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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e071311, 2023 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241657

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalaemia is common, life-threatening and often requires emergency department (ED) management; however, no standardised ED treatment protocol exists. Common treatments transiently reducing serum potassium (K+) (including albuterol, glucose and insulin) may cause hypoglycaemia. We outline the design and rationale of the Patiromer Utility as an Adjunct Treatment in Patients Needing Urgent Hyperkalaemia Management (PLATINUM) study, which will be the largest ED randomised controlled hyperkalaemia trial ever performed, enabling assessment of a standardised approach to hyperkalaemia management, as well as establishing a new evaluation parameter (net clinical benefit) for acute hyperkalaemia treatment investigations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PLATINUM is a Phase 4, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in participants who present to the ED at approximately 30 US sites. Approximately 300 adult participants with hyperkalaemia (K+ ≥5.8 mEq/L) will be enrolled. Participants will be randomised 1:1 to receive glucose (25 g intravenously <15 min before insulin), insulin (5 units intravenous bolus) and aerosolised albuterol (10 mg over 30 min), followed by a single oral dose of either 25.2 g patiromer or placebo, with a second dose of patiromer (8.4 g) or placebo after 24 hours. The primary endpoint is net clinical benefit, defined as the mean change in the number of additional interventions less the mean change in serum K+, at hour 6. Secondary endpoints are net clinical benefit at hour 4, proportion of participants without additional K+-related medical interventions, number of additional K+-related interventions and proportion of participants with sustained K+ reduction (K+ ≤5.5 mEq/L). Safety endpoints are the incidence of adverse events, and severity of changes in serum K+ and magnesium. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: A central Institutional Review Board (IRB) and Ethics Committee provided protocol approval (#20201569), with subsequent approval by local IRBs at each site, and participants will provide written consent. Primary results will be published in peer-reviewed manuscripts promptly following study completion. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04443608.


Subject(s)
Hyperkalemia , Adult , Humans , Albuterol , Ethics Committees, Research , Glucose , Insulin , Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
2.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 25(3)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241579

ABSTRACT

Objective: To synthesize the neurobiological basis of brain-resetting effects of psilocybin and identify neuroimaging correlates of psilocybin response in depressed patients.Data Sources: MEDLINE(R), Embase, APA PsycINFO, Cochrane, and CINAHL were systematically searched on June 3, 2022, with no date restrictions using the following string: (psilocybin) AND (psychedelics) AND (MRI) OR (fMRI)) OR (PET)) OR (SPECT)) OR (imaging)) OR (neuroimaging)).Study Selection: After duplicates were removed from 946 studies, 391 studies remained, of which 8 qualified for full-text analysis, but only 5 fulfilled the eligibility criteria of randomized, double-blind, or open-label neuroimaging study with psilocybin treatment in depressed patients.Data Extraction: The Covidence platform was used for deduplication and bias assessment. The a priori data points included concomitant psychological intervention, modality of neuroimaging technique, changes in depression scores, brain functional changes, and association between functional and psilocybin response. Assessment bias was assessed with the standard risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials and the tool for risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions.Results: Four studies were open-label, and one was a combined open-label and randomized controlled trial using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy was administered in 3 studies, 1 in refractory and 2 in nonrefractory patients. The remaining 2 studies were in refractory patients. The transient increase in psilocybin-induced global connectivity in major neural tracts and specific areas of brain activation was associated with antidepressant response.Conclusions: Transient functional brain changes with psilocybin therapy resemble the "brain reset" phenomenon and may serve as the putative predictors of psilocybin antidepressant response.


