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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 127, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to measure the efficacy of ionic-iodine polymer complex [1] for clinical and radiological improvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial will be closed label, randomized and placebo-controlled with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio and superiority framework. PARTICIPANTS: All PCR confirmed COVID-19 adult patients including non-pregnant females, with mild to moderate disease, will be enrolled from Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). Patients with any pre-existing chronic illness will be excluded from the study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this multi-armed study ionic-iodine polymer complex with 200 mg of elemental iodine will be given using three formulations to evaluate efficacy. Patients will be receiving either encapsulated iodine complex of 200 mg (arm A), iodine complex syrup form 40 ml (arm B), iodine complex throat spray of 2 puffs (arm C) or empty capsule (arm D) as placebo; all three times a day. All the 4 arms will be receiving standard care as per version 3.0 of the clinical management guidelines for COVID-19 established by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes will be viral clearance with radiological and clinical improvement. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and HRCT chest scans will be done on the admission day and then after every fourth day for 12 days or till the symptoms are resolved. RT-PCR will only be shown as positive or negative while HRCT chest scoring will be done depending on the area and severity of lung involvement [2]. Time taken for the alleviation of symptoms will be calculated by the number of days the patient remained symptomatic. 30-day mortality will be considered as a secondary outcome. RANDOMISATION: Stratification for initial COVID-19 status (or days from initial symptoms as a proxy), age groups, gender, baseline severity of symptoms and co-morbidities will be used to ensure that the study arms remain balanced in size for the 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio. Randomization will be done using the lottery method. As patients are being admitted at different times, they will be recruited after obtaining their voluntary written informed consent following all standard protocols of the infection, control and disinfection. BLINDING (MASKING): This is a quadruple (participants, care providers, investigators and outcomes assessors) blinded study where only the study's Primary Investigator will have information about the arms and their interventions. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 200 patients will be randomized into four groups with three experimental and one placebo arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version Number is 2.3 and it is approved from IRB Shaikh Zayed Hospital with ID SZMC/IRB/Internal0056/2020 on July 14th, 2020. The recruitment is in progress. It was started on July 30, 2020, and the estimated end date for the trial is August 15, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial has been retrospectively registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04473261 dated July 16, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Iodine Compounds/administration & dosage , Polymers/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Capsules , Female , Humans , Male , Oral Sprays , Pakistan/epidemiology , Patient Admission , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 47, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs in response to a variety of insults, and mechanical ventilation is life-saving in this setting, but ventilator-induced lung injury can also contribute to the morbidity and mortality in the condition. The Beacon Caresystem is a model-based bedside decision support system using mathematical models tuned to the individual patient's physiology to advise on appropriate ventilator settings. Personalised approaches using individual patient description may be particularly advantageous in complex patients, including those who are difficult to mechanically ventilate and wean, in particular ARDS. METHODS: We will conduct a multi-centre international randomised, controlled, allocation concealed, open, pragmatic clinical trial to compare mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients following application of the Beacon Caresystem to that of standard routine care to investigate whether use of the system results in a reduction in driving pressure across all severities and phases of ARDS. DISCUSSION: Despite 20 years of clinical trial data showing significant improvements in ARDS mortality through mitigation of ventilator-induced lung injury, there remains a gap in its personalised application at the bedside. Importantly, the protective effects of higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were noted only when there were associated decreases in driving pressure. Hence, the pressures set on the ventilator should be determined by the diseased lungs' pressure-volume relationship which is often unknown or difficult to determine. Knowledge of extent of recruitable lung could improve the ventilator driving pressure. Hence, personalised management demands the application of mechanical ventilation according to the physiological state of the diseased lung at that time. Hence, there is significant rationale for the development of point-of-care clinical decision support systems which help personalise ventilatory strategy according to the current physiology. Furthermore, the potential for the application of the Beacon Caresystem to facilitate local and remote management of large numbers of ventilated patients (as seen during this COVID-19 pandemic) could change the outcome of mechanically ventilated patients during the course of this and future pandemics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04115709. Registered on 4 October 2019, version 4.0.