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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 696, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621270

ABSTRACT

Despite encouraging preclinical data, therapies to reduce ARDS mortality remains a globally unmet need, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. We previously identified extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) as a novel damage-associated molecular pattern protein (DAMP) via TLR4 ligation which regulates inflammatory cascade activation. eNAMPT is tightly linked to human ARDS by biomarker and genotyping studies in ARDS subjects. We now hypothesize that an eNAMPT-neutralizing mAb will significantly reduce the severity of ARDS lung inflammatory lung injury in diverse preclinical rat and porcine models. Sprague Dawley rats received eNAMPT mAb intravenously following exposure to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or to a traumatic blast (125 kPa) but prior to initiation of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) (4 h). Yucatan minipigs received intravenous eNAMPT mAb 2 h after initiation of septic shock and VILI (12 h). Each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model was strongly associated with evidence of severe inflammatory lung injury with NFkB pathway activation and marked dysregulation of the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. eNAMPT neutralization dramatically reduced inflammatory indices and the severity of lung injury in each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model (~ 50% reduction) including reduction in serum lactate, and plasma levels of eNAMPT, IL-6, TNFα and Ang-2. The eNAMPT mAb further rectified NFkB pathway activation and preserved the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. These results strongly support targeting the eNAMPT/TLR4 inflammatory pathway as a potential ARDS strategy to reduce inflammatory lung injury and ARDS mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome/metabolism , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Swine
2.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613910

ABSTRACT

Hypercytokinemia, or cytokine storm, is one of the severe complications of viral and bacterial infections, involving the release of abnormal amounts of cytokines, resulting in a massive inflammatory response. Cytokine storm is associated with COVID-19 and sepsis high mortality rate by developing epithelial dysfunction and coagulopathy, leading to thromboembolism and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Anticoagulant therapy is an important tactic to prevent thrombosis in sepsis and COVID-19, but recent data show the incompatibility of modern direct oral anticoagulants and antiviral agents. It seems relevant to develop dual-action drugs with antiviral and anticoagulant properties. At the same time, it was shown that azolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are heterocycles with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity. We have synthesized a new family of azolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and their condensed polycyclic analogs by cyclocondensation reactions and direct CH-functionalization and studied their anticoagulant properties. Five compounds among 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ones and 5-alkyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolo[3,2-a]purin-8-ones demonstrated higher anticoagulant activity than the reference drug, dabigatran etexilate. Antithrombin activity of most active compounds was confirmed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated blood to mimic the conditions of cytokine release syndrome. The studied compounds affected only the thrombin time value, reliably increasing it 6.5-15.2 times as compared to LPS-treated blood.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Animals , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Male , Rabbits , Rats
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 766112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581336

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health concern. The development of vaccines with high immunogenicity and safety is crucial for controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic and preventing further illness and fatalities. Here, we report the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, Nanocovax, based on recombinant protein production of the extracellular (soluble) portion of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that Nanocovax induced high levels of S protein-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in three animal models: BALB/c mouse, Syrian hamster, and a non-human primate (Macaca leonina). In addition, a viral challenge study using the hamster model showed that Nanocovax protected the upper respiratory tract from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nanocovax did not induce any adverse effects in mice (Mus musculus var. albino) and rats (Rattus norvegicus). These preclinical results indicate that Nanocovax is safe and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/toxicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cricetinae , Macaca , Mice , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/toxicity
4.
Molecules ; 27(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580565

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib (BTB) is an orally administered Janus kinase inhibitor, therapeutically used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently it has also been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, four different BTB-loaded lipids (stearin)-polymer (Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)) hybrid nanoparticles (B-PLN1 to B-PLN4) were prepared by the single-step nanoprecipitation method. Next, they were characterised in terms of physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential (ζP), polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL). Based on preliminary evaluation, the B-PLN4 was regarded as the optimised formulation with particle size (272 ± 7.6 nm), PDI (0.225), ζP (-36.5 ± 3.1 mV), %EE (71.6 ± 1.5%) and %DL (2.87 ± 0.42%). This formulation (B-PLN4) was further assessed concerning morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The in vitro release profile exhibited a sustained release pattern well-fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model (R2 = 0.879). The in vivo pharmacokinetic data showed an enhancement (2.92 times more) in bioavailability in comparison to the normal suspension of pure BTB. These data concluded that the formulated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery option to enhance the bioavailability of BTB. Overall, this study provides a scientific basis for future studies on the entrapment efficiency of lipid-polymer hybrid systems as promising carriers for overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Purines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacokinetics , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Animals , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/chemistry , Biological Availability , Male , Purines/administration & dosage , Purines/chemistry , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/chemistry
5.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 23(1): 127-132, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575092

