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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123155, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238534

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Natural killer (NK) cells plays a pivotal role in the control of viral infections, and their function depend on the balance between their activating and inhibitory receptors. The immune dysregulation observed in COVID-19 patients was previously associated with downregulation of NK cell numbers and function, yet the mechanism of inhibition of NK cell functions and the interplay between infected cells and NK cells remain largely unknown. Methods: In this study we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection of airway epithelial cells can directly influence NK cell phenotype and functions in the infection microenvironment. NK cells were co-cultured with SARS-CoV-2 infected epithelial cells, in a direct contact with A549ACE2/TMPRSS2 cell line or in a microenvironment of the infection in a 3D ex vivo human airway epithelium (HAE) model and NK cell surface expression of a set of most important receptors (CD16, NKG2D, NKp46, DNAM-1, NKG2C, CD161, NKG2A, TIM-3, TIGIT, and PD-1) was analyzed. Results: We observed a selective, in both utilized experimental models, significant downregulation the proportion of CD161 (NKR-P1A or KLRB1) expressing NK cells, and its expression level, which was followed by a significant impairment of NK cells cytotoxicity level against K562 cells. What is more, we confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 infection upregulates the expression of the ligand for CD161 receptor, lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1, CLEC2D or OCIL), on infected epithelial cells. LLT1 protein can be also detected not only in supernatants of SARS-CoV-2 infected A549ACE2/TMPRSS2 cells and HAE basolateral medium, but also in serum of COVID-19 patients. Finally, we proved that soluble LLT1 protein treatment of NK cells significantly reduces i) the proportion of CD161+ NK cells, ii) the ability of NK cells to control SARS-CoV-2 infection in A549ACE2/TMPRSS2 cells and iii) the production of granzyme B by NK cells and their cytotoxicity capacity, yet not degranulation level. Conclusion: We propose a novel mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 inhibition of NK cell functions via activation of the LLT1-CD161 axis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Cell Surface , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1094644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309812

ABSTRACT

Background: Approximately 13.8% and 6.1% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients require hospitalization and sometimes intensive care unit (ICU) admission, respectively. There is no biomarker to predict which of these patients will develop an aggressive stage that we could improve their quality of life and healthcare management. Our main goal is to include new markers for the classification of COVID-19 patients. Methods: Two tubes of peripheral blood were collected from a total of 66 (n = 34 mild and n = 32 severe) samples (mean age 52 years). Cytometry analysis was performed using a 15-parameter panel included in the Maxpar® Human Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotyping Panel Kit. Cytometry by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CyTOF) panel was performed in combination with genetic analysis using TaqMan® probes for ACE2 (rs2285666), MX1 (rs469390), and TMPRSS2 (rs2070788) variants. GemStone™ and OMIQ software were used for cytometry analysis. Results: The frequency of CD163+/CD206- population of transitional monocytes (T-Mo) was decreased in the mild group compared to that of the severe one, while T-Mo CD163-/CD206- were increased in the mild group compared to that of the severe one. In addition, we also found differences in CD11b expression in CD14dim monocytes in the severe group, with decreased levels in the female group (p = 0.0412). When comparing mild and severe disease, we also found that CD45- [p = 0.014; odds ratio (OR) = 0.286, 95% CI 0.104-0.787] and CD14dim/CD33+ (p = 0.014; OR = 0.286, 95% CI 0.104-0.787) monocytes were the best options as biomarkers to discriminate between these patient groups. CD33 was also indicated as a good biomarker for patient stratification by the analysis of GemStone™ software. Among genetic markers, we found that G carriers of TMPRSS2 (rs2070788) have an increased risk (p = 0.02; OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.18-9.60) of severe COVID-19 compared to those with A/A genotype. This strength is further increased when combined with CD45-, T-Mo CD163+/CD206-, and C14dim/CD33+. Conclusions: Here, we report the interesting role of TMPRSS2, CD45-, CD163/CD206, and CD33 in COVID-19 aggressiveness. This strength is reinforced for aggressiveness biomarkers when TMPRSS2 and CD45-, TMPRSS2 and CD163/CD206, and TMPRSS2 and CD14dim/CD33+ are combined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Biomarkers , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3
3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 541: 117243, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306100