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Trials ; 23(1): 30, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether awake prone positioning can prevent intubation for invasive ventilation in spontaneous breathing critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Awake prone positioning could benefit these patients for various reasons, including a reduction in direct harm to lung tissue, and prevention of tracheal intubation-related complications. DESIGN AND METHODS: The PRONELIFE study is an investigator-initiated, international, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in patients who may need invasive ventilation because of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Consecutive patients admitted to participating ICUs are randomly assigned to standard care with awake prone positioning, versus standard care without awake prone positioning. The primary endpoint is a composite of tracheal intubation and all-cause mortality in the first 14 days after enrolment. Secondary endpoints include time to tracheal intubation and effects of awake prone positioning on oxygenation parameters, dyspnea sensation, and complications. Other endpoints are the number of days free from ventilation and alive at 28 days, total duration of use of noninvasive respiratory support, total duration of invasive ventilation, length of stay in ICU and hospital, and mortality in ICU and hospital, and at 28, 60, and 90 days. We will also collect data regarding the tolerance of prone positioning. DISCUSSION: The PRONELIFE study is among the first randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of awake prone positioning on intubation rate in ICU patients with acute hypoxemic failure from any cause. The PRONELIFE study is sufficiently sized to determine the effect of awake prone positioning on intubation for invasive ventilation-patients are eligible in case of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure without restrictions regarding etiology. The PRONELIFE study is a pragmatic trial in which blinding is impossible-however, as around 35 ICUs worldwide will participate in this study, its findings will be highly generalizable. The findings of the PRONELIFE study have the potential to change clinical management of patients who may need invasive ventilation because of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN11536318 . Registered on 17 September 2021. The PRONELIFE study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov with reference number NCT04142736 (October, 2019).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prone Position , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Wakefulness
4.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 193, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, millions of people with advanced cancer and their family caregivers are experiencing physical and psychological distress. Psychosocial support and education can reduce distress and prevent avoidable healthcare resource use. To date, we lack knowledge from large-scale studies on which interventions generate positive outcomes for people with cancer and their informal caregivers' quality of life. This protocol describes the DIAdIC study that will evaluate the effectiveness of two psychosocial and educational interventions aimed at improving patient-family caregiver dyads' emotional functioning and self-efficacy. METHODS: We will conduct an international multicenter three-arm randomized controlled trial in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In each country, 156 dyads (936 in total) of people with advanced cancer and their family caregiver will be randomized to one of the study arms: 1) a nurse-led face-to-face intervention (FOCUS+), 2) a web-based intervention (iFOCUS) or 3) a control group (care as usual). The two interventions offer tailored psychoeducational support for patient-family caregiver dyads. The nurse-led face-to-face intervention consists of two home visits and one online video session and the web-based intervention is completed independently by the patient-family caregiver dyad in four online sessions. The interventions are based on the FOCUS intervention, developed in the USA, that addresses five core components: family involvement, optimistic outlook, coping effectiveness, uncertainty reduction, and symptom management. The FOCUS intervention will be adapted to the European context. The primary outcomes are emotional functioning and self-efficacy of the patient and the family caregiver, respectively. The secondary outcomes are quality of life, benefits of illness, coping, dyadic communication, and ways of giving support of the patient and family caregiver. DISCUSSION: DIAdIC aims to develop cost-effective interventions that integrate principles of early palliative care into standard care. The cross-country setup in six European countries allows for comparison of effectiveness of the interventions in different healthcare systems across Europe. By focusing on empowerment of the person with cancer and their family caregiver, the results of this RCT can contribute to the search for cost-effective novel interventions that can relieve constraints on professional healthcare. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration on ClinicalTrials.gov on 12/11/2020, identifier NCT04626349 . DATE AND VERSION IDENTIFIER: 20211209_DIAdIC_Protocol_Article.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Neoplasms , Humans , Internet , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Neoplasms/therapy , Psychosocial Support Systems , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Trials ; 23(1): 35, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people worldwide. In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in need of oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, dexamethasone 6 mg per day is currently recommended. However, the dose of 6 mg of dexamethasone is currently being reappraised and may miss important therapeutic potential or may prevent potential deleterious effects of higher doses of corticosteroids. METHODS: REMED is a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing the superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg (dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1-5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg on days 6-10) vs 6 mg administered once daily intravenously for 10 days in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. Three hundred participants will be enrolled and followed up for 360 days after randomization. Patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. The following stratification factors will be applied: age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, CRP levels and trial centre. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation. The secondary endpoints are mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; dynamics of the inflammatory marker, change in WHO Clinical Progression Scale at day 14; and adverse events related to corticosteroids and independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by the Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. The study will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. DISCUSSION: We aim to compare two different doses of dexamethasone in patients with moderate to severe ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation regarding efficacy and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT No. 2020-005887-70. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04663555. Registered on December 11, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Trials ; 23(1): 51, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has witnessed wide-ranging efforts to minimize the spread of the virus and to protect those most vulnerable to becoming unwell following viral infection. Core COVID-19 preventive measures include social distancing, regular hand washing, and wearing face coverings in public places. Understanding links between social cognitive factors relating to beliefs/skills is important in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as this can suggest which factors might be targeted via behaviour change interventions to promote adherence to COVID-19 preventative behaviours. In this context, mental imagery exercises-self-directed imagining of an anticipated outcome or processes linked to a defined behaviour/activity-offer a well-evidenced, relatively simple behaviour change intervention. In the mental imagery invention reported in this protocol, individuals will be randomly assigned to one of four separate conditions (outcome imagery, process imagery, outcome and process imagery, control). METHODS: The primary objective of this randomized controlled study is to assess the effectiveness of a mental imagery intervention on wearing face coverings, as a defined core COVID-19 preventative behaviour. Participants will consist of UK university students and university employees of any age. Participants will be randomized to complete an 'outcome imagery' or a 'process imagery' exercise, both exercises (i.e. a combined condition) or neither exercise (i.e. a control condition). A total of 260 individuals will be recruited into the study. Outcomes for all study condition arms will be assessed at baseline (Time 1), immediately post-intervention (Time 2), and at 1-month follow-up (Time 3). The primary outcome is frequency of wearing face covering, as reported at T2 and T3. Secondary outcomes include intervention effects on face covering attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioural control and barrier self-efficacy at T2 and T3. Putative moderators of intervention effects are conscientiousness, narcissism and 'light triad' personality traits. DISCUSSION: This trial will contribute toward the currently sparse evidence base concerning behaviour change techniques designed to promote COVID-19 preventative behaviours among UK university students and university employees. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (U.S. National Library of Medicine) NCT04583449 . Retrospectively registered on 20 October 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United Kingdom , Universities
7.
Trials ; 23(1): 58, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus-infected millions globally. Despite a wide range of advised options for the treatment of COVID-19, a single strategy to tackle this pandemic remains elusive, thus far. That is why we are conducting a clinical trial to find out the efficacy of iodine complex to clear a viral load of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) along with a reduction in time taken to alleviate symptoms. METHOD: The proposed study is a placebo-controlled, add-on, randomized trial using parallel group designs. This is a closed-label and adaptive with sample size reassessment, multi-centered design with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio and superiority framework. It will be conducted in Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex, Ali Clinic, and Doctors Lounge, Lahore, Pakistan. This study will have three arms of mild to moderately symptomatic COVID-19 patients (50 patients in each) which will receive ionic-iodine polymer complex with 200 mg of elemental iodine: interventional arm A will have encapsulated, arm B will receive suspension syrup form, arm C will get throat spray, while arm X will be standard care with placebo. Data will be collected on self-constructed, close-ended questionnaires after obtaining written consent. Data will be analyzed using SAS version 9.4. COVID-19 patients will be monitored by RT-PCR and HRCT (high-resolution computed tomography) chest. In addition to these, the duration of the symptomatic phase and mortality benefits will be analyzed in both groups. DISCUSSION: The study is designed to measure the superior efficacy of the iodine complex as an add-on in treating COVID-19-positive patients with mild to moderate symptoms. This combination is hypothesized to improve various parameters like rapid viral load reduction, clinical and radiological improvement, lower mortality, and reduction in hospitalization. The trial will aid in devising a better strategy to cope