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Effective and safe anesthesia for rodents has long been a leading concern among biomedical researchers. Intraperitoneal injection constitutes an alternative to inhalant anesthesia. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify a safe, reliable, and effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia protocol for laboratory rats exposed to painful procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven female Wistar rats in an ongoing study that required surgery were randomized into groups for three different intraperitoneal anesthesia protocols and three different analgesia regimens. The anesthesia groups were (1) medetomidine + ketamine (MK), (2) ketamine + xylacine (KX), and (3) fentanyl + medetomidine (FM). Three analgesia groups were equally distributed among the anesthesia groups: (1) local mepivacaine + oral ibuprofen (MI), (2) oral tramadol + oral ibuprofen (TI), and (3) local tramadol + oral tramadol + + oral ibuprofen (TTI). A core was assigned to measure anesthesia (0-3) and analgesia (0-2) effectiveness; the lower the score, the more effective the treatment. RESULTS: The mean MK score was 0.44 versus 2.00 for FM and 2.33 for KX. Mean score for analgesia on the first postoperative day was TTI (4.66) TI (9.13), and MI (10.14). Mean score 48 hours after surgery was TTI (3.4), TI (6.71), and MI (9.5). These differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: MK was shown to be a reliable, safe, and effective method of anesthesia. The TTI analgesia regimen is strongly recommended in light of these results.


Subject(s)
Fentanyl/pharmacology , Ketamine/pharmacology , Medetomidine/pharmacology , Xylazine/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Dissociative/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Dissociative/pharmacology , Animals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Medetomidine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Xylazine/administration & dosage
6.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets ; 21(4): 235-242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573714

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The study aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of Vitamin C on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-II) as the first route to infect human cells. Accordingly, agents with potential inhibition of ACE-II receptors might be effective in the prevention and management of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work was to assess the possible inhibitory effect of ACE-II on ascorbic acid using an ex vivo approach based on the inhibition of diminazene-induced vasorelaxation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, diminazene was used as a known specific inhibitor of ACE-II. Then, the vasorelaxant effect of ascorbic acid on diminazene-induced relaxation was examined using isolated aortic rings. All experiments of this study were evaluated on isolated aortic rings precontracted by epinephrine. RESULTS: The results confirmed that diminazene-induced vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner. More interestingly, ascorbic acid inhibited diminazene-induced vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: This investigation provides valuable experimental proof of the efficacy of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) on inhibiting ex vivo vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme II, which is known among the pharmacological targets of anti-COVID-19 drugs.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensins , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Brain Behav Immun ; 100: 267-277, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568522

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection produces neuroinflammation as well as neurological, cognitive (i.e., brain fog), and neuropsychiatric symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), which can persist for an extended period (6 months) after resolution of the infection. The neuroimmune mechanism(s) that produces SARS-CoV-2-induced neuroinflammation has not been characterized. Proposed mechanisms include peripheral cytokine signaling to the brain and/or direct viral infection of the CNS. Here, we explore the novel hypothesis that a structural protein (S1) derived from SARS-CoV-2 functions as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to induce neuroinflammatory processes independent of viral infection. Prior evidence suggests that the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is inflammatory in vitro and signals through the pattern recognition receptor TLR4. Therefore, we examined whether the S1 subunit is sufficient to drive 1) a behavioral sickness response, 2) a neuroinflammatory response, 3) direct activation of microglia in vitro, and 4) activation of transgenic human TLR2 and TLR4 HEK293 cells. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intra-cisterna magna (ICM) with vehicle or S1. In-cage behavioral monitoring (8 h post-ICM) demonstrated that S1 reduced several behaviors, including total activity, self-grooming, and wall-rearing. S1 also increased social avoidance in the juvenile social exploration test (24 h post-ICM). S1 increased and/or modulated neuroimmune gene expression (Iba1, Cd11b, MhcIIα, Cd200r1, Gfap, Tlr2, Tlr4, Nlrp3, Il1b, Hmgb1) and protein levels (IFNγ, IL-1ß, TNF, CXCL1, IL-2, IL-10), which varied across brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex) and time (24 h and 7d) post-S1 treatment. Direct exposure of microglia to S1 resulted in increased gene expression (Il1b, Il6, Tnf, Nlrp3) and protein levels (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF, CXCL1, IL-10). S1 also activated TLR2 and TLR4 receptor signaling in HEK293 transgenic cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that structural proteins derived from SARS-CoV-2 might function independently as PAMPs to induce neuroinflammatory processes via pattern recognition receptor engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microglia , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
Med Hypotheses ; 158: 110739, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560835