ABSTRACT

Macrophage activation and hypercytokinemia are notable presentations in certain viral infections leading to severe disease and poor prognosis. Viral infections can cause macrophage polarization into the pro-inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Activated M1 macrophages usually restrict viral replication whereas activated M2 macrophages suppress inflammation and promote tissue repair. In response to inflammatory stimuli, macrophages polarize to the M2 phenotype expressing hemoglobin scavenger CD163 surface receptor. The CD163 receptor is shed as the soluble form, sCD163, into plasma or tissue fluids. sCD163 causes detoxification of pro-oxidative hemoglobin which produces anti-inflammatory metabolites that promote the resolution of inflammation. Hence, increased CD163 expression in tissues and elevated circulatory levels of sCD163 have been associated with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. CD163 and other macrophage activation markers have been commonly included in the investigation of disease pathogenesis and progression. This review provides an overview of the involvement of CD163 in viral diseases. The clinical utility of CD163 in viral disease diagnosis, progression, prognosis and treatment evaluation is discussed.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Virus Diseases , Humans , Antigens, CD/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Inflammation , Biomarkers
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240608

ABSTRACT

Although very different, in terms of their genomic organization, their enzymatic proteins, and their structural proteins, HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have an extraordinary evolutionary potential in common. Faced with various selection pressures that may be generated by treatments or immune responses, these RNA viruses demonstrate very high adaptive capacities, which result in the continuous emergence of variants and quasi-species. In this retrospective analysis of viral proteins, ensuring the adhesion of these viruses to the plasma membrane of host cells, we highlight many common points that suggest the convergent mechanisms of evolution. HIV and SARS-CoV-2 first recognize a lipid raft microdomain that acts as a landing strip for viral particles on the host cell surface. In the case of mucosal cells, which are the primary targets of both viruses, these microdomains are enriched in anionic glycolipids (gangliosides) forming a global electronegative field. Both viruses use lipid rafts to surf on the cell surface in search of a protein receptor able to trigger the fusion process. This implies that viral envelope proteins are both geometrically and electrically compatible to the biomolecules they select to invade host cells. In the present study, we identify the surface electrostatic potential as a critical parameter controlling the convergent evolution dynamics of HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 surface envelope proteins, and we discuss the impact of this parameter on the phenotypic properties of both viruses. The virological data accumulated since the emergence of HIV in the early 1980s should help us to face present and future virus pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , HIV Infections/metabolism , Membrane Microdomains/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism
5.
J Med Virol ; 95(1): e28427, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173205

ABSTRACT

The immune response is crucial for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) progression, with the participation of proinflammatory cells and cytokines, inducing lung injury and loss of respiratory function. CLEC5A expression on monocytes can be triggered by viral and bacterial infections, leading to poor outcomes. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is able to induce neutrophil activation by CLEC5A and Toll-like receptor 2, leading to an aggressive inflammatory cascade, but little is known about the molecular interactions between CLEC5A and SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Here, we aimed to explore how CLEC5A expression could be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection using immunological tools with in vitro, in vivo, and in silico assays. The findings revealed that high levels of CLEC5A expression were found in monocytes from severe COVID-19 patients in comparison with mild COVID-19 and unexposed subjects, but not in vaccinated subjects who developed mild COVID-19. In hamsters, we detected CLEC5A gene expression during 3-15 days of Omicron strain viral challenge. Our results also showed that CLEC5A can interact with SARS-CoV-2, promoting inflammatory cytokine production, probably through an interaction with the receptor-binding domain in the N-acetylglucosamine binding site (NAG-601). The high expression of CLEC5A and high levels of proinflammatory cytokine production were reduced in vitro by a human CLEC5A monoclonal antibody. Finally, CLEC5A was triggered by spike glycoprotein, suggesting its involvement in COVID-19 progression; therapy with a monoclonal antibody could be a good strategy for COVID-19 treatment, but vaccines are still the best option to avoid hospitalization/deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Cytokines , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Glycoproteins , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Lectins, C-Type/genetics
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2213317120, 2023 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186699

