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1.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 96, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793837

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies have identified 3p21.31 as the main risk locus for severe COVID-19, although underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We perform an epigenomic dissection of 3p21.31, identifying a CTCF-dependent tissue-specific 3D regulatory chromatin hub that controls the activity of several chemokine receptor genes. Risk SNPs colocalize with regulatory elements and are linked to increased expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 in monocytes and macrophages. As excessive organ infiltration of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages is a hallmark of severe COVID-19, our findings provide a rationale for the genetic association of 3p21.31 variants with elevated risk of hospitalization upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 794638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731769

ABSTRACT

CCR5 plays a central role in infectious disease, host defense, and cancer progression, thereby making it an ideal target for therapeutic development. Notably, CCR5 is the major HIV entry co-receptor, where its surface density correlates with HIV plasma viremia. The level of CCR5 receptor occupancy (RO) achieved by a CCR5-targeting therapeutic is therefore a critical predictor of its efficacy. However, current methods to measure CCR5 RO lack sensitivity, resulting in high background and overcalculation. Here, we report on two independent, flow cytometric methods of calculating CCR5 RO using the anti-CCR5 antibody, Leronlimab. We show that both methods led to comparable CCR5 RO values, with low background on untreated CCR5+CD4+ T cells and sensitive measurements of occupancy on both blood and tissue-resident CD4+ T cells that correlated longitudinally with plasma concentrations in Leronlimab-treated macaques. Using these assays, we found that Leronlimab stabilized cell surface CCR5, leading to an increase in the levels of circulating and tissue-resident CCR5+CD4+ T cells in vivo in Leronlimab-treated macaques. Weekly Leronlimab treatment in a chronically SIV-infected macaque led to increased CCR5+CD4+ T cells levels and fully suppressed plasma viremia, both concomitant with full CCR5 RO on peripheral blood CD4+ T cells, demonstrating that CCR5+CD4+ T cells were protected from viral replication by Leronlimab binding. Finally, we extended these results to Leronlimab-treated humans and found that weekly 700 mg Leronlimab led to complete CCR5 RO on peripheral blood CD4+ T cells and a statistically significant increase in CCR5+CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. Collectively, these results establish two RO calculation methods for longitudinal monitoring of anti-CCR5 therapeutic antibody blockade efficacy in both macaques and humans, demonstrate that CCR5+CD4+ T cell levels temporarily increase with Leronlimab treatment, and facilitate future detailed investigations into the immunological impacts of CCR5 inhibition in multiple pathophysiological processes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flow Cytometry/methods , HIV Antibodies/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/physiology , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/physiology , Animals , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Primates , Protein Binding , Receptors, CCR5/immunology , Treatment Outcome
3.
Sci Adv ; 7(25)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276874

ABSTRACT

The human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a major role in inflammation and is involved in cancer, HIV, and COVID-19. Despite its importance as a drug target, the molecular activation mechanism of CCR5, i.e., how chemokine agonists transduce the activation signal through the receptor, is yet unknown. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of wild-type CCR5 in an active conformation bound to the chemokine super-agonist [6P4]CCL5 and the heterotrimeric Gi protein. The structure provides the rationale for the sequence-activity relation of agonist and antagonist chemokines. The N terminus of agonist chemokines pushes onto specific structural motifs at the bottom of the orthosteric pocket that activate the canonical GPCR microswitch network. This activation mechanism differs substantially from other CC chemokine receptors that bind chemokines with shorter N termini in a shallow binding mode involving unique sequence signatures and a specialized activation mechanism.


Subject(s)
Receptors, CCR5/chemistry , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Chemokine CCL5/chemistry , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Conformation , Receptors, CCR5/agonists , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Signal Transduction , Structure-Activity Relationship
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244036

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) found locus 3p21.31 associated with severe COVID-19. CCR5 resides at the same locus and, given its known biological role in other infection diseases, we investigated if common noncoding and rare coding variants, affecting CCR5, can predispose to severe COVID-19. We combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met the suggestive significance level (P ≤ 1 × 10-5) at the 3p21.31 locus in public GWAS datasets (6406 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 902,088 controls) with gene expression data from 208 lung tissues, Hi-C, and Chip-seq data. Through whole exome sequencing (WES), we explored rare coding variants in 147 severe COVID-19 patients. We identified three SNPs (rs9845542, rs12639314, and rs35951367) associated with severe COVID-19 whose risk alleles correlated with low CCR5 expression in lung tissues. The rs35951367 resided in a CTFC binding site that interacts with CCR5 gene in lung tissues and was confirmed to be associated with severe COVID-19 in two independent datasets. We also identified a rare coding variant (rs34418657) associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Our results suggest a biological role of CCR5 in the progression of COVID-19 as common and rare genetic variants can increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 by affecting the functions of CCR5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Alleles , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chromosomes, Human/genetics , Cohort Studies , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Whole Exome Sequencing
5.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060540

ABSTRACT

There have been reports of neurological abnormalities associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV), such as congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in children born to mothers infected during pregnancy. We investigated how the immune response to ZIKV during pregnancy is primed and conduct a thorough evaluation of the inflammatory and cytotoxic profiles as well as the expression of CCR5 and CX3CR1. We compared the reactivity of T cells to ZIKV peptides in convalescent mothers infected during pregnancy. The child's clinical outcome (i.e., born with or without CZS) was taken to be the variable. The cells were stimulated in vitro with ZIKV peptides and evaluated using the ELISPOT and flow cytometry assays. After in vitro stimulation with ZIKV peptides, we observed a tendency toward a higher Interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing T cell responses in mothers who had asymptomatic children and a higher CD107a expression in T cells in mothers who had children with CZS. We found a higher frequency of T cells expressing CD107a+ and co-expressing CX3CR1+CCR5+, which is much clearer in the T cells of mothers who had CZS children. We suggest that this differential profile influenced the clinical outcome of babies. These data need to be further investigated, including the evaluation of other ZIKV peptides and markers and functional assays.


Subject(s)
CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Infant , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Young Adult , Zika Virus/immunology
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