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious diseases caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Now, it is pandemic over the world. SARS-CoV-2 often causes a "cytokine storm" in people with COVID-19, causing inflammatory lung damage and pneumonia, which eventually leads to death. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is well known as an incretin hormone responsible for regulation of blood glucose through its receptor. Beyond glycemic control, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have promising anti-inflammatory actions in human and rodent pathological models. Recent studies proved that GLP-1RAs attenuate pulmonary inflammation, reduce cytokine production, and preserve lung function in mice and rats with experimental lung injury. Moreover, a thickened pulmonary vascular wall, an important characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was observed in the autopsy lung tissue of a COVID-19 patient. Thus GLP-1RAs may be a novel therapeutic strategy for combating this pandemic specifically for patient characteristics of PHA after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung , Mice , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/drug therapy , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/virology , Rats
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258856, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542176

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is a common pathway to the progression of end-stage kidney disease. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) encodes an RNA helicase that recognizes viruses including SARS-CoV2, which is responsible for the production of interferon (IFN)-α/ß to prevent the spread of viral infection. Recently, RIG-I activation was found under hypoxic conditions, and klotho deficiency was shown to intensify the activation of RIG-I in mouse brains. However, the roles of these functions in renal inflammation remain elusive. Here, for in vitro study, the expression of RIG-I and IFN-α/ß was examined in normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E cells incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2). Next, siRNA targeting RIG-I or scramble siRNA was transfected into NRK52E cells to examine the expression of RIG-I and IFN-α/ß under hypoxic conditions. We also investigated the expression levels of RIG-I and IFN-α/ß in 33 human kidney biopsy samples diagnosed with IgA nephropathy. For in vivo study, we induced renal hypoxia by clamping the renal artery for 10 min in wild-type mice (WT mice) and Klotho-knockout mice (Kl-/- mice). Incubation under hypoxic conditions increased the expression of RIG-I and IFN-α/ß in NRK52E cells. Their upregulation was inhibited in NRK52E cells transfected with siRNA targeting RIG-I. In patients with IgA nephropathy, immunohistochemical staining of renal biopsy samples revealed that the expression of RIG-I was correlated with that of IFN-α/ß (r = 0.57, P<0.001, and r = 0.81, P<0.001, respectively). The expression levels of RIG-I and IFN-α/ß were upregulated in kidneys of hypoxic WT mice and further upregulation was observed in hypoxic Kl-/- mice. These findings suggest that hypoxia induces the expression of IFN-α/ß through the upregulation of RIG-I, and that klotho deficiency intensifies this hypoxia-induced expression in kidneys.