Subject(s)
Depression , Psilocybin , Humans , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Depression/drug therapy , Psilocybin/pharmacology , Psilocybin/therapeutic use , Psychotherapy/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 11(3): e01072, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239666

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic was an exceptional health situation, including for drug use. As there was no known effective drug for COVID-19 at the beginning of the pandemic, different drug candidates were proposed. In this article, we present the challenges for an academic Safety Department to manage the global safety of a European trial during the pandemic. The National Institute for Health and Medical Research (Inserm) conducted a European multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial involving three repurposed and one-in development drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir, IFN-ß1a, hydroxychloroquine, and remdesivir) in adults hospitalized with COVID-19. From 25 March 2020 to 29 May 2020, the Inserm Safety Department had to manage 585 Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) initial notification and 396 follow-up reports. The Inserm Safety Department's staff was mobilized to manage these SAEs and to report Expedited safety reports to the competent authorities within the legal timeframes. More than 500 queries were sent to the investigators due to a lack of or incoherent information on SAE forms. At the same time, the investigators were overwhelmed by the management of patients suffering from COVID-19 infection. These particular conditions of missing data and lack of accurate description of adverse events made evaluation of the SAEs very difficult, particularly the assessment of the causal role of each investigational medicinal product. In parallel, working difficulties were accentuated by the national lockdown, frequent IT tool dysfunctions, delayed implementation of monitoring and the absence of automatic alerts for SAE form modification. Although COVID-19 is a confounding factor per se, the delay in and quality of SAE form completion and the real-time medical analysis by the Inserm Safety Department were major issues in the quick identification of potential safety signals. To conduct a high-quality clinical trial and ensure patient safety, all stakeholders must take their roles and responsibilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacovigilance , Communicable Disease Control , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
4.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 36(4): 276-280, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238861

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for respiratory personal protective equipment for SARA-CoV-2, a topic of considerable controversy. RECENT FINDINGS: The main findings are that the observational studies and non-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) randomized trials do not provide clear evidence that the N95 respirators offer superior protection over surgical masks. A randomized controlled trial on COVID-19 provides evidence that the absolute risk to healthcare workers over time using surgical masks is similar to N95 respirators. SUMMARY: The implications of the findings are that surgical masks and N95 respirators can be considered for respiratory protection in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Trials ; 24(1): 389, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral pneumonia has always been a problem faced by clinicians because of its insidious onset, strong infectivity, and lack of effective drugs. Patients with advanced age or underlying diseases may experience more severe symptoms and are prone to severe ventilation dysfunction. Reducing pulmonary inflammation and improving clinical symptoms is the focus of current treatment. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) can mitigate inflammation and inhibit edema formation. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of therapeutic LIPUS in improving lung inflammation in hospitalized patients with viral pneumonia. METHODS: Sixty eligible participants with clinically confirmed viral pneumonia will be assigned to either (1) intervention group (LIPUS stimulus), (2) control group (null stimulus), or (3) self-control group (LIPUS stimulated areas versus non-stimulated areas). The primary outcome will be the difference in the extent of absorption and dissipation of lung inflammation on computed tomography. Secondary outcomes include changes in lung inflammation on ultrasonography images, pulmonary function, blood gas analysis, fingertip arterial oxygen saturation, serum inflammatory factor levels, the sputum excretion volume, time to the disappearance of pulmonary rales, pneumonia status score, and course of pneumonia. Adverse events will be recorded. DISCUSSION: This study is the first clinical study of the efficacy of therapeutic LIPUS in the treatment of viral pneumonia. Given that the current clinical recovery mainly depends on the body's self-limiting and conventional symptomatic treatment, LIPUS, as a new therapy method, might be a major advance in the treatment of viral pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2200059550 Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, May 3, 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Inflammation , Ultrasonic Waves , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
Euro Surveill ; 28(22)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236837