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to develop novel drugs to reduce the mortality from severe infectious diseases with the emergence of new pathogens, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although current drugs effectively suppress the proliferation of pathogens, immune cell activation, and inflammatory cytokine functions, they cannot completely reduce mortality from severe infections and sepsis. In this study, we focused on the endothelial cell-specific protein, Roundabout 4 (Robo4), which suppresses vascular permeability by stabilizing endothelial cells, and investigated whether enhanced Robo4 expression could be a novel therapeutic strategy against severe infectious diseases. Endothelial-specific overexpression of Robo4 suppresses vascular permeability and reduces mortality in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Screening of small molecules that regulate Robo4 expression and subsequent analysis revealed that two competitive small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) signaling pathways, activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)-SMAD2/3 and ALK1-SMAD1/5, positively and negatively regulate Robo4 expression, respectively. An ALK1 inhibitor was found to increase Robo4 expression in mouse lungs, suppress vascular permeability, prevent extravasation of melanoma cells, and decrease mortality in LPS-treated mice. The inhibitor suppressed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced endothelial barrier disruption and decreased mortality in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. These results indicate that enhancing Robo4 expression is an efficient strategy to suppress vascular permeability and mortality in severe infectious diseases, including COVID-19, and that small molecules that upregulate Robo4 can be potential therapeutic agents against these diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Animals , Mice , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Capillary Permeability , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 989534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039664

ABSTRACT

Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a carbohydrate-binding small monomeric protein isolated from stinging nettle rhizomes. It inhibits replication of a broad range of viruses, including coronaviruses, in multiple cell types, with appealing selectivity. In this work, we investigated the potential of UDA as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2. UDA potently blocks transduction of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 in A549.ACE2+-TMPRSS2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.32 to 1.22 µM. Furthermore, UDA prevents viral replication of the early Wuhan-Hu-1 strain in Vero E6 cells (IC50 = 225 nM), but also the replication of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including Alpha, Beta and Gamma (IC50 ranging from 115 to 171 nM). In addition, UDA exerts antiviral activity against the latest circulating Delta and Omicron variant in U87.ACE2+ cells (IC50 values are 1.6 and 0.9 µM, respectively). Importantly, when tested in Air-Liquid Interface (ALI) primary lung epithelial cell cultures, UDA preserves antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (20A.EU2 variant) in the nanomolar range. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies demonstrated a concentration-dependent binding of UDA to the viral spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting interference of UDA with cell attachment or subsequent virus entry. Moreover, in additional mechanistic studies with cell-cell fusion assays, UDA inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Finally, pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 mutants with N-glycosylation deletions in the S2 subunit of the spike protein remained sensitive to the antiviral activity of UDA. In conclusion, our data establish UDA as a potent fusion inhibitor for the current variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urtica dioica , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbohydrates , Europium , Humans , Receptors, Cell Surface , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Urtica dioica/metabolism , Viral Proteins
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 935700, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005869