with COVID-19 in a relatively inexpensive and accessible way. The implications are global, and this could prove itself to be the most manageable intervention against COVID-19 especially for patients from limited-resource countries with deprived socioeconomic status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04473261 . Registered on July 16, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Iodine , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Trials ; 23(1): 58, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus-infected millions globally. Despite a wide range of advised options for the treatment of COVID-19, a single strategy to tackle this pandemic remains elusive, thus far. That is why we are conducting a clinical trial to find out the efficacy of iodine complex to clear a viral load of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) along with a reduction in time taken to alleviate symptoms. METHOD: The proposed study is a placebo-controlled, add-on, randomized trial using parallel group designs. This is a closed-label and adaptive with sample size reassessment, multi-centered design with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio and superiority framework. It will be conducted in Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex, Ali Clinic, and Doctors Lounge, Lahore, Pakistan. This study will have three arms of mild to moderately symptomatic COVID-19 patients (50 patients in each) which will receive ionic-iodine polymer complex with 200 mg of elemental iodine: interventional arm A will have encapsulated, arm B will receive suspension syrup form, arm C will get throat spray, while arm X will be standard care with placebo. Data will be collected on self-constructed, close-ended questionnaires after obtaining written consent. Data will be analyzed using SAS version 9.4. COVID-19 patients will be monitored by RT-PCR and HRCT (high-resolution computed tomography) chest. In addition to these, the duration of the symptomatic phase and mortality benefits will be analyzed in both groups. DISCUSSION: The study is designed to measure the superior efficacy of the iodine complex as an add-on in treating COVID-19-positive patients with mild to moderate symptoms. This combination is hypothesized to improve various parameters like rapid viral load reduction, clinical and radiological improvement, lower mortality, and reduction in hospitalization. The trial will aid in devising a better strategy to cope with COVID-19 in a relatively inexpensive and accessible way. The implications are global, and this could prove itself to be the most manageable intervention against COVID-19 especially for patients from limited-resource countries with deprived socioeconomic status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04473261 . Registered on July 16, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Iodine , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 172, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that administration of dexamethasone 20 mg is superior to a 6 mg dose in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. The secondary objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone 20 mg versus dexamethasone 6 mg. The exploratory objective of this study is to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. TRIAL DESIGN: REMED is a prospective, phase II, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg vs 6 mg. The trial aims to be pragmatic, i.e. designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in conditions that are close to real-life routine clinical practice. PARTICIPANTS: The study is multi-centre and will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will be eligible for the trial if they meet all of the following criteria: 1. Adult (≥18 years of age) at time of enrolment; 2. Present COVID-19 (infection confirmed by RT-PCR or antigen testing); 3. Intubation/mechanical ventilation or ongoing high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy; 4. Moderate or severe ARDS according to Berlin criteria: • Moderate - PaO2/FiO2 100-200 mmHg; • Severe - PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg; 5. Admission to ICU in the last 24 hours. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will not be eligible for the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Known allergy/hypersensitivity to dexamethasone or excipients of the investigational medicinal product (e.g. parabens, benzyl alcohol); 2. Fulfilled criteria for ARDS for ≥14 days at enrolment; 3. Pregnancy or breastfeeding; 4. Unwillingness to comply with contraception measurements from enrolment until at least 1 week after the last dose of dexamethasone (sexual abstinence is considered an adequate contraception method); 5. End-of-life decision or patient is expected to die within next 24 hours; 6. Decision not to intubate or ceilings of care in place; 7. Immunosuppression and/or immunosuppressive drugs in medical history: a) Systemic immunosuppressive drugs or chemotherapy in the past 30 days; b) Systemic corticosteroid use before hospitalization; c) Any dose of dexamethasone during the present hospital stay for COVID-19 for ≥5 days before enrolment; d) Systemic corticosteroids during present hospital stay for conditions other than COVID-19 (e.g. septic shock); 8. Current haematological or generalized solid malignancy; 9. Any contraindication for corticosteroid administration, e.g. • intractable hyperglycaemia; • active gastrointestinal bleeding; • adrenal gland disorders; • presence of superinfection diagnosed with locally established clinical and laboratory criteria without adequate antimicrobial treatment; 10. Cardiac arrest before ICU admission; 11. Participation in another interventional trial in the last 30 days. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Dexamethasone solution for injection/infusion is the investigational medicinal product as well as the comparator. The trial will assess two doses, 20 mg (investigational) vs 6 mg (comparator). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20 mg intravenously once daily on day 1-5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously once daily on day 6-10. Patients in the control group will receive dexamethasone 6 mg day 1-10. All authorized medicinal products containing dexamethasone in the form of solution for i.v. injection/infusion can be used. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoint: Number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. SECONDARY ENDPOINTS: a) Mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; b) Dynamics of inflammatory marker (C-Reactive Protein, CRP) change from Day 1 to Day 14; c) WHO Clinical Progression Scale at Day 14; d) Adverse events related to corticosteroids (new infections, new thrombotic complications) until Day 28 or hospital discharge; e) Independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days through telephone structured interviews using the Barthel Index. RANDOMISATION: Randomisation will be carried out within the electronic case report form (eCRF) by the stratified permuted block randomisation method. Allocation sequences will be prepared by a statistician independent of the study team. Allocation to the treatment arm of an individual patient will not be available to the investigators before completion of the whole randomisation process. The following stratification factors will be applied: • Age <65 and ≥ 65; • Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) <3 and ≥3; • CRP <150 mg/L and ≥150 mg/L • Trial centre. Patients will be randomised in a 1 : 1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. Randomisation through the eCRF will be available 24 hours every day. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial in which the participants and the study staff will be aware of the allocated intervention. Blinded pre-planned statistical analysis will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size is calculated to detect the difference of 3 VFDs at 28 days (primary efficacy endpoint) between the two treatment arms with a two-sided type I error of 0.05 and power of 80%. Based on data from a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in COVID-19 ARDS patients in Brazil and a multi-centre observational study from French and Belgian ICUs regarding moderate to severe ARDS related to COVID-19, investigators assumed a standard deviation of VFD at 28 days as 9. Using these assumptions, a total of 142 patients per treatment arm would be needed. After adjustment for a drop-out rate, 150 per treatment arm (300 patients per study) will be enrolled. TRIAL STATUS: This is protocol version 1.1, 15.01.2021. The trial is due to start on 2 February 2021 and recruitment is expected to be completed by December 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered on EudraCT No.:2020-005887-70, and on December 11, 2020 on ClinicalTrials.gov (Title: Effect of Two Different Doses of Dexamethasone in Patients With ARDS and COVID-19 (REMED)) Identifier: NCT04663555 with a last update posted on February 1, 2021. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (version 1.1) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the standard formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Disease Progression , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Humans , Length of Stay , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Trials ; 23(1): 19, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to affect the globe. After 18 months of the SARS-CoV-2 emergence, clinicians have clearly defined a subgroup of patients with lasting, disabling symptoms. While big strides have been made in understanding the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the pathophysiology of long COVID is still largely unknown, and evidence-based, effective treatments for this condition remain unavailable. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of 10 mg oral montelukast every 24 h versus placebo in improving quality of life associated with mild to moderate respiratory symptoms in patients with long COVID as measured with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire. The secondary objectives will evaluate the effect of montelukast versus placebo on improving exercise capacity, COVID-19 symptoms (asthenia, headache, mental confusion or brain fog, ageusia, and anosmia), oxygen desaturation during exertion, functional status, and mortality. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Phase III, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. We will include 18- to 80-year-old patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild to moderate respiratory symptoms lasting more than 4 weeks. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (experimental treatment with 10 mg/day montelukast) or the control group (placebo group), during a 28-day treatment. Follow-up will finish 56 days after the start of treatment. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life associated with respiratory symptoms according to the COPD Assessment Test 4 weeks after starting the treatment. The following are the secondary outcomes: (a) exercise capacity and oxygen saturation (1-min sit-to-stand test); (b) Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale; (c) other symptoms: asthenia, headache, mental confusion (brain fog), ageusia, and anosmia (Likert scale); (d) use of healthcare resources; (e) mortality; (f) sick leave duration in days; and (g) side effects of montelukast. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the IDIAPJGol (reference number 21/091-C). The trial results will be published in open access, peer-reviewed journals and explained in webinars to increase awareness and understanding about long COVID among primary health professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04695704 . Registered on January 5, 2021. EudraCT number 2021-000605-24. Prospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Acetates , COVID-19/complications , Cyclopropanes , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Quality of Life , Quinolines , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfides , Treatment Outcome
11.
