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1.
Syst Rev ; 12(1): 92, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections play a key role in treating a range of macular diseases. The effectiveness of these therapies is dependent on patients' adherence (the extent to which a patient takes their medicines as per agreed recommendations from the healthcare provider) and persistence (continuation of the treatment for the prescribed duration) to their prescribed treatment regimens. The aim of this systematic review was to demonstrate the need for further investigation into the prevalence of, and factors contributing to, patient-led non-adherence and non-persistence, thus facilitating improved clinical outcomes. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Studies in English conducted before February 2023 that reported the level of, and/or barriers to, non-adherence or non-persistence to intravitreal anti-VEGF ocular disease therapy were included. Duplicate papers, literature reviews, expert opinion articles, case studies, and case series were excluded following screening by two independent authors. RESULTS: Data from a total of 409,215 patients across 52 studies were analysed. Treatment regimens included pro re nata, monthly and treat-and-extend protocols; study durations ranged from 4 months to 8 years. Of the 52 studies, 22 included a breakdown of reasons for patient non-adherence/non-persistence. Patient-led non-adherence varied between 17.5 and 35.0% depending on the definition used. Overall pooled prevalence of patient-led treatment non-persistence was 30.0% (P = 0.000). Reasons for non-adherence/non-persistence included dissatisfaction with treatment results (29.9%), financial burden (19%), older age/comorbidities (15.5%), difficulty booking appointments (8.5%), travel distance/social isolation (7.9%), lack of time (5.8%), satisfaction with the perceived improvement in their condition (4.4%), fear of injection (4.0%), loss of motivation (4.0%), apathy towards eyesight (2.5%), dissatisfaction with facilities 2.3%, and discomfort/pain (0.3%). Three studies found non-adherence rates between 51.6 and 68.8% during the COVID-19 pandemic, in part due to fear of exposure to COVID-19 and difficulties travelling during lockdown. DISCUSSION: Results suggest high levels of patient-led non-adherence/non-persistence to anti-VEGF therapy, mostly due to dissatisfaction with treatment results, a combination of comorbidities, loss of motivation and the burden of travel. This study provides key information on prevalence and factors contributing to non-adherence/non-persistence in anti-VEGF treatment for macular diseases, aiding identification of at-risk individuals to improve real-world visual outcomes. Improvements in the literature can be achieved by establishing uniform definitions and standard timescales for what constitutes non-adherence/non-persistence. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020216205.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Eye Diseases , Ranibizumab , Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Medication Adherence , Eye Diseases/drug therapy
2.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 240(4): 509-513, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Central retinal vein occlusions are not well-known complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We describe a case of central retinal vein occlusion secondary to COVID-19, and a review of the literature was performed. HISTORY AND SIGNS: A 47-year-old woman with no underlying ocular or medical condition presented to the hospital complaining about sudden onset of multiple scotomas in her left eye. A COVID-19 infection was confirmed 2 days previously by a PCR test that was performed 2 days after the onset of symptoms. Medical history revealed no risk factors and no oral contraception. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 1.0 in the right eye and 0.04 in the left eye. Clinical exam showed a left relative afferent pupillary defect and a nasally localized papilledema on fundoscopy of the left eye. Multiple dot and blot hemorrhages were also present. Optical coherence tomography revealed cystoid macular edema and paracentral acute middle maculopathy. The results of the fluoresceine angiography were consistent with central retinal vein occlusion. Laboratory workup later revealed an elevated fibrinogen level, corresponding to the COVID-19-induced hypercoagulable state. No other prothrombotic conditions were found. The patient immediately received an intravitreal injection of Lucentis (ranibizumab) after diagnosis. Complete resolution of the retinal hemorrhages and papilledema was observed 1.5 months after treatment and the final visual acuity was 1.25 in the left eye. CONCLUSION: Coagulation abnormalities are frequently observed in infectious diseases such as COVID-19 infection and the resulting prothrombotic state can sometimes lead to retinal vascular complications, including central retinal vein occlusion, irrespective of the presence of other classical risk factors. The consideration of this information could help clinicians establish a prompt diagnosis and therefore appropriate treatment, which could hopefully lead to complete healing of retinal lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papilledema , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/etiology , Papilledema/diagnosis , Papilledema/drug therapy , Papilledema/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ranibizumab , Intravitreal Injections , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use