ABSTRACT

BackgroundVaccines play a crucial role in the response to COVID-19 and their efficacy is thus of great importance.AimTo assess the robustness of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) trial results using the fragility index (FI) and fragility quotient (FQ) methodology.MethodsWe conducted a Cochrane and PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of COVID-19 VE trials published worldwide until 22 January 2023. We calculated the FI and FQ for all included studies and assessed their associations with selected trial characteristics using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Spearman correlation coefficients and scatter plots were used to quantify the strength of correlation of FIs and FQs with trial characteristics.ResultsOf 6,032 screened records, we included 40 trials with 54 primary outcomes, comprising 909,404 participants with a median sample size per outcome of 13,993 (interquartile range (IQR): 8,534-25,519). The median FI and FQ was 62 (IQR: 22-123) and 0.50% (IQR: 0.24-0.92), respectively. FIs were positively associated with sample size (p < 0.001), and FQs were positively associated with type of blinding (p = 0.023). The Spearman correlation coefficient for FI with sample size was moderately strong (0.607), and weakly positive for FI and FQ with VE (0.138 and 0.161, respectively).ConclusionsThis was the largest study on trial robustness to date. Robustness of COVID-19 VE trials increased with sample size and varied considerably across several other important trial characteristics. The FI and FQ are valuable complementary parameters for the interpretation of trial results and should be reported alongside established trial outcome measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Phys Ther ; 103(5)2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for feasibility, safety, adherence, and short- and long-term efficacy in improving functioning and health-related quality of life in survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: COVIDEX is a two-pronged, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial with an 8-week training intervention. The study participants will be 94 patients aged >18 years, admitted to a specialized post-COVID center. Participants will be randomized to HIIT (4 × 4 minutes of high-intensity work periods at 85% to 90% of peak heart rate) and MICT (47 minutes at 70% to 75% peak heart rate) groups for biweekly sessions for 8 weeks. The participants will undergo 2 phases of supervised training (phases 1 and 2) of 4 weeks each, in a public, specialized, post-COVID center. In phase 1, we will assess and compare the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term efficacy of HIIT and MICT intervention. In phase 2, the long-term efficacy of HIIT and MICT will be assessed and compared regarding function and health-related quality of life. To prevent any expectation bias, all study participants and assessors will be blinded to the study hypotheses. Group allocation will be masked during the analysis. All statistical analyses will be conducted following intention-to-treat principles. IMPACT: This study is the first randomized controlled trial that will compare the feasibility, safety, adherence, and efficacy of the HIIT and MICT intervention programs in this population. The findings will potentially provide important information and assist in clinical decision making on exercise to optimize the benefits of clinical health care in survivors of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , High-Intensity Interval Training , Humans , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Quality of Life , Exercise/physiology , Survivors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
J Clin Nurs ; 32(13-14): 4116-4127, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235883

ABSTRACT

AIM: To design a protocol based on the experiences of long-term survivors to facilitate resilience for oesophageal cancer patients in rural China. BACKGROUND: According to the latest Global Cancer Statistics Report, 604,000 new cases of oesophageal cancer were reported, of which over 60% of the disease burden is distributed in China. The incidence of oesophageal cancer in rural China (15.95/100,000) is twice as high as those in urban areas (7.59/100,000). To be sure, resilience can help patients better adapt to post-cancer life. But universal interventions involving improving the resilience of oesophageal cancer patients have much less been explored, especially for rural patients. METHODS: The two-arm, parallel design, non-blinded, randomised controlled trial will be implemented in 86 adults diagnosed with oesophageal cancer and will be randomly assigned to the control group or the intervention group via the blocked randomisation. The intervention group will undergo an intervention with one-on-one guidance from a nurse while viewing a CD of the experiences of long-term survivors with oesophageal cancer in rural areas. Every 2 weeks, a theme session will be introduced, and the entire intervention will continue for 12 weeks. Psychosocial variables (resilience, self-efficacy, coping mode and family support) will be surveyed at baseline, post-intervention and 3 months after the intervention. The paper complies with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Intervention Trials 2013 and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for study protocols adapted for designing and reporting parallel group randomised trials. CONCLUSION: The intervention programme transitions from hospitalisation to discharge, which includes one-on-one interventions by medical personnel and a portable CD describing the experiences of long-term survivors with rural oesophageal cancer. Once the intervention's effectiveness is proven, this protocol will provide psychological support for massive oesophageal cancer patients. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The intervention programme may be used as an auxiliary therapy to promote patients' postoperative psychological rehabilitation. This programme has the advantages of being cost-effective, flexible, accessible, and convenient and can be implemented without the limitation of time, place and clinical medical staff. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Chinese Clinical Trial Registration number is ChiCTR2100050047. Registered on 16 August 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Cost of Illness , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
9.
Public Health Res (Southampt) ; 11(3): 1-77, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234426