Trials ; 23(1): 4, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by circulatory insufficiency caused by an acute dysfunction of the heart pump. The pathophysiological approach to CS has recently been enriched by the tissue consequences of low flow, including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the impact of early low-dose corticosteroid therapy on shock reversal in adults with CS. METHOD/DESIGN: This is a multicentered randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel arms in adult patients with CS recruited from medical, cardiac, and polyvalent intensive care units (ICU) in France. Patients will be randomly allocated into the treatment or control group (1:1 ratio), and we will recruit 380 patients (190 per group). For the treatment group, hydrocortisone (50 mg intravenous bolus every 6 h) and fludrocortisone (50 µg once a day enterally) will be administered for 7 days or until discharge from the ICU. The primary endpoint is catecholamine-free days at day 7. Secondary endpoints include morbidity and all-cause mortality at 28 and 90 days post-randomization. Pre-defined subgroups analyses are planned, including: postcardiotomy, myocardial infarction, etomidate use, vasopressor use, and adrenal profiles according the short corticotropin stimulation test. Each patient will be followed for 90 days. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide valuable evidence about the effectiveness of low dose of corticosteroid therapy for CS. If effective, this therapy might improve outcome and become a therapeutic adjunct for patients with CS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03773822 . Registered on 12 December 2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Shock, Cardiogenic , Adult , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the effectiveness on stress urinary incontinence (SUI) prevention of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for pregnant women has been inconclusive, we are planning to conduct a trial to evaluate a video program designed for prevention of SUI developed through combining PFMT with global postural reeducation (GPR). METHODS: As a randomized controlled trial, eligible participants will be randomized (1:1) into an exercise group and a control group to perform PFMT regularly following video guidance or with no intervention, respectively. The experimental stage will be from the 16th gestation week (GW) to the 12th month postpartum, with eight appointments at the 16th, 28th, 37th GW, delivery, the 6th week and the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month postpartum. Data will be collected regarding urinary leakage symptoms, the stress test, the modified Oxford Scale, pelvic floor ultrasound, perineal laceration classification at delivery, neonatal Apgar score, and questionnaires (PISQ-12, ICIQ-UI SF, I-QOL, OABSS). The primary outcome is the occurrence of the symptomatic SUI and positive stress test at the 6th week postpartum. DISCUSSION: This protocol is anticipated to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention via video app for the design of a future randomized control trial (RCT). TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR2000029618).


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Urinary Incontinence, Stress , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pelvic Floor , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/prevention & control
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260889, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40-70% of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) fall each year, causing decreased activity levels and quality of life. Current fall-prevention strategies include the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. To increase the accessibility of this vulnerable population, we developed a multidisciplinary telemedicine program using an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform. We hypothesized that the risk for falling in PD would decrease among participants receiving a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program added to standard office-based neurological care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention to decrease the incidence of falls in patients with PD. METHODS: Ongoing, longitudinal, randomized, single-blinded, case-control, clinical trial. We will include 76 non-demented patients with idiopathic PD with a high risk of falling and limited access to multidisciplinary care. The intervention group (n = 38) will receive multidisciplinary remote care in addition to standard medical care, and the control group (n = 38) standard medical care only. Nutrition, sarcopenia and frailty status, motor, non-motor symptoms, health-related quality of life, caregiver burden, falls, balance and gait disturbances, direct and non-medical costs will be assessed using validated rating scales. RESULTS: This study will provide a cost-effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention for fall reduction in PD, in addition to standard neurological medical care. CONCLUSION: In this challenging initiative, we will determine whether a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program can reduce falls, as an alternative intervention option for PD patients with restricted access to multidisciplinary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04694443.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy/methods , Gait , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
14.