3.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 46(6): 596-604, 2023 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232688

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of the measures taken during the lockdown period from March 17 to May 11, 2020 on the management of patients with exudative age related macular degeneration treated by intravitreal anti-VEGF injections at the University Hospital of Tours. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients were included after analysis of the computerized medical records of patients with age related macular degeneration. Those who were treated for exudative age related macular degeneration who received at least 1 intravitreal injection in the 12 months prior and at least one consultation in the 6 months prior to the lockdown period, were included. The initial and final mean visual acuity were compared with a 5 letter non-inferiority margin. A subgroup analysis was performed according to outcomes. The visual acuities immediately after this period were also recorded. RESULTS: In all, 595 eyes of 493 patients were included. The mean initial visual acuity was 59.6 letters, vs. 58.5 for the final visual acuity, i.e. a difference of -1.13 letters with a lower limit of the confidence interval of less than 5. The visual acuity on release from lockdown was comparable to the other 2 measurements. Initial visual acuity and the number of missed treatments were the main factors associated with functional loss. CONCLUSION: Patients' visual acuity during the lockdown period was able to be maintained despite the restrictive measures and limitation of care access in France. The most common cause of substantial visual decline was missed intravitreal injections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Humans , Infant , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab , Follow-Up Studies , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections , Treatment Outcome , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
4.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 156, 2023 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcomes of delayed intravitreal injections (IVIs) caused by the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: nAMD patients with scheduled IVIs between March 1st and April 30th, 2020 were stratified through a risk-based selection into a non-adherent group (NA-group) if they skipped at least one IVI and an adherent group (A-group) if they followed their treatment schedule. During the pandemic visit (v0), if a significant worsening of the disease was detected, a rescue therapy of three-monthly IVIs was performed. Multimodal imaging and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) findings were evaluated after 6 months (v6), compared between groups and with the visit prior the lockdown (v-1). RESULTS: Two hundred fifteen patients (132 females, mean age: 81.89 ± 5.98 years) delayed their scheduled IVI while 83 (53 females, mean age: 77.92 ± 6.06 years) adhered to their protocol. For both groups, BCVA at v0 was significantly worse than v-1 (mean 4.15 ± 7.24 ETDRS letters reduction for the NA-group and 3 ± 7.96 for the A-group) but remained stable at v6. The two groups did not significantly differ in BCVA trends after 6 months and neither for development of atrophy nor fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-based selection strategy and a rescue therapy may limit the long-term outcomes of an interruption of the treatment protocol in patients with nAMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Male
5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 42: 103577, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293051

ABSTRACT

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a common pathologic lesion that occurs in various chorioretinopathy. Although the incidence of CNV is quite rare in children and adolescents, these lesions have a severe impact on visual acuity and quality of life over patients' lifetime. The management of CNV in pediatric patients is challenging, clear guidelines are limited due to a lack of randomized clinical trials. However, the more promising option is the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. We reported a case of recurrent idiopathic choroidal neovascularization in a healthy pediatric patient after COVID 19 infection. Optical coherence tomography angiofraphy (OCTA) showed, in a non invasive way, a choroidal neovascularization at the posterior pole including macula and superior temporal arcade in the right eye, while the left eye was unaffected. In order to inactivate the neovascularization, intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF (Lucentis-Ranibizumab 0.3 mL) were performed in the right eye. Six months after the injections BCVA of the right eye was improved from 0.7 logMAR to 0.2 logMAR. OCT-A examination did not detect any signs of attivation of the preexistent neovascularization. It is reasonable to assert that Anti-VEGF could be the main treatment in case of choroidal neovascularization in young patients after COVID 19 infection due to the high chorioretinal level of VEGF-A described in these diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choroidal Neovascularization , Macula Lutea , Photochemotherapy , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections , Quality of Life , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Photochemotherapy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Fluorescein Angiography , Retrospective Studies
6.