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Urine-soluble CD163 (usCD163) is released from alternatively activated macrophages involved in the resolution of inflammation in glomeruli and plays an important role in glomerulonephritis. This study explored the role of usCD163 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Materials and Methods: usCD163 concentrations were measured cross-sectionally in 261 SLE patients in Taiwan. Clinical and laboratory data were collected, and SLE disease activity scores were calculated to assess the correlation with usCD163. Results: SLE patients with high usCD163 levels tended to be younger, with a higher hospital admission rate, higher prednisolone dose, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher urine protein creatinine ratio (UPCR), more pyuria and hematuria, higher levels of inflammatory markers, higher rates of anemia, neutropenia, and lymphopenia, lower complement 3 (C3) levels, higher anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA Ab) levels, and higher disease activity scores (p < 0.05). usCD163 levels were significantly higher in patients with active lupus nephritis (LN) than in those with extrarenal or inactive SLE and correlated with UPCR, disease activity, and anti-dsDNA Ab levels. SLE patients with high usCD163 levels tended to have a higher chronic kidney disease stage. Discussion and conclusion: The usCD163 level correlates with the severity of LN and disease activity in renal SLE.


Subject(s)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lupus Nephritis , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Biomarkers/urine , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Nephritis/diagnosis , Receptors, Cell Surface
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4058, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004786

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-19 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 was performed for the assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. In a total of 55, 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung samples were tested for ACE2, 36 for CD163, and 26 for CD61, compared to 15 non-covid 19 control lung sections. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis were used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels were positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin beta3/genetics , Integrin beta3/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(10): e24666, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is one of the most contagious viruses in the Coronaviridae (CoV) family, which has become a pandemic. The aim of this study is to understand more about the role of hsa_circ_0004812 in the SARS-CoV-2 related cytokine storm and its associated molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: cDNA synthesis was performed after total RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 46 patients with symptomatic COVID-19, 46 patients with asymptomatic COVID-19, and 46 healthy controls. The expression levels of hsa_circ_0004812, hsa-miR-1287-5p, IL6R, and RIG-I were determined using qRT-PCR, and the potential interaction between these molecules was confirmed by bioinformatics tools and correlation analysis. RESULTS: hsa_circ_0004812, IL6R, and RIG-I are expressed higher in the severe symptom group compared with the negative control group. Also, the relative expression of these genes in the asymptomatic group is lower than in the severe symptom group. The expression level of hsa-miR-1287-5p was positively correlated with symptoms in patients. The results of the bioinformatics analysis predicted the sponging effect of hsa_circ_0004812 as a competing endogenous RNA on hsa-miR-1287-5p. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between hsa_circ_0004812, RIG-I, and IL-6R expressions, and also a negative expression correlation between hsa_circ_0004812 and hsa-miR-1287-5p and between hsa-miR-1287-5p, RIG-I, and IL-6R. CONCLUSION: The results of this in-vitro and in silico study show that hsa_circ_0004812/hsa-miR-1287-5p/IL6R, RIG-I can play an important role in the outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , DNA, Complementary , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Circular/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation/genetics
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934114

ABSTRACT

The sole currently approved malaria vaccine targets the circumsporozoite protein-the protein that densely coats the surface of sporozoites, the parasite stage deposited in the skin of the mammalian host by infected mosquitoes. However, this vaccine only confers moderate protection against clinical diseases in children, impelling a continuous search for novel candidates. In this work, we studied the importance of the membrane-associated erythrocyte binding-like protein (MAEBL) for infection by Plasmodium sporozoites. Using transgenic parasites and live imaging in mice, we show that the absence of MAEBL reduces Plasmodium berghei hemolymph sporozoite infectivity to mice. Moreover, we found that maebl knockout (maebl-) sporozoites display reduced adhesion, including to cultured hepatocytes, which could contribute to the defects in multiple biological processes, such as in gliding motility, hepatocyte wounding, and invasion. The maebl- defective phenotypes in mosquito salivary gland and liver infection were reverted by genetic complementation. Using a parasite line expressing a C-terminal myc-tagged MAEBL, we found that MAEBL levels peak in midgut and hemolymph parasites but drop after sporozoite entry into the salivary glands, where the labeling was found to be heterogeneous among sporozoites. MAEBL was found associated, not only with micronemes, but also with the surface of mature sporozoites. Overall, our data provide further insight into the role of MAEBL in sporozoite infectivity and may contribute to the design of future immune interventions.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium berghei , Protozoan Proteins , Receptors, Cell Surface , Animals , Culicidae , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Plasmodium berghei/genetics , Plasmodium berghei/pathogenicity , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Sporozoites/metabolism
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4054, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931408