ABSTRACT

Background: Substance use and offending are related in the context of other disinhibitory behaviours. Adolescents involved in the criminal justice system constitute a particularly vulnerable group, with a propensity to engage in risky behaviour that has long-term impact on their future health and well-being. Previous research of the RISKIT programme provided evidence of a potential effect in reducing substance use and risky behaviour in adolescents. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention compared with treatment as usual in reducing substance use for substance-using adolescents involved in the criminal justice system. Design: A mixed-methods, prospective, pragmatic, two-arm, randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 6 and 12 months post randomisation. Setting: The study was conducted across youth offending teams, pupil referral units and substance misuse teams across four areas of England (i.e. South East, London, North West, North East). Participants: Adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years (inclusive), recruited between September 2017 and June 2020. Interventions: Participants were randomised to treatment as usual or to treatment as usual in addition to the RISKIT-Criminal Justice System (RISKIT-CJS) programme. The RISKIT-CJS programme was a multicomponent intervention and consisted of two individual motivational interviews with a trained youth worker (lasting 45 minutes each) and two group sessions delivered over half a day on consecutive weeks. Main outcome measures: At 12 months, we assessed per cent days abstinent from substance use over the previous 28 days. Secondary outcome measures included well-being, motivational state, situational confidence, quality of life, resource use and fidelity of interventions delivered. Results: A total of 693 adolescents were assessed for eligibility, of whom 505 (73%) consented. Of these, 246 (49%) were allocated to the RISKIT-CJS intervention and 259 (51%) were allocated to treatment as usual only. At month 12, the overall follow-up rate was 57%: 55% in the RISKIT-CJS arm and 59% in the treatment-as-usual arm. At month 12, we observed an increase in per cent days abstinent from substances in both arms of the study, from 61% to 85%, but there was no evidence that the RISKIT-CJS intervention was superior to treatment as usual. A similar pattern was observed for secondary outcomes. The RISKIT-CJS intervention was not found to be any more cost-effective than treatment as usual. The qualitative research indicated that young people were positive about learning new skills and acquiring new knowledge. Although stakeholders considered the intervention worthwhile, they expressed concern that it came too late for the target population. Limitations: Our original aim to collect data on offences was thwarted by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and this affected both the statistical and economic analyses. Although 214 (87%) of the 246 participants allocated to the RISKIT-CJS intervention attended at least one individual face-to-face session, 98 (40%) attended a group session and only 47 (19%) attended all elements of the intervention. Conclusions: The RISKIT-CJS intervention was no more clinically effective or cost-effective than treatment as usual in reducing substance use among adolescents involved in the criminal justice system. Future research: The RISKIT-CJS intervention was considered more acceptable, and adherence was higher, in pupil referral units and substance misuse teams than in youth offending teams. Stakeholders in youth offending teams thought that the intervention was too late in the trajectory for their population. Trial registration: This trial is registered as ISRCTN77037777. Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme and will be published in full in Public Health Research; Vol. 11, No. 3. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