Retina ; 43(3): 506-513, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256274

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate trends and the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the utilization of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) pharmaceuticals in an accountable care organization (ACO). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services beneficiary claims for all patients in the Houston Methodist Coordinated Care ACO registry during the years 2018, 2019, and 2020. RESULTS: Across the 3 years studied, a mean of 708 patients received anti-VEGF injections per year. The percentage of patients who received anti-VEGF injections decreased in each sequential year, with a steeper decline during the COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2020 (decrease by 0.4% from 2019 to 2020, P < 0.001; decrease by 0.2% from 2018 to 2019, P = 0.1453). The percentage of patients receiving bevacizumab of the total number of patients receiving any anti-VEGF treatment decreased (bevacizumab decreased by 6% from 2019 to 2020, P = 0.0174; decreased by 7% from 2018 to 2019, P = 0.0074). The COVID-19 pandemic did not seem to correlate with a change in the distribution of the specific anti-VEGF injection used. CONCLUSION: Despite the lower price which may correlate with value-based care, bevacizumab was the least used anti-VEGF treatment. COVID-19 correlated with a larger decrease in the utilization of all three anti-VEGF drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ranibizumab , Humans , Aged , United States , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Endothelial Growth Factors , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/therapeutic use , Medicare , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Intravitreal Injections , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
7.
Curr Eye Res ; 48(7): 683-689, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282878

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the loss of follow-up ratio and reasons during the COVID-19 lockdown in patients with retinal diseases treated by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injections and to report the visual outcome and rate of complications of these patients 1 year after the end of the lockdown. METHODS: This is a prospective descriptive cohort study (NCT04395859) conducted at the Rothschild Foundation Hospital - Paris between April 2020 and May 2021. Patients with retinal diseases treated by repeated intravitreal anti-VEGF injections (IVI) since before October 2019 were included. They filled-out a questionnaire and were followed up during a period of 1 year. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown 198 eyes (82.5%) of 157 patients (82.6%) received their injections in a timely manner (group 1) while 42 eyes (17.5%) of 33 patients (17.4%) had their injections delayed or missed (group 2). No statistically significant difference was found between group 1 and group 2 when comparing the change of mean best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) between month 12 and inclusion (p = 0.6) and the rate of ocular complications. The most frequent reasons for missing scheduled injections are appointments cancellation by the hospital (12 patients, 36%), fear of virus exposure during transportation (7 patients, 21%) or at the hospital (5 patients, 15%). Eighty-four percent (130/157 patients) of patients who attended their appointment were satisfied by the protective measures used in the hospital. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 lockdown did not seem to negatively affect the 1-year outcome of patients with retinal diseases treated by anti-VEGF IVIs who missed their scheduled injections. The BCVA and rate of complications at 1 year did not differ whether patients missed their scheduled injections or not. Maintaining IVIs during lockdown periods and educating patients about the risks of missing injections are pivotal in improving prognosis of retinal diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Retinal Diseases , Humans , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/complications , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275611, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity equivalence of the proposed biosimilar CKD-701 with the reference ranibizumab in patients with treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 312 participants with active subfoveal choroidal neovascularization were randomly assigned to either the CKD-701 (n = 156) or reference ranibizumab (n = 156) arms. The initial 3-month loading intraocular injections were followed by pro re nata (PRN) dosing for 9 months. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with less than 15-letters of corrected visual acuity (BCVA) loss at 3 months visit (one month after last loading injection) compared to the baseline time point. The presence of retinal fluid, and changes in BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT) were assessed as secondary efficacy outcomes. Immunogenicity and safety were evaluated in both treatment arms. RESULTS: In the CKD-701 arm, 143 (97.95%) patients lost <15 letters in the BCVA at 3 months compared to 143 (98.62%) in the reference arm (P = 0.67). The BCVA improved with a mean improvement of +7.0 (CKD-701) and +6.2 (ranibizumab) letters at 3 months (P = 0.43). The least-squares mean (SE) changes in CRT at 3 months from the baseline were -119.3 (12.0) µm and -124.5 (11.9) µm in the CKD-701 and ranibizumab groups, respectively (P = 0.74). The proportion of participants with subretinal or intraretinal fluid at 3, 6, and 12 months was similar between the study arms. The number (SE) of injections were 8.36 (3.13) in the CKD-701 and 8.26 (2.92) in ranibizumab (P = 0.62). The occurrence of adverse events and antidrug antibody in the study arms were also not statistically different. CONCLUSION: CKD-701 is a biosimilar to the reference ranibizumab in terms of efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity for the treatment of patients with nAMD. Moreover, improvement and maintenance of visual outcome were achieved through PRN regimen.


