation Analysis , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 22-27, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771895

ABSTRACT

Perceived racism in school (i.e., a student's report of being treated badly or unfairly because of their race or ethnicity) is an important yet understudied determinant of adolescent health and well-being. Knowing how perceived racism influences adolescent health can help reduce health inequities. CDC's 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES), an online survey of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of U.S. public- and private-school students in grades 9-12 (N = 7,705), was conducted during January-June 2021 to assess student behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. CDC analyzed data from ABES to measure perceived racism and the extent to which perceptions of racism are associated with demographic, mental health, and behavioral characteristics. Mental health and behavioral characteristics analyzed included mental health status; virtual connection with others outside of school; serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions; and feeling close to persons at school. Demographic characteristics analyzed included sex, race and ethnicity, and grade. Prevalence of perceived racism and associations between perceived racism and demographic, mental health, and behavioral characteristics are reported overall and stratified by race and ethnicity. Approximately one third (35.6%) of U.S. high school students reported perceived racism. Perceived racism was highest among Asian (63.9%), Black (55.2%), and multiracial students (54.5%). Students who reported perceived racism had higher prevalences of poor mental health (38.1%); difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions (44.1%); and not feeling close to persons at school (40.7%). Perceived racism was higher among those students who reported poor mental health than those who did not report poor mental health during the pandemic among Asian (67.9% versus 40.5%), Black (62.1% versus 38.5%), Hispanic (45.7% and 22.9%), and White students (24.5% versus 12.7%). A better understanding of how negative health outcomes are associated with student experiences of racism can guide training for staff and students to promote cultural awareness and antiracist and inclusivity interventions, which are critical for promoting safe school environments for all students.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Racism , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , Students/psychology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Behav Med ; 48(2): 95-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751934

ABSTRACT

Persons of color in the US experience the worst COVID-related outcomes and account for the majority of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations among healthcare workers. In a pandemic where minority populations and healthcare workers are among the hardest hit, nurses of color are undoubtedly taxed. Moreover, their workplace racism experiences represent a dual pandemic in that the effects of COVID-19 worries and workplace racism may synergize to the detriment of their emotional well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct, indirect, and interactive effects of individual (race, COVID worry), interpersonal (workplace racial microaggressions), and institutional (racial climate) factors on hospital-based nurses' emotional well-being. A sample of 788 registered nurses who worked in New Jersey hospitals completed an electronic survey. Compared to White nurses, nonwhite nurses reported higher emotional distress, more negative racial climates, more racial microaggressions, and higher levels of COVID worry. Nurses' worry about getting sick from COVID and multiple racial microaggression experiences had the largest effects on the likelihood of high emotional distress. Racism variables and worry about COVID mediated indirect effects of nonwhite race on emotional distress. Racial microaggressions mediated an indirect effect of racial climate on this outcome. Nurses who were worried about getting sick from COVID and experienced multiple microaggressions and/or the most negative racial climates had severe emotional distress. There is a need for sustained investment in a racially diverse nursing workforce. Mitigating workplace racism in hospitals is crucial, particularly during public health crises that disproportionately threaten minority populations and healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , Workplace/psychology
13.
Fam Process ; 59(4): 1359-1361, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723152
15.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 453-466, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700727

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To determine the prevalence of COVID-19-related discrimination among major US racial/ethnic groups and estimate associations between discrimination, race/ethnicity, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. We conducted a nationally representative online survey of 5500 American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Black/African American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Latino (English and Spanish speaking), White, and multiracial adults from December 2020 to February 2021. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19-related discrimination were estimated via multinomial logistic regression. Results. A total of 22.1% of the participants reported experiencing discriminatory behaviors, and 42.7% reported that people acted afraid of them. All racial/ethnic minorities were more likely than White adults to experience COVID-19-related discrimination, with Asian and American Indian/Alaska Native adults being most likely to experience such discrimination (discriminatory behaviors: adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73, 3.89; and AOR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.76, 4.04; people acting afraid: AOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.07; and AOR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.51). Limited English proficiency, lower education, lower income, and residing in a big city or the East South Central census division also increased the prevalence of discrimination. Conclusions. COVID-19-related discrimination is common, and it appears that the pandemic has exacerbated preexisting resentment against racial/ethnic minorities and marginalized communities. Efforts are needed to minimize and discredit racially driven language and discrimination around COVID-19 and future epidemics. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):453-466. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306594).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , /psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Language , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Racism/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(1): 1-3, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593023