We explored how useful a psychological intervention was in reducing substance use among young people who had some involvement in the criminal justice system. We recruited young people aged between 13 and 17 years in four areas of England (i.e. South East, London, North West and North East). Young people were recruited from youth offending teams, pupil referral units and substance misuse teams. Those young people who were willing to participate were offered usual treatment and half, chosen at random, were offered an opportunity to take part in the RISKIT-Criminal Justice System (RISKIT-CJS) programme. The RISKIT-CJS programme had four distinct parts. The first was a 1-hour session that used an approach called motivational interviewing to explore the young person's substance use and discuss different strategies to change their behaviour. This was followed by two group sessions delivered over 2 consecutive weeks. These group sessions addressed risks associated with substance use, what triggers use and the health and social consequences. In addition, young people were taught new skills to help them manage in situations in which they might normally use substances. At the end of the group sessions, the young people had another motivational interview. Twelve months after participants started, we found that the frequency of substance use had decreased in both groups; however, the RISKIT-CJS intervention was no better than treatment as usual. When we spoke with young people who had taken part and staff involved with this population, we got a mixed picture. In some settings, particularly pupil referral units, the RISKIT-CJS intervention was well received by young people and staff, and staff felt that it was a useful additional resource to the work that they were currently undertaking. On the other hand, in the youth offending teams, the staff thought that the programme was too different from their normal work to be implemented easily and they considered the population they work with too established in their substance use and criminal activity to benefit from the programme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Criminal Law , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286859, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234179

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory changes made during the COVID-19 public health emergency (PHE) that relaxed criteria for take-home dosing (THD) of methadone offer an opportunity to improve quality of care with a lifesaving treatment. There is a pressing need for research to study the long-term effects of the new PHE THD rules and to test data-driven interventions to promote more effective adoption by opioid treatment programs (OTPs). We propose a two-phase project to develop and test a multidimensional intervention for OTPs that leverages information from large State administrative data. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose a two-phased project to develop then test a multidimensional OTP intervention to address clinical decision making, regulatory confusion, legal liability concerns, capacity for clinical practice change, and financial barriers to THD. The intervention will include OTP THD specific dashboards drawn from multiple State databases. The approach will be informed by the Health Equity Implementation Framework (HEIF). In phase 1, we will employ an explanatory sequential mixed methods design to combine analysis of large state administrative databases-Medicaid, treatment registry, THD reporting-with qualitative interviews to develop and refine the intervention. In phase 2, we will conduct a stepped-wedge trial over three years with 36 OTPs randomized to 6 cohorts of a six-month clinic-level intervention. The trial will test intervention effects on OTP-level implementation outcomes and patient outcomes (1) THD use; 2) retention in care; and 3) adverse healthcare events). We will specifically examine intervention effects for Black and Latinx clients. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design will be used: quantitative and qualitative data collection will occur concurrently and results will be integrated after analysis of each. We will employ generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) in the analysis of stepped-wedge trials. The primary outcome will be weekly or greater THD. The semi-structured interviews will be transcribed and analyzed with Dedoose to identify key facilitators, barriers, and experiences according to HEIF constructs using directed content analysis. DISCUSSION: This multi-phase, embedded mixed methods project addresses a critical need to support long-term practice changes in methadone treatment for opioid use disorder following systemic changes emerging from the PHE-particularly for Black and Latinx individuals with opioid use disorder. By combining findings from analyses of large administrative data with lessons gleaned from qualitative interviews of OTPs that were flexible with THD and those that were not, we will build and test the intervention to coach clinics to increase flexibility with THD. The findings will inform policy at the local and national level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Research Design , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
11.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e072622, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Children with bone and joint infections are traditionally treated with intravenous antibiotics for 3-10 days, followed by oral antibiotics. Oral-only treatment has not been tested in randomised trials. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children (3 months to 18 years) will be randomised 1:1 with the experimental group receiving high-dose oral antibiotics and the control group receiving intravenous antibiotics with a shift in both groups to standard oral antibiotics after clinical and paraclinical improvement. Children in need of acute surgery or systemic features requiring intravenous therapy, including septic shock, are excluded. The primary outcome is defined as a normal blinded standardised clinical assessment 6 months after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are non-acute treatment failure and recurrent infection. Outcomes will be compared by a non-inferiority assumption with an inferiority margin of 5%. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has the potential to reduce unnecessary hospitalisation and use of intravenous antibiotics in children with bone or joint infections. Due to the close follow-up, exclusion of severely ill children and predefined criteria for discontinuation of the allocated therapy, we expect the risk of treatment failure to be minimal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04563325.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Administration, Intravenous , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
12.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 0(6): 1-4, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233619