Subject(s)
Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Macular Degeneration , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Wet Macular Degeneration , Humans , Ranibizumab/adverse effects , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/adverse effects , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections , Visual Acuity , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/chemically induced , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/chemically induced , Treatment Outcome , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937739, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND We present the report of the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that occurred 3 days after anticoagulation discontinuation in a patient with a history of pulmonary embolism in the course of COVID-19. CASE REPORT A previously healthy 38-year-old man was hospitalized in April 2021 with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, complicated by segmental and subsegmental pulmonary embolism. The patient was treated with a concurrent combination of remdesivir, dexamethasone, therapeutic enoxaparin, ceftriaxone, passive oxygen therapy, and convalescent plasma therapy, which led to pulmonary improvement. The treatment with therapeutic enoxaparin (80 mg/0.8 mL twice a day) was continued for 1 month after discharge, followed by 15 mg of rivaroxaban twice a day for 3 weeks and 20 mg of rivaroxaban once a day for 11 weeks. Within 3 days after rivaroxaban discontinuation, the patient experienced a decrease in visual acuity in his right eye, to the level of 5/25. Nonischemic CRVO with cystoid macular edema was diagnosed and an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed. Common identifiable factors contributing to CRVO were excluded, and the treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin was initiated. Two weeks later, macular edema decreased significantly and visual acuity improved to 20/20. The treatment with enoxaparin was discontinued. CONCLUSIONS Rebound hypercoagulability after discontinuation of rivaroxaban therapy can manifest as CRVO in a young patient with a history of COVID-19 pulmonary embolism. It was successfully treated with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Pulmonary Embolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Male , Humans , Adult , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Intravitreal Injections , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
10.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 67(6): 1593-1602, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984091

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the regular injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in patients with various retinal diseases globally. It is unclear to what extent delayed anti-VEGF injections have worsened patients' visual acuity. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of delayed anti-VEGF injections on the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and diabetic macular edema (DME). We searched four computer databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus) from inception to January 5, 2022. Data were pooled using the random-effects model. Results were reported by less than 4 months and 4 months or longer for the time period between the first injection during the pandemic and the last pre-pandemic injection. All BCVA measures were converted to the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) for analyses. Among patients who received injections 4 months or longer apart, the mean difference in BCVA was 0.10 logMAR (or 5 ETDRS letters) (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06∼0.14) for nAMD patients, 0.01 logMAR (or∼ 1 ETDRS letter) (95% CI -0.25∼0.27) for RVO patients, and 0.03 logMAR (or ∼1 ETDRS letters) (95% CI -0.06∼0.11) for DME patients. These results suggest that patients with nAMD needing scheduled anti-VEGF injections may require priority treatment over those with RVO and DME in the event of disturbed anti-VEGF injections from COVID-19 lockdowns or similar scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Retinal Diseases , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Endothelial Growth Factors/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity
12.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 45(8): 852-859, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections are the gold standard treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to the cancellation of many scheduled intravitreal anti-VEGF injection visits. We compared the functional and structural visual outcomes of wet AMD patients who did not adhere to their planned intervals (group 1) with those who did (group 2). METHODS: Wet AMD patients of Swiss Visio Montchoisi and RétinElysée were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) changes between their first visit after the end of the first national lockdown in Switzerland (27 April 2020, first post-lockdown visit) and their last visit before the beginning of the first national lockdown in Switzerland (13 March 2020, last pre-lockdown visit) were assessed. The BCVA outcome was defined as unfavorable when there was a loss of≥5 ETDRS letters in the first post-lockdown visit compared to the BCVA at last pre-lockdown visit. The OCT outcome was defined as unfavorable when there was an increase in at least one of the parameters, intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), or pigment epithelial detachment (PED), at the first post-lockdown visit compared to the last pre-lockdown visit. MAIN RESULTS: Group 1 (89 patients, 109 eyes) had a 13.41% greater rate of unfavorable BCVA outcomes and a 38.27% greater rate of unfavorable OCT outcomes than group 2 (96 