Trials ; 23(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding offers many medical and neurodevelopmental advantages for birthing parents and infants; however, the majority of parents stop breastfeeding before it is recommended. Professional lactation support by the International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) increases breastfeeding rates; however, many communities lack access to IBCLCs. Black and Latinx parents have lower breastfeeding rates, and limited access to professional lactation support may contribute to this disparity. Virtual "telelactation" consults that use two-way video have the potential to increase access to IBCLCs among disadvantaged populations. We present a protocol for the digital Tele-MILC trial, which uses mixed methods to evaluate the impact of telelactation services on breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this pragmatic, parallel design randomized controlled trial is to assess the impact of telelactation on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity and explore how acceptability of and experiences with telelactation vary across Latinx, Black, and non-Black and non-Latinx parents to guide future improvement of these services. METHODS: 2400 primiparous, pregnant individuals age > 18 who intend to breastfeed and live in the USA underserved by IBCLCs will be recruited. Recruitment will occur via Ovia, a pregnancy tracker mobile phone application (app) used by over one million pregnant individuals in the USA annually. Participants will be randomized to (1) on-demand telelactation video calls on personal devices or (2) ebook on infant care/usual care. Breastfeeding outcomes will be captured via surveys and interviews and compared across racial and ethnic groups. This study will track participants for 8 months (including 6 months postpartum). Primary outcomes include breastfeeding duration and breastfeeding exclusivity. We will quantify differences in these outcomes across racial and ethnic groups. Both intention-to-treat and as-treated (using instrumental variable methods) analyses will be performed. This study will also generate qualitative data on the experiences of different subgroups of parents with the telelactation intervention, including barriers to use, satisfaction, and strengths and limitations of this delivery model. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized study evaluating the impact of telelactation on breastfeeding outcomes. It will inform the design and implementation of future digital trials among pregnant and postpartum people, including Black and Latinx populations which are historically underrepresented in clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04856163. Registered on April 23, 2021.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Telemedicine , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Parents , Postnatal Care , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(8): 1452-1456, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585169

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, which was caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has led to an unprecedented effort to generate real-world evidence on the safety and effectiveness of various treatments. A growing number of observational studies in which the effects of certain drugs were evaluated have been conducted, including several in which researchers assessed whether hydroxychloroquine improved outcomes in infected individuals and whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have detrimental effects. In the present article, we review and illustrate how immortal time bias and selection bias were present in several of these studies. Understanding these biases and how they can be avoided may prove important for future observational studies assessing the effectiveness and safety of potentially promising drugs during the coronavirus 19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Drug Evaluation/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Bias , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Trials ; 22(1): 780, 2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582024

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) for infectious diseases such as COVID-19 are particularly challenging given the complexities of what is both practical and ethical to randomize. We are often faced with the difficult decision between having weak trials or not having a trial at all. In a recent article, Dr. Atle Fretheim argues that statistically underpowered studies are still valuable, particularly in conjunction with other similar studies in meta-analysis in the context of the DANMASK-19 trial, asking "Surely, some trial evidence must be better than no trial evidence?" However, informative trials are not always feasible, and feasible trials are not always informative. In some cases, even a well-conducted but weakly designed and/or underpowered trial such as DANMASK-19 may be uninformative or worse, both individually and in a body of literature. Meta-analysis, for example, can only resolve issues of statistical power if there is a reasonable expectation of compatible well-designed trials. Uninformative designs may also invite misinformation. Here, we make the case that-when considering informativeness, ethics, and opportunity costs in addition to statistical power-"nothing" is often the better choice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Humans
17.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(2): 255-264, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Overactivation of the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome can lead to severe illness in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The NLRP3 inhibitor, colchicine, therefore, appears to be promising for the treatment of COVID-19. AIMS: We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of randomized trials investigating the effect of colchicine in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS & METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases and clinical trial registries (up to October 17, 2021) for eligible studies. The outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality and duration of hospital stay. Meta-analysis with the random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) of mortality and 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled standardized mean difference of duration of hospital stay with 95% CI between colchicine users and non-colchicine users was estimated using Cohen's d index. RESULTS: The meta-analyses revealed no significant difference in the odds of mortality (pooled OR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53-1.07), but a significant reduction in the duration of hospital stay with the use of colchicine (pooled standardized mean difference = -0.59; 95% CI: -1.06 to -0.13). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The ability of colchicine to reduce the length of stay in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is consistent with its potential to prevent clinical deterioration via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Nevertheless, such beneficial effects of colchicine did not translate into mortality benefits in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Length of Stay , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e054442, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583096