ABSTRACT

SYNOPSIS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are ubiquitous in medicine and have facilitated great strides in clinical care. However, when applied in sport, RCTs have limitations that hinder implementing effective interventions in the real-world clinical setting. Pragmatic clinical trials offer some solutions. Yet due to the competitive, high-pressure nature of sport at the individual, team, and governing body level, RCTs are likely infeasible in certain sport settings. The small number of athletes at the elite team level, along with the potential financial consequences of randomizing at the individual athlete and team level, also restricts study power and feasibility, limiting conclusions. Consequently, researchers may need to "think outside the box" and consider other research methodology, to help improve athlete care. In this Viewpoint, we detail alternative study designs that can help solve real-world problems in sports medicine and performance, while maintaining robust research standards and accounting for the challenges that RCTs pose. We also provide practical examples of alternative designs. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2023;53(6):1-4. Epub: 18 April 2023. doi:10.2519/jospt.2023.11824.


Subject(s)
Sports Medicine , Sports , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Athletes
13.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 26(7): 1227-1234, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231969

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines approved by the Food and Drug Administration have been studied mainly in healthy individuals and there is limited information on their immunogenicity in patients with autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the current systematic review and meta-analysis study, aimed to comprehensively investigate the immunogenicity of these vaccines in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatoid diseases (AIRDs). A comprehensive literature search was performed on various databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, to select cohort and randomized clinical trial (RCT) studies up to January 2022. Also, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist protocol and the I2 statistic were used for quality assessment and heterogeneity tests of the selected studies. Fixed and random-effects models were estimated based on the heterogeneity tests, and pooled data were determined as the ratio of mean (ROM) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). As a result, we found that vaccines can cause favorable immunogenicity and antibody response in vaccinated AIRD patients; however, older age and the concomitant consumption of conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) and biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) could significantly reduce the vaccine immunogenicity. Consequently, our findings revealed significant humoral responses (seropositive) in AIRD patients following the administration of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Humans , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
14.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e071098, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long COVID is a prevalent condition with many multisystemic symptoms, such as fatigue, dyspnoea, muscle weakness, anxiety, depression and sleep difficulties, impacting daily life and (social and physical) functioning. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) may improve physical status and symptoms of patients with long COVID, yet the evidence is limited. Therefore, this trial aims to study the effect of primary care PR on exercise capacity, symptoms, physical activity and sleep in patients with long COVID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PuRe-COVID is a prospective, pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial. A sample of 134 adult patients with long COVID will be randomised to a 12 week PR programme in primary care, supervised by a physiotherapist or to a control group, following no PR. A 3 month and 6 month follow-up period is foreseen. The primary endpoint will be the change in exercise capacity measured by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) at 12 weeks, hypothesising a more significant improvement in the PR group. Other parameters, such as pulmonary function tests (including maximal inspiratory pressure/maximal expiratory pressure), patient-reported outcomes (COPD Assessment Test, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, Checklist Individual Strength, post-COVID-19 Functional Status, Nijmegen questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire and EuroQol-5D-5L), physical activity measured by an activity tracker, hand grip strength and sleep efficiency, are secondary and exploratory outcomes.The recruitment started on 19 April 2022, and 52 patients were included as of 14 December 2022. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained in Belgium from the relevant institutional review boards on 21 February 2022 (Antwerp University Hospital, approval number 2022-3067) and on 1 April 2022 (Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg in Genk, approval number Z-2022-01). Findings from this randomised controlled trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05244044.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Hand Strength , Belgium , Exercise Tolerance , Prospective Studies , Exercise , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e072029, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243589