patients, 122 eyes) (P=0.04, P<0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that the more the patients deviated from their programmed injections and the higher the BCVA pre-lockdown, the higher the rate of unfavorable BCVA outcomes (P=0.03 and P=0.02, respectively). OCT outcomes were not a predictive factor for an unfavorable BCVA outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The cancellation of many intravitreal anti-VEGF injection appointments resulted in worse functional and structural outcomes in wet AMD patients. The COVID-19 pandemic led many patients to refrain from their routine intravitreal anti-VEGF injection appointments, allowing us to analyze the role of designated intervals in the treatment of wet AMD. During any future lockdown due to COVID-19 or similar circumstances, continuity of care for wet AMD patients should be maintained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Endothelial Growth Factors/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
13.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 228, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 outpatient care of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients was severely reduced due to lockdown. Missed visits are known to be detrimental to patients in need of continued anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections (IVIs). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of a month-long pause of regular visits and anti-VEGF IVIs in nAMD patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Patients were treated in a pro re nata ("as needed") scheme. Distance (logMAR) and near (logRAD) visual acuity (VA), optical coherence tomography, delay between planned and actual visit date and the indication for IVI were assessed for 3 continous visits in the 6 months before lockdown (V-3, -2, -1) and the 2 visits after lockdown (V0, V + 1). For analysis of long-term impact, records for visits 1 years before and after lockdown (V-3, V + 2) were gathered. RESULTS: We included 166 patients (120 female, 46 male) with a median (range) age of 80.88 (59.8-99.36) years. Compared to V-1, distance VA was significantly worse at both V0 (0.27 ± 0.21 vs 0.31 ± 0.23 logMAR, p < 0.001) and V + 1 (0.27 ± 0.21 vs 0.30 ± 0.23 logMAR, p = 0.021). Near VA was significantly worse at both V0 (0.31 ± 0.21 vs 0.34 ± 0.22 logRAD, p = 0.037) and V + 1 (0.31 ± 0.21 vs 0.34 ± 0.22 logRAD, p = 0.02). Visit delay (VD) at V0 was significantly longer than at V + 1 (30.81 ± 20.44 vs 2.02 ± 6.79 days, p < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis showed a significant association between visit delay and a reduction of near VA between V-1 and V + 1 (p = 0.0223). There was a significant loss of distance VA (p = 0.02) in the year after the lockdown period (n = 125) compared to the year before. Loss of reading acuity was not significantly increased (p = 0.3). One year post lockdown, there was no correlation between VA change and visit delay after lockdown (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In nAMD patients whose visits and treatment were paused for a month during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, we found a loss of VA immediately after lockdown, which persisted during follow-up despite re-established anti-VEGF treatment. In the short term, length of delay was predictive for loss of reading VA. The comparison of development of VA during the year before and after the lockdown showed a progression of nAMD related VA loss which may have been accelerated by the disruption of regular visits and treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This article does not report the outcome of a health care intervention. This retrospective study was therefore not registered in a clinical trials database.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Male , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058266, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In order to better understand the continued barriers to the provision of vascular endothelial inhibitor therapy, this study aims to investigate patients' experiences with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) in Germany during the injection process and how they deal with it. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This analysis is part of the qualitative arm of a wider mixed-methods study. We recruited participants all over Germany via ophthalmologists, eye clinics, general practitioners, care bases and support groups between June 2018 and December 2020 and selected a subsample of study participants with nvAMD who were either undergoing or had previously undergone vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor therapy. We conducted narrative, semistructured, face-to-face interviews at the participants' homes, which were audio-recorded. The interviews were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Twenty-two participants were included in this analysis. Experiencing neovascular macular degeneration was dominated by the injection experience. Study participants perceived the treatment with vascular endothelial inhibitor injections as uncomfortable, and they described undergoing varying levels of anxiety during the whole injection process. After some years of receiving multiple injections, the pain and not experiencing any positive effects made participants with significant vision loss want to discontinue therapy. Furthermore, they narrated negative injection experiences in association with their interactions with medical staff and doctors. CONCLUSION: Although time in the medical setting is limited, efficient and good doctor-patient relationships seem crucial for satisfying care experiences. A respectful and humane relationship may be one key to achieving treatment adherence.