ABSTRACT

It is impossible to write this editorial without recognizing that we are living in challenging times. Unprecedented changes in how, when, where, and with whom we work have occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to the threat to human life, the pandemic is expected to increase poverty and deepen preexisting inequalities for vulnerable groups such as women (United Nations, 2020) and individuals living in poorer countries (United Nations Development Programme, 2020). In the United States, the pandemic has disproportionately negatively affected racial and ethnic minority group members (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html). For example, in the United States infection and mortality rates are especially high among African Americans (Yancy, 2020). These sobering realities, along with the recent deaths of George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, and Breonna Taylor, and so many others, are vivid and wrenching reminders of longstanding social injustice and systematic racism, both in the United States and around the globe. When preparing my candidate statement and vision for the journal, a global pandemic and widespread social protest were the furthest thing from my mind. However, several aspects of my vision for JAP are highly relevant to the current context. This includes increasing representation and supporting diversity, as well as improving the translation of our science for the public good. Other elements of my vision for the journal include enhancing the review process and promoting open science. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Poverty/psychology , Psychology, Applied/methods , Racism/psychology , Social Justice/psychology , /psychology , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
17.
J Community Psychol ; 50(6): 2542-2561, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525451

ABSTRACT

This study explored intersecting concerns about COVID-19 and racial injustice against Black people in the United States using a syndemic perspective. Findings from a multistate COVID-19 needs assessment project examined the association of general and race-related concerns about COVID-19 and concerns about police violence against Black people with mental health symptoms in a sample of 2480 Black Americans. The role of cultural mistrust in vaccination status was also examined. Concerns about COVID-19 were positively associated with concerns about police violence and associated with worse mental health. Nonvaccinated individuals were higher in cultural mistrust but lower in perceived discrimination than vaccinated individuals. Perceived discrimination partially mediated the relationship between race-related concerns about COVID-19 and mental health symptoms. Findings can inform the development of culturally responsive strategies to address the syndemic effects of COVID-19 and racial injustice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , Mental Health , Perceived Discrimination , Racism/psychology , Syndemic , United States/epidemiology
18.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E998-E1004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian Canadians and Asian Americans face COVID-19-related discrimination. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Asian health care workers dealing with discrimination, with a focus on racial micro-agressions, in Canada and the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative descriptive approach. We used convenience and snowball sampling strategies to recruit participants. We conducted individual, in-depth semistructured interviews with Asian health care workers in Canada and the US via videoconferencing between May and September 2020. Eligible participants had to self-identify as Asian and be currently employed as a health care worker with at least 1 year of full-time employment. We used an inductive thematic approach to analyze the data. RESULTS: Thirty participants were recruited. Fifteen (50%) were Canadians and 15 (50%) were Americans; there were 18 women (60%), 11 men (37%) and 1 nonbinary person. Most of the participants were aged 25-29 years (n = 16, 53%). More than half were nurses (n = 16, 53%); the other participants were attending physicians (n = 5), physiotherapists (n = 3), resident physicians (n = 2), a midwife, a paramedic, a pharmacist and a physician assistant. Two themes emerged from the data: a surge of racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 and a lack of institutional and public acknowledgement. Participants noted that they have experienced an increase in racial microaggressions during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have also experienced threats of violence and actual violence. The largely silent organizational response to the challenges being faced by people of Asian descent and the use of disparaging terms such as "China virus" in the early stages of the pandemic were a substantial source of frustration. INTERPRETATION: Asian health care workers have experienced challenges in dealing with racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 in the US and Canada. More research should be done on the experiences of Asian Americans and Asian Canadians, both during and after the pandemic, and supportive measures should be put in place to protect Asian health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Canada , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workplace Violence/psychology , Xenophobia/psychology
19.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 36(2): 79-89, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458552

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Toxic Stress Schema (TSS) is an ecological framework with a social justice lens for identifying and alleviating stress and strengthening social determinants of health for children and families of color impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and the cumulative effects of racism and generational, systemic inequities. METHOD: Relevant literature is reviewed, and examples were provided to illustrate the differential impacts of the "stress superstorm" of 2020 had on children of color based on their family's position on the advantage-disadvantage continuum. RESULTS: The utility of the TSS framework as a model for advanced nursing practice is demonstrated, and recommendations are formulated for the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in health policy. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 pandemic elucidated the historical inequities experienced by children and families of color. The TSS framework provides a model for recognizing, organizing, and implementing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Stress, Psychological , Vulnerable Populations , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Nursing , Racism/psychology , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL