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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 132: 109272, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753629

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report real-world diagnostic performance of chest x-ray (CXR) readings during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study we enrolled all patients presenting to the emergency department of a Milan-based university hospital from February 24th to April 8th 2020 who underwent nasopharyngeal swab for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and anteroposterior bedside CXR within 12 h. A composite reference standard combining RT-PCR results with phone-call-based anamnesis was obtained. Radiologists were grouped by CXR reading experience (Group-1, >10 years; Group-2, <10 years), diagnostic performance indexes were calculated for each radiologist and for the two groups. RESULTS: Group-1 read 435 CXRs (77.0 % disease prevalence): sensitivity was 89.0 %, specificity 66.0 %, accuracy 83.7 %. Group-2 read 100 CXRs (73.0 % prevalence): sensitivity was 89.0 %, specificity 40.7 %, accuracy 76.0 %. During the first half of the outbreak (195 CXRs, 66.7 % disease prevalence), overall sensitivity was 80.8 %, specificity 67.7 %, accuracy 76.4 %, Group-1 sensitivity being similar to Group-2 (80.6 % versus 81.5 %, respectively) but higher specificity (74.0 % versus 46.7 %) and accuracy (78.4 % versus 69.0 %). During the second half (340 CXRs, 81.8 % prevalence), overall sensitivity increased to 92.8 %, specificity dropped to 53.2 %, accuracy increased to 85.6 %, this pattern mirrored in both groups, with decreased specificity (Group-1, 58.0 %; Group-2, 33.3 %) but increased sensitivity (92.7 % and 93.5 %) and accuracy (86.5 % and 81.0 %, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Real-world CXR diagnostic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic showed overall high sensitivity with higher specificity for more experienced radiologists. The increase in accuracy over time strengthens CXR role as a first line examination in suspected COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic/standards , Radiologists/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Radiology ; 296(3): E156-E165, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729427

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pneumonia of other diseases share similar CT characteristics, which contributes to the challenges in differentiating them with high accuracy. Purpose To establish and evaluate an artificial intelligence (AI) system for differentiating COVID-19 and other pneumonia at chest CT and assessing radiologist performance without and with AI assistance. Materials and Methods A total of 521 patients with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results for COVID-19 and abnormal chest CT findings were retrospectively identified from 10 hospitals from January 2020 to April 2020. A total of 665 patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia and definite evidence of pneumonia at chest CT were retrospectively selected from three hospitals between 2017 and 2019. To classify COVID-19 versus other pneumonia for each patient, abnormal CT slices were input into the EfficientNet B4 deep neural network architecture after lung segmentation, followed by a two-layer fully connected neural network to pool slices together. The final cohort of 1186 patients (132 583 CT slices) was divided into training, validation, and test sets in a 7:2:1 and equal ratio. Independent testing was performed by evaluating model performance in separate hospitals. Studies were blindly reviewed by six radiologists without and then with AI assistance. Results The final model achieved a test accuracy of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90%, 98%), a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI: 83%, 100%), and a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 88%, 99%) with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 and area under the precision-recall curve of 0.90. On independent testing, this model achieved an accuracy of 87% (95% CI: 82%, 90%), a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI: 81%, 94%), and a specificity of 86% (95% CI: 80%, 90%) with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 and area under the precision-recall curve of 0.87. Assisted by the probabilities of the model, the radiologists achieved a higher average test accuracy (90% vs 85%, Δ = 5, P < .001), sensitivity (88% vs 79%, Δ = 9, P < .001), and specificity (91% vs 88%, Δ = 3, P = .001). Conclusion Artificial intelligence assistance improved radiologists' performance in distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia from non-coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia at chest CT. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiologists , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Philadelphia , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Radiologists/standards , Radiologists/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Rhode Island , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
3.
Radiology ; 296(2): E46-E54, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697192

ABSTRACT

Background Despite its high sensitivity in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a screening population, the chest CT appearance of COVID-19 pneumonia is thought to be nonspecific. Purpose To assess the performance of radiologists in the United States and China in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia at chest CT. Materials and Methods In this study, 219 patients with positive COVID-19, as determined with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and abnormal chest CT findings, were retrospectively identified from seven Chinese hospitals in Hunan Province, China, from January 6 to February 20, 2020. Two hundred five patients with positive respiratory pathogen panel results for viral pneumonia and CT findings consistent with or highly suspicious for pneumonia, according to original radiologic interpretation within 7 days of each other, were identified from Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, RI. Three radiologists from China reviewed all chest CT scans (n = 424) blinded to RT-PCR findings to differentiate COVID-19 from viral pneumonia. A sample of 58 age-matched patients was randomly selected and evaluated by four radiologists from the United States in a similar fashion. Different CT features were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results For all chest CT scans (n = 424), the accuracy of the three radiologists from China in differentiating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia was 83% (350 of 424), 80% (338 of 424), and 60% (255 of 424). In the randomly selected sample (n = 58), the sensitivities of three radiologists from China and four radiologists from the United States were 80%, 67%, 97%, 93%, 83%, 73%, and 70%, respectively. The corresponding specificities of the same readers were 100%, 93%, 7%, 100%, 93%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Compared with non-COVID-19 pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia was more likely to have a peripheral distribution (80% vs 57%, P < .001), ground-glass opacity (91% vs 68%, P < .001), fine reticular opacity (56% vs 22%, P < .001), and vascular thickening (59% vs 22%, P < .001), but it was less likely to have a central and peripheral distribution (14% vs 35%, P < .001), pleural effusion (4% vs 39%, P < .001), or lymphadenopathy (3% vs 10%, P = .002). Conclusion Radiologists in China and in the United States distinguished coronavirus disease 2019 from viral pneumonia at chest CT with moderate to high accuracy. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. A translation of this abstract in Farsi is available in the supplement. ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Competence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiologists/standards , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
4.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(8): 1056-1060, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593328

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the adoption and outcomes of locally designed reporting guidelines for patients with possible coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A departmental guideline was developed for radiologists that specified reporting terminology and required communication for patients with imaging findings suggestive of COVID-19, on the basis of patient test status and imaging indication. In this retrospective study, radiology reports completed from March 1, 2020, to May 3, 2020, that mentioned COVID-19 were reviewed. Reports were divided into patients with known COVID-19, patients with "suspected" COVID-19 (having an order indication of respiratory or infectious signs or symptoms), and "unsuspected patients" (other order indications, eg, trauma or non-chest pain). The primary outcome was the percentage of COVID-19 reports using recommended terminology; the secondary outcome was percentages of suspected and unsuspected patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Relationships between categorical variables were assessed using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Among 77,400 total reports, 1,083 suggested COVID-19 on the basis of imaging findings; 774 of COVID-19 reports (71%) used recommended terminology. Of 574 patients without known COVID-19 at the time of interpretation, 345 (60%) were eventually diagnosed with COVID-19, including 61% (315 of 516) of suspected and 52% (30 of 58) of unsuspected patients. Nearly all unsuspected patients (46 of 58) were identified on CT. CONCLUSIONS: Radiologists rapidly adopted recommended reporting terminology for patients with suspected COVID-19. The majority of patients for whom radiologists raised concern for COVID-19 were subsequently diagnosed with the disease, including the majority of clinically unsuspected patients. Using unambiguous terminology and timely notification about previously unsuspected patients will become increasingly critical to facilitate COVID-19 testing and contact tracing as states begin to lift restrictions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiologists/standards , Radiology Department, Hospital/standards , Research Design/standards , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , United States
5.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(2): 403-404, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260267
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