ABSTRACT

Establishment of zoonotic viruses, causing pandemics like the Spanish flu and Covid-19, requires adaptation to human receptors. Pandemic influenza A viruses (IAV) that crossed the avian-human species barrier switched from binding avian-type α2-3-linked sialic acid (2-3Sia) to human-type 2-6Sia receptors. Here, we show that this specificity switch is however less dichotomous as generally assumed. Binding and entry specificity were compared using mixed synthetic glycan gradients of 2-3Sia and 2-6Sia and by employing a genetically remodeled Sia repertoire on the surface of a Sia-free cell line and on a sialoglycoprotein secreted from these cells. Expression of a range of (mixed) 2-3Sia and 2-6Sia densities shows that non-binding human-type receptors efficiently enhanced avian IAV binding and entry provided the presence of a low density of high affinity avian-type receptors, and vice versa. Considering the heterogeneity of sialoglycan receptors encountered in vivo, hetero-multivalent binding is physiologically relevant and will impact evolutionary pathways leading to host adaptation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/metabolism , Humans , Influenza A virus/metabolism , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
13.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 52, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-induced disease 19 (COVID-19) infects more than three hundred and sixty million patients worldwide, and people with severe symptoms frequently die of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies indicated that excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributed to immunothrombosis, thereby leading to extensive intravascular coagulopathy and multiple organ dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced NET formation would be helpful to reduce thrombosis and prevent ARDS in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We incubated SARS-CoV-2 with neutrophils in the presence or absence of platelets to observe NET formation. We further isolated extracellular vesicles from COVID-19 patients' sera (COVID-19-EVs) to examine their ability to induce NET formation. RESULTS: We demonstrated that antagonistic mAbs against anti-CLEC5A mAb and anti-TLR2 mAb can inhibit COVID-19-EVs-induced NET formation, and generated clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice to confirm the critical roles of CLEC5A and TLR2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation in vivo. We found that virus-free extracellular COVID-19 EVs induced robust NET formation via Syk-coupled C-type lectin member 5A (CLEC5A) and TLR2. Blockade of CLEC5A inhibited COVID-19 EVs-induced NETosis, and simultaneous blockade of CLEC5A and TLR2 further suppressed SARS-CoV-2-induced NETosis in vitro. Moreover, thromboinflammation was attenuated dramatically in clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2-activated platelets produce EVs to enhance thromboinflammation via CLEC5A and TLR2, and highlight the importance of CLEC5A and TLR2 as therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lectins, C-Type , Neutrophils , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Animals , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Mice , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Receptors, Cell Surface , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology
14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(26): e2201883, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905774

ABSTRACT

Severe infectious diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can induce hypercytokinemia and multiple organ failure. In spite of the growing demand for peptide therapeutics against infectious diseases, current small molecule-based strategies still require frequent administration due to limited half-life and enzymatic digestion in blood. To overcome this challenge, a strategy to continuously express multi-level therapeutic peptide drugs on the surface of immune cells, is established. Here, chimeric T cells stably expressing therapeutic peptides are presented for treatment of severe infectious diseases. Using lentiviral system, T cells are engineered to express multi-level therapeutic peptides with matrix metallopeptidases- (MMP-) and tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme- (TACE-) responsive cleavage sites on the surface. The enzymatic cleavage releases γ-carboxyglutamic acid of protein C (PC-Gla) domain and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP), which activate endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), respectively. These chimeric T cells prevent vascular damage in tissue-engineered blood vessel and suppress hypercytokinemia and lung tissue damages in vivo, demonstrating promise for use of engineered T cells against sepsis and other infectious-related diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, CD/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , Receptor, PAR-1/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2119761119, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900767