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a new viral-induced pneumonia caused by infection with a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. At present, there are few proven effective treatments. This early-phase experimental medicine protocol describes an overarching and adaptive trial designed to provide safety data in patients with COVID-19, pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) information and exploratory biological surrogates of efficacy, which may support further development and deployment of candidate therapies in larger scale trials of patients positive for COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Define is an ongoing exploratory multicentre-platform, open-label, randomised study. Patients positive for COVID-19 will be recruited from the following cohorts: (a) community cases; (b) hospitalised patients with evidence of COVID-19 pneumonitis; and (c) hospitalised patients requiring assisted ventilation. The cohort recruited from will be dependent on the experimental therapy, its route of administration and mechanism of action. Randomisation will be computer generated in a 1:1:n ratio. Twenty patients will be recruited per arm for the initial two arms. This is permitted to change as per the experimental therapy. The primary statistical analyses are concerned with the safety of candidate agents as add-on therapy to standard of care in patients with COVID-19. Secondary analysis will assess the following variables during treatment period: (1) the response of key exploratory biomarkers; (2) change in WHO ordinal scale and National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) score; (3) oxygen requirements; (4) viral load; (5) duration of hospital stay; (6) PK/PD; and (7) changes in key coagulation pathways. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Define trial platform and its initial two treatment and standard of care arms have received a favourable ethical opinion from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (REC) (20/SS/0066), notice of acceptance from The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) (EudraCT 2020-002230-32) and approval from the relevant National Health Service (NHS) Research and Development (R&D) departments (NHS Lothian and NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde). Appropriate processes are in place in order to be able to consent adults with and without capacity while following the necessary COVID-19 safe procedures. Patients without capacity could be recruited via a legal representative. Witnessed electronic consent of participants or their legal representatives following consent discussions was established. The results of each study arm will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal as soon as the treatment arm has finished recruitment, data input is complete and any outstanding patient safety follow-ups have been completed. Depending on the results of these or future arms, data will be shared with larger clinical trial networks, including the Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy trial (RECOVERY), and to other partners for rapid roll-out in larger patient cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN14212905, NCT04473053.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Electronics , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , State Medicine
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 952, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic developed into a global crisis, the enormity and urgency of which accelerated research activities in the field. At the same time, manuscripts describing these research projects underwent fast-track peer review procedures and were published in freely accessible formats. Although full texts about COVID-19 are currently available for free, abstracts continue to play a key role since they provide essential information and possibly a decision basis for therapies. Abstracts are particularly important in case the full texts are not free, not all reports have been published in English and in emergency situations when there is less time for comprehensive analysis of all full texts. It is therefore necessary to ensure that abstracts-as publications in miniature format-contain comprehensive and transparent information. The CONSORT statement for abstracts (CONSORT-A) offers guidelines to authors how to include all necessary information in an abstract. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the quality of reporting in medical research had already been the object of debate and criticism. The current crisis makes comprehensive documentation all the more important. Abstracts of COVID-19 RCTs should therefore report the criteria listed in the CONSORT-A statement fully and verifiably. The objective of this study is to check the completeness of abstracts of all COVID-19 RTCs published to date. METHODS: Based on a literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library, all publications up to 29 October 2020 are identified and examined in terms of the subject matter (reported results from COVID-19 studies) and their study design (RTC). Subsequently, suitable publications are examined for completeness and quality of abstracts. The CONSORT checklist for RTC abstracts serves as a basis in this procedure. The primary endpoint of the study is the percentage of correctly implemented items of the CONSORT statement for abstracts. The frequency of correct reporting of each individual item is checked in a second step. DISCUSSION: The study is expected to contribute to evaluating the reporting quality on COVID-19 studies, and specifically the completeness of abstracts of RTCs. It may thus support the assessment of current research into COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration was not required as the study investigated existing literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cocos , Humans , Pandemics , Publications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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