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Falls are an important public health issue with consequences that include injuries, quality of life reduction and high healthcare costs. Studies show that falls prevention strategies are effective in reducing falls rate among community-dwelling older adults. However, the evaluation for effectiveness was usually done in a controlled setting with homogeneous population, and thus may not be generalisable to a wider population. This study aims to evaluate the impact of community falls prevention programmes with group-based strength and balance exercises, on falls risk and health outcomes for older adults with falls risk in Singapore. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a pragmatic closed cohort stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design study, which involves sequential crossover of clusters from the waitlist control condition to the intervention condition, with the sequence of crossover randomly determined. The intervention will be sequentially rolled out to 12 clusters (a minimum of 5 participants/cluster), over 6 time periods with 8-week intervals in Central and North regions of Singapore. The primary analysis will be conducted under the intention-to-treat principle. A general linear mixed model or generalised estimating equation analysis appropriate for a multilevel longitudinal study incorporating an appropriate error distribution and link function will be used. Markov model will be developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years and incremental cost per fall prevented from the implementation of falls prevention strategies from a societal perspective. Conditional on there being clinically relevant differences in short-term outcomes, we will implement simulation modelling to project the long-term divergence in trajectories for outcomes and costs using the Markov model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained. Results will be disseminated in publications and other relevant platforms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04788251.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Longitudinal Studies , Singapore , Exercise Therapy/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
16.
Am Heart J ; 262: 119-130, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the proportion of patients with uncontrolled diseases is higher than in high-income countries. Innovative strategies are required to surpass barriers of low sources, distance and quality of health care. Our aim is to assess the uptake and effectiveness of the implementation of an integrated multidimensional strategy in the primary care setting, for the management of people with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Brazil. METHODS: This scale up implementation study called Control of Hypertension and diAbetes in MINas Gerais (CHArMING) Project has mixed-methods, and comprehends 4 steps: (1) needs assessment, including a standardized structured questionnaire and focus groups with health care practitioners; (2) baseline period, 3 months before the implementation of the intervention; (3) cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 12-months follow-up period; and (4) a qualitative study after the end of follow-up. The cluster RCT will randomize 35 centers to intervention (n = 18) or usual care (n = 17). Patients ≥18 years old, with diagnosis of hypertension and/or DM, of 5 Brazilian cities in a resource-constrained area will be enrolled. The intervention consists of a multifaceted strategy, with a multidisciplinary approach, including telehealth tools (decision support systems, short message service, telediagnosis), continued education with an approach to issues related to the care of people with hypertension and diabetes in primary care, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment and behavioral change. The project has actions focused on professionals and patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study consists of a multidimensional strategy with multidisciplinary approach using digital health to improve the control of hypertension and/or DM in the primary health care setting. We expect to provide the basis for implementing an innovative management program for hypertension and DM in Brazil, aiming to reduce the present and future burden of these diseases in Brazil and other LMICs. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. (NCT05660928).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Humans , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Primary Health Care/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e072353, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243288