Subject(s)
Glucuronidase/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Animals , Glucuronidase/genetics , Hypoxia/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , RNA, Small Interfering , Rats
10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 375-384, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies report that women with a history of AKI have an increased incidence of maternal and fetal adverse outcomes during pregnancy, despite fully recovering renal function prior to conception. The mechanisms contributing to such adverse outcomes in pregnancy after AKI are not yet understood. METHODS: To develop a rodent model to investigate fetal and maternal outcomes in female animals with a history of AKI, we used ischemia-reperfusion injury as an experimental model of AKI in female Sprague Dawley rats. The 12-week-old animals underwent warm bilateral ischemia-reperfusion surgery involving clamping of both renal arteries for 45 minutes or sham surgery (control). Rats were allowed to recover for 1 month prior to mating. Recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury was confirmed by measurements of plasma creatinine and urinary protein excretion. We assessed maternal and fetal outcomes during late pregnancy on gestational day 20. RESULTS: After recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury, compared with healthy sham-surgery controls, dams exhibited pregnancy-induced renal insufficiency with increases in plasma creatinine and urea, along with increased urinary protein excretion. Additionally, recovered ischemia-reperfusion dams experienced worse fetal outcomes compared with controls, with intrauterine growth restriction leading to higher rates of fetal demise and smaller pups. CONCLUSIONS: In this rat model, despite biochemical resolution of ischemia-reperfusion injury, subsequent pregnancy resulted in maternal renal insufficiency and significant impairments in fetal growth. This mirrors findings in recent reports in the clinical population, indicating that this model may be a useful tool to further explore the alterations in kidney function after AKI in women.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Kidney Function Tests , Ligation , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renal Artery/surgery
11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 86-97, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cultured cell lines are widely used for research in the physiology, pathophysiology, toxicology, and pharmacology of the renal proximal tubule. The lines that are most appropriate for a given use depend upon the genes expressed. New tools for transcriptomic profiling using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) make it possible to catalog expressed genes in each cell line. METHODS: Fourteen different proximal tubule cell lines, representing six species, were grown on permeable supports under conditions specific for the respective lines. RNA-Seq followed standard procedures. RESULTS: Transcripts expressed in cell lines variably matched transcripts selectively expressed in native proximal tubule. Opossum kidney (OK) cells displayed the highest percentage match (45% of proximal marker genes [TPM threshold =15]), with pig kidney cells (LLC-PK1) close behind (39%). Lower-percentage matches were seen for various human lines, including HK-2 (26%), and lines from rodent kidneys, such as NRK-52E (23%). Nominally, identical OK cells from different sources differed substantially in expression of proximal tubule markers. Mapping cell line transcriptomes to gene sets for various proximal tubule functions (sodium and water transport, protein transport, metabolic functions, endocrine functions) showed that different lines may be optimal for experimentally modeling each function. An online resource (https://esbl.nhlbi.nih.gov/JBrowse/KCT/) has been created to interrogate cell line transcriptome data. Proteomic analysis of NRK-52E cells confirmed low expression of many proximal tubule marker proteins. CONCLUSIONS: No cell line fully matched the transcriptome of native proximal tubule cells. However, some of the lines tested are suitable for the study of particular metabolic and transport processes seen in the proximal tubule.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Transcriptome , Animals , Biological Transport , Cell Line , Chromatography, Liquid , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Internet , Mice , Opossums , Proteomics , RNA-Seq , Rats , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Species Specificity , Swine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2311: 185-193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482181

ABSTRACT

Studies of blood-brain barrier (BBB) require developing of a novel and convenient in vitro endothelial cell model. We isolated primary human and rodent brain microvascular endothelial cells and developed methods for culturing, characterization, and high-efficiency transfection of endothelial cells. Here, we describe the improved methods to obtain in vitro human and rodent BBB models to study expression of endogenous and exogenous genes of interest.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/physiology , Brain/blood supply , Cell Separation , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Microvessels/cytology , Transfection , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fetus , Gestational Age , Humans , Mice , Rats
13.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480885

ABSTRACT

In our in vitro and in vivo studies, we used Acalypha indica root methanolic extract (AIRME), and investigated their free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primarily, phytochemical analysis showed rich content of phenols (70.92 mg of gallic acid/g) and flavonoids (16.01 mg of rutin/g) in AIRME. We then performed HR-LC-MS and GC-MS analyses, and identified 101 and 14 phytochemical compounds, respectively. Among them, ramipril glucuronide (1.563%), antimycin A (1.324%), swietenine (1.134%), quinone (1.152%), oxprenolol (1.118%), choline (0.847%), bumetanide (0.847%) and fenofibrate (0.711%) are the predominant phytomolecules. Evidence from in vitro studies revealed that AIRME scavenges DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner (10-50 µg/mL). Similarly, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were also remarkably inhibited by AIRME as concentration increases (20-100 µg/mL). In vitro antioxidant activity of AIRME was comparable to ascorbic acid treatment. For in vivo studies, carrageenan (1%, sub-plantar) was injected to rats to induce localized inflammation. Acute inflammation was represented by paw-edema, and significantly elevated (p < 0.05) WBC, platelets and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, AIRME pretreatment (150/300 mg/kg bodyweight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased edema volume. This was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of WBC, platelets and CRP with both doses of AIRME. The decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue were restored (p < 0.05 / p < 0.01) with AIRME in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AIRME attenuated carrageenan-induced neutrophil infiltrations and vascular dilation in paw tissue. For the first time, our findings demonstrated the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of AIRME, which could be considered to develop novel anti-inflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Acalypha/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/drug therapy , Edema/enzymology , Edema/pathology , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480881

ABSTRACT

We performed an in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assessment of a potassium 2-[2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamido]ethanesulfonate (compound 1) as a potential prodrug for cognitive function improvement in ischemic brain injury. Using in silico methods, we predicted the pharmacological efficacy and possible safety in rat models. In addition, in silico data showed neuroprotective features of compound 1, which were further supported by in vitro experiments in a glutamate excitotoxicity-induced model in newborn rat cortical neuron cultures. Next, we checked whether compound 1 is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier in intact and ischemic animals. Compound 1 improved animal behavior both in intact and ischemic rats and, even though the concentration in intact brains was low, we still observed a significant anxiety reduction and activity escalation. We used molecular docking and molecular dynamics to support our hypothesis that compound 1 could affect the AMPA receptor function. In a rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia, we studied the effects of compound 1 on the behavior and neurological deficit. An in vivo experiment demonstrated that compound 1 significantly reduced the neurological deficit and improved neurological symptom regression, exploratory behavior, and anxiety. Thus, here, for the first time, we show that compound 1 can be considered as an agent for restoring cognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Animals , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Brain Ischemia , Cognition/drug effects , Cognition/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Primary Cell Culture , Pyrrolidines/chemical synthesis , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Stroke
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480798

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Ethanolamines/chemistry , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mast Cells/cytology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Palmitic Acids/chemistry , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/pathology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
16.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 61, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in thelate 2019 has caused a devastating global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although vaccines have been and are being developed, they are not accessible to everyone and not everyone can receive these vaccines. Also, it typically takes more than 10 years until a new therapeutic agent is approved for usage. Therefore, repurposing of known drugs can lend itself well as a key approach for significantly expediting the development of new therapies for COVID-19. METHODS: We have incorporated machine learning-based computational tools and in silico models into the drug discovery process to predict Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity (ADMET) profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment identified from two independent studies mainly with the purpose of mitigating late-phase failures because of inferior pharmacokinetics and toxicity. RESULTS: Here, we summarize the cardiotoxicity and general toxicity profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment and outline the risks of repurposing and propose a stratification of patients accordingly. We shortlist a total of five compounds based on their non-toxic properties. CONCLUSION: In summary, this manuscript aims to provide a potentially useful source of essential knowledge on toxicity assessment of 90 compounds for healthcare practitioners and researchers to find off-label alternatives for the treatment for COVID-19. The majority of the molecules discussed in this manuscript have already moved into clinical trials and thus their known pharmacological and human safety profiles are expected to facilitate a fast track preclinical and clinical assessment for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Captopril/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxins/toxicity , Catechols/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Mice , Models, Biological , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Rats , Reproduction/drug effects , Software , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475573

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens with pandemic potential requires safe, protective, inexpensive, and easily accessible vaccines that can be developed and manufactured rapidly at a large scale. DNA vaccines can achieve these criteria, but induction of strong immune responses has often required bulky, expensive electroporation devices. Here, we report an ultra-low-cost (<1 USD), handheld (<50 g) electroporation system utilizing a microneedle electrode array ("ePatch") for DNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The low cost and small size are achieved by combining a thumb-operated piezoelectric pulser derived from a common household stove lighter that emits microsecond, bipolar, oscillatory electric pulses and a microneedle electrode array that targets delivery of high electric field strength pulses to the skin's epidermis. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 induced by this electroporation system in mice were strong and enabled at least 10-fold dose sparing compared to conventional intramuscular or intradermal injection of the DNA vaccine. Vaccination was well tolerated with mild, transient effects on the skin. This ePatch system is easily portable, without any battery or other power source supply, offering an attractive, inexpensive approach for rapid and accessible DNA vaccination to combat COVID-19, as well as other epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Electroporation/economics , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microelectrodes , Needles , Pandemics/prevention & control , Proof of Concept Study , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Transfection , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/instrumentation , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology
18.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(20): 3785-3794, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461963

ABSTRACT

Neural precursor cells (NPCs), derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), with their unique ability to generate multiple neuronal and glial cell types are extremely useful for understanding biological mechanisms in normal and diseased states. However, generation of specific neuronal subtypes (mature) from NPCs in large numbers adequate for cell therapy is challenging due to lack of a thorough understanding of the cues that govern their differentiation. Interestingly, neural stem cells (NSCs) themselves are in consideration for therapy given their potency to form different neural cell types, release of trophic factors, and immunomodulatory effects that confer neuroprotection. With the recent COVID-19 outbreak and its accompanying neurological indications, the immunomodulatory role of NSCs may gain additional significance in the prevention of disease progression in vulnerable populations. In this regard, small-molecule mediated NPC generation from PSCs via NSC formation has become an important strategy that ensures consistency and robustness of the process. The development of the mammalian brain occurs along the rostro-caudal axis, and the establishment of anterior identity is an early event. Wnt signaling, along with fibroblast growth factor and retinoic acid, acts as a caudalization signal. Further, the increasing amount of epigenetic data available from human fetal brain development has enhanced both our understanding of and ability to experimentally manipulate these developmental regulatory programs in vitro. However, the impact on homing and engraftment after transplantation and subsequently on therapeutic efficacy of NPCs based on their derivation strategy is not yet clear. Another formidable challenge in cell replacement therapy for neurodegenerative disorders is the mode of delivery. In this Perspective, we discuss these core ideas with insights from our preliminary studies exploring the role of PSC-derived NPCs in rat models of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease following intranasal injections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neural Stem Cells , Parkinson Disease , Animals , Humans , Neurons , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457477

ABSTRACT

Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) is known to be an etiological agent, causing infections in laboratory rats. Until now, its role has only been considered in studies on respiratory and salivary gland infections. The scant literature data, consisting mainly of papers from the last century, do not sufficiently address the topic of SDAV infections. The ongoing pandemic has demonstrated, once again, the role of the Coronaviridae family as extremely dangerous etiological agents of human zoonoses. The ability of coronaviruses to cross the species barrier and change to hosts commonly found in close proximity to humans highlights the need to characterize SDAV infections. The main host of the infection is the rat, as mentioned above. Rats inhabit large urban agglomerations, carrying a vast epidemic threat. Of the 2277 existing rodent species, 217 are reservoirs for 66 zoonotic diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. This review provides insight into the current state of knowledge of SDAV characteristics and its likely zoonotic potential.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Rat/genetics , Coronavirus, Rat/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus, Rat/classification , Rats , Species Specificity , Virus Replication/physiology
20.
J Invest Surg ; 33(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455005

ABSTRACT

Background: Bipolar sealing devices are routinely used to seal blood vessels. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of colonic sealing with the use of the bipolar energy devices in rats as model for experimental appendectomy. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats underwent a cecal resection with four different bipolar sealing devices or a linear stapler. The harvesting procedure was performed immediately or at postoperative day (POD) 7. The sealing front bursting pressure (BP) was measured in both groups. At POD7, the resection line was clinically examined and the hydroxyproline (HDP) levels were determined. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was used for histopathological evaluation of the sealing front as well. Results: There was no mortality and no insufficiency. The BPs between the bipolar sealing devices showed no statistical differences. The early phase of the seal (POD 0) provides a low BP with an 30.8% increase until POD 7. The BPs in the stapler group showed significant better values. The hydroxyproline levels did not differ statistically between the groups. Histopathologically, there were more signs of ischemic necrosis in the stapler group than in the sealing devices groups. Conclusion: The resection and sealing of the cecum as an experimental appendectomy model with the use of bipolar energy devices proved feasible and safe in rats. The different energy devices in this study produce comparable results. To justify clinical practice in humans, several studies on the underlying mechanisms of early stage wound healing are needed.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/instrumentation , Cecum/surgery , Electrocoagulation/instrumentation , Hemostasis, Surgical/instrumentation , Wound Closure Techniques/instrumentation , Animals , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/methods , Electrocoagulation/methods , Feasibility Studies , Hemostasis, Surgical/adverse effects , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Male , Models, Animal , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Surgical Staplers/adverse effects , Wound Closure Techniques/adverse effects
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