Subject(s)
Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Germany , Humans , Intravitreal Injections/psychology , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/psychology , Qualitative Research , Ranibizumab , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/psychology
15.
Retina ; 42(8): 1529-1535, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831443

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Evaluating the impact of delayed care, secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdowns, on visual acuity in previously treated neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, study of patients with nAMD previously treated with anti-VEGF injections who were followed up during 2019 (pre-COVID-19) and compared with patients with nAMD during 2020 (COVID-19). RESULTS: A total of 1,192 patients with nAMD with a mean age of 81.5 years met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 850 patients were assessed in 2019 (pre-COVID-19) and 630 patients were assessed in 2020 (COVID-19). Three hundred eight patients were assessed through both 2019 and 2020 and thus were included in both cohorts. There was no significant difference between 2020 and 2019 in baseline and change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; P = 0.342 and P = 0.911, respectively). The mean number of anti-VEGF injections was significantly lower (5.55 vs. 6.13, P < 0.01), with constant lower ratio of injections per patient in the COVID-19 period. Baseline BCVA (0.859, P < 0.01), number of injections (-0.006, P = 0.01), and age (0.003, P < 0.01) were predictors of final BCVA. CONCLUSION: In patients with nAMD, delayed care secondary to COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns has no statistically significant impact on BCVA. Best-corrected visual acuity, older age, and lower number of yearly anti-VEGF injections are predictors for decrease BCVA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057269, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the reduction in new neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) referrals during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimate the impact of delayed treatment on visual outcomes at 1 year. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical audit and simulation model. SETTING: Multiple UK National Health Service (NHS) ophthalmology centres. PARTICIPANTS: Data on the reduction in new nAMD referrals were obtained from four NHS Trusts comparing April 2020 with April 2019. To estimate the potential impact on 1-year visual outcomes, a stratified bootstrap simulation model was developed drawing on an electronic medical records dataset of 20 825 nAMD eyes from 27 NHS Trusts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simulated mean visual acuity and proportions of eyes with vision ≤6/60, ≤6/24 and ≥6/12 at 1 year under four hypothetical scenarios: 0-month, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month treatment delays. Estimated additional number of eyes with vision ≤6/60 at 1 year nationally. RESULTS: The number of nAMD referrals dropped on average by 72% (range 65%-87%). Simulated 1-year visual outcomes for 1000 nAMD eyes with a 3-month treatment delay suggested an increase in the proportion of eyes with vision ≤6/60 from 15.5% (13.2%-17.9%) to 23.3% (20.7%-25.9%), and a decrease in the proportion of eyes with vision ≥6/12 (driving vision) from 35.1% (32.1%-38.1%) to 26.4% (23.8%-29.2%). Outcomes worsened incrementally with longer modelled delays. Assuming nAMD referrals are reduced to this level for 1 month nationally, these simulated results suggest an additional 186-365 eyes with vision ≤6/60 at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: We report a large decrease in nAMD referrals during the COVID-19 lockdown and provide an important public health message regarding the risk of delayed treatment. As a conservative estimate, a treatment delay of 3 months could lead to a >50% relative increase in the number of eyes with vision ≤6/60 and 25% relative decrease in the number of eyes with driving vision at 1 year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , State Medicine , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vision Disorders , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2789, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699128

ABSTRACT

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is a progressive retinal disease that often leads to severe and permanent vision loss. Early initiation of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has been shown to preserve vision in nAMD patients. Concurrently, treatment outcomes in real-world are inferior to those reported in clinical trials. The most likely reasons observed are fewer treatment-intensity in routine clinical practice than in clinical trials. The other possibility could be the delay in starting treatment and the re-treatment interval. Although a negative impact of aforementioned parameters seems obvious, quantitative impact measures remain elusive in a real-world setting due to a lack of an 'optimal treatment' control group. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed, validated, and applied a model to assess and quantify the impact of anti-VEGF administration variables on visual acuity development in a prospective nAMD patient cohort. The model was further applied to probe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on visual progressions in nAMD patients. The presented model paves the way to systematically explore and evaluate realistic interventions in the current treatment paradigm, that can be adopted in routine clinical care.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Models, Theoretical , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Prospective Studies
19.