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: South Asians are more likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than white Europeans. Diet and lifestyle modifications may prevent GDM and reduce undesirable outcomes in both the mother and offspring. Our study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness and participant acceptability of a culturally tailored, personalised nutrition intervention on the glucose area under the curve (AUC) after a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant women of South Asian ancestry with GDM risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 190 South Asian pregnant women with at least 2 of the following GDM risk factors-prepregnancy body mass index>23, age>29, poor-quality diet, family history of type 2 diabetes in a first-degree relative or GDM in a previous pregnancy will be enrolled during gestational weeks 12-18, and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to: (1) usual care, plus weekly text messages to encourage walking and paper handouts or (2) a personalised nutrition plan developed and delivered by a culturally congruent dietitian and health coach; and FitBit to track steps. The intervention lasts 6-16 weeks, depending on week of recruitment. The primary outcome is the glucose AUC from a three-sample 75 g OGTT 24-28 weeks' gestation. The secondary outcome is GDM diagnosis, based on Born-in-Bradford criteria (fasting glucose>5.2 mmol/L or 2 hours post load>7.2 mmol/L). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HiREB #10942). Findings will be disseminated among academics and policy-makers through scientific publications along with community-orientated strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03607799.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Risk Factors , Blood Glucose , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 78: 100200, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir is an antiviral agent with positive effects on the prognosis of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). However, there are concerns about the detrimental effects of remdesivir on kidney function which might consequently lead to Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). In this study, we aim to determine whether remdesivir use in COVID-19 patients increases the risk of AKI. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, medRxiv, and bioRxiv were systematically searched until July 2022, to find Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) that evaluated remdesivir for its effect on COVID-19 and provided information on AKI events. A random-effects model meta-analysis was conducted and the certainty of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. The primary outcomes were AKI as a Serious Adverse Event (SAE) and combined serious and non-serious Adverse Events (AE) due to AKI. RESULTS: This study included 5 RCTs involving 3095 patients. Remdesivir treatment was not associated with a significant change in the risk of AKI classified as SAE (Risk Ratio [RR]: 0.71, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.43‒1.18, p = 0.19, low-certainty evidence) and AKI classified as any grade AEs (RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.52‒1.33, p = 0.44, low-certainty evidence), compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that remdesivir treatment probably has little or no effect on the risk of AKI in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 18(1): 39, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breaking Free Online (BFO), a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) program for substance use disorders (SUD), has been available across UK treatment services for the past decade and has demonstrated efficacy. The Covid-19 pandemic has contributed to digital and 'telehealth' approaches to healthcare delivery becoming more common and accepted, and has in parallel, increased numbers of referrals to SUD services because of the impact pandemic-related stress has had on substance using habits in the general population. Digital and telehealth approaches, such as BFO, have the potential to support the treatment system to meet this increased demand for SUD services. METHODS: Parallel-group randomized controlled trial of eight-week BFO as an adjunct to standard treatment for SUD, in comparison to standard treatment only, at a National Health Service (NHS) Mental Health Trust in North-West England. Participants will be service users aged 18 years and over with demonstrable SUD for at least 12-months. Interventional and control groups will be compared on multiple measures from baseline to post-treatment assessment at eight-weeks, and then three and six-months follow-up. Primary outcome will be self-reported substance use, with secondary outcomes being standardized assessments of substance dependence, mental health, biopsychosocial functioning and quality of life. DISCUSSION: This study will examine whether BFO and telehealth support, when delivered as an adjunct to standard SUD interventions, improves outcomes for services users receiving NHS SUD treatment. Findings from the study will be used to inform both developments to the BFO program and guidance around augmenting the delivery of CAT programs via telehealth. Trial registration registered with ISRCTN on 25th May 2021-registration number: 13694016. PROTOCOL VERSION: 3.0 05th April 2022. TRIAL STATUS: This trial is currently open to recruitment-estimated to be completed in May 2023.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Therapy, Computer-Assisted , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , State Medicine , Therapy, Computer-Assisted/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e064058, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235059

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk of infection due to their exposure to COVID infections. HCWs were the backbone of our healthcare response to this pandemic; every HCW withdrawn or lost due to infection had a substantial impact on our capacity to deliver care. Primary prevention was a key approach to reduce infection. Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in Canadians and worldwide. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of respiratory infections. Whether this risk reduction would apply to COVID-19 infections remained to be determined. This study aimed to determine the impact of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection rate and severity in HCWs working in high COVID incidence areas. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PROTECT was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicentre trial of vitamin D supplementation in HCWs. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio in variable block size to intervention (one oral loading dose of 100 000 IU vitamin D3+10 000 IU weekly vitamin D3) or control (identical placebo loading dose+weekly placebo). The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, documented by RT-qPCR on salivary (or nasopharyngeal) specimens obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes, as well as self-obtained salivary specimens and COVID-19 seroconversion at endpoint. Secondary outcomes included disease severity; duration of COVID-19-related symptoms; COVID-19 seroconversion documented at endpoint; duration of work absenteeism; duration of unemployment support; and adverse health events. The trial was terminated prematurely, due to recruitment difficulty. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study involves human participants and was approved by the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine serving as central committee for participating institutions (#MP-21-2021-3044). Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study before taking part. Results are being disseminated to the medical community via national/international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04483635.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
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