Ophthalmologica ; 245(4): 385-392, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673576

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The increasing high prevalence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) in the aging population combined with the need for frequent monitoring and treatment for many years, especially in the COVID-19 era, raises the need to establish an effective, reliable, and safe follow-up and treatment model. This study evaluates the difference in treatment decisions comparing between the gold standard face-to-face clinical examination and virtual evaluation approach based only on visual acuity (VA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans without clinical fundoscopic examination in nvAMD patients. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted that compared an original "face-to-face" visit treatment decision regarding the need for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drug, interval, and treatment regimen based on routine VA, spectral domain OCT imaging, and dilated fundus examination to two "virtual" treatment decisions based on evaluation of OCT scans and previous medical records before and after revealing VA data on the same nvAMD patients eyes. RESULTS: About 169 eyes of 114 patients were included in the study. Forty-nine patients (43%) suffered from bilateral nvAMD and had both eyes included in the study. Agreement between the "face-to-face visit treatment decision" and "virtual treatment decision" was noted in 74.6% and 71.6% eyes before and after revealing the patient's VA in the study visit, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual evaluation results in similar treatment decisions for nvAMD patients compared to standard face-to-face clinical examination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
20.
Int Ophthalmol ; 42(6): 1749-1762, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common reasons for blindness in the world today. The most common treatment for wet AMD is the intravitreal injections for inhibiting vascular-endothelial-derived growth factor (VEGF). This treatment usually involves multiple injections and thus multiple clinic visits, which not only causes increased cost on national health services but also causes exposure to the hospital environment, which is sometimes high risk considering current COVID crisis. The treatment, in spite of the above concerns, is usually effective. However, in some cases, either the medicine fails to produce the anticipated favourable outcome, resulting in waste of time, medication, efforts, and above all, psychological distress to the patients. Hence, early predictability of anatomical as well as functional effectiveness of the treatment appears to be a very desirable capability to have. METHOD: A machine learning approach using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) of two-sample prediction model has been presented that requires only the baseline measurements and changes in visual acuity (VA) as well as macular thickness (MAC) after four months of treatment to estimate the values of VA and MAC at 8 and 12 months. In contrast to most of the AI techniques, ANFIS approach has shown the capability of the algorithm to work with very small dataset as well, which makes it a perfect candidate for the presented solution. RESULTS: The presented model has shown to have a very high accuracy (> 92%) and works in near-real-time scenarios. It has been converted into a smart phone App, OphnosisAMD, for convenient usage. With this App, the clinician can visualize the progression of the patient for a specific treatment and can decide on continuing or changing the treatment accordingly. The complete AI engine developed with the ANFIS algorithm is localized to the phone through the App, implying that there is no need for internet or cloud connectivity for this App to function. This makes it ideal for remote usage, especially under the current COVID scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: With a smart AI-based App on their fingertips, the presented system provides ample opportunity to the doctors to make a better decision based on the estimated progression, if the same drug is continued with (good/fair prognosis) or alternate treatment should be sought (bad prognosis). From a functional point of view, a prediction algorithm is triggered through simple entry of the relevant parameters (baseline and 4 months only). No internet/cloud connectivity is needed since the algorithm and the trained network are fully embedded in the App locally. Hence, using the App in remote and/or non-connected isolated areas is possible, especially in the secluded patients during the COVID scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , Centenarians , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Nonagenarians , Prognosis , Ranibizumab , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
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