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein is the prime target for vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutic antibodies against the virus. While anchored in the viral envelope, for effective virulence, the spike needs to maintain structural flexibility to recognize the host cell surface receptors and bind to them, a property that can heavily depend upon the dynamics of the unresolved domains, most prominently the stalk. Construction of the complete, membrane-bound spike model and the description of its dynamics are critical steps in understanding the inner working of this key element of the viral infection by SARS-CoV-2. Combining homology modeling, protein-protein docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have developed a full spike structure in a native membrane. Multimicrosecond MD simulations of this model, the longest known single trajectory of the full spike, reveal conformational dynamics employed by the protein to explore the surface of the host cell. In agreement with cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), three flexible hinges in the stalk allow for global conformational heterogeneity of spike in the fully glycosylated system mediated by glycan-glycan and glycan-lipid interactions. The dynamical range of the spike is considerably reduced in its nonglycosylated form, confining the area explored by the spike on the host cell surface. Furthermore, palmitoylation of the membrane domain amplifies the local curvature that may prime the fusion. We show that the identified hinge regions are highly conserved in SARS coronaviruses, highlighting their functional importance in enhancing viral infection, and thereby, provide points for discovery of alternative therapeutics against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Receptors, Cell Surface , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/virology , Glycosylation , Humans , Polysaccharides , Protein Binding , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4803-4808, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894607

ABSTRACT

The development of cardiovascular disease shows increase after contracting coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease and myocardial damage is observed in patients who have had the disease severely. The relationship between genetic cardiovascular risk factors with COVID-19 infection was investigated in our study. One hundred thirty-five patients, 27 of whom were COVID-19 (-) and 108 were COVID-19 (+) patients, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups ([COVID-19 [-], COVID-19 [+] asymptomatic, and COVID-19 [+] symptomatic + patients with pulmonary involvement]). Genetic cardiovascular risk factors were examined in blood samples taken from the patients with new generation sequencing analysis. In the clinical classification, there were no significant differences between the three groups in fibrinogen beta chain-455G>A, human platelet antigen 1 (HPA1b)/platelet receptor GPIIIa/(ITGB3) (HPA1a/b; GpIIIa; integrin beta 3 L33P), ACE I/D, AGT (M268T), AGTR1 (1166A>C), Apo E (E2/E3/E4) (rs7412, rs429358), eNOS (786T>C), eNOS (894G>T) genes (p > 0.05). However, significant differences were observed in PROCR H3 haplotype/G (endothelial protein C receptor gene [EPCR] 4600A>G [A3 haplotype]), PROCR H1 haplotype/C (EPCR 4678G>C [A1 haplotype]) genes (p < 0.05). When COVID-19 (+) and COVID-19 (-) groups were compared, it was observed that the infection was more common in people with PROCR H1 haplotype/C and PROCR H3 haplotype/G genotypes (p < 0.05). PROCR H1 and PROCR H3 haplotypes may be an important factor in contracting COVID-19 disease. In people with COVID-19 disease, revealing PROCR genetic differences and measuring sEPCR levels will be beneficial in the follow-up of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelial Protein C Receptor , Integrin beta3 , Antigens, CD/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Endothelial Protein C Receptor/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , Integrin beta3/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface
17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(6): 2299-2309, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844370

ABSTRACT

Similar to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), some patients with SARS-CoV-2 have cytokine storm. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sCD25) and soluble CD163 (sCD163) are potential diagnostic biomarkers for HLH that help in guiding its treatment. This study was the first to investigate serum sCD25 and sCD163 levels in SARS-CoV-2. Serum sCD25 and sCD163 were measured by ELISA in 29 patients with SARS-CoV-2, aged between 2 months and 16 years (13 had COVID-19 and 16 had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)), in comparison to 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control children and 10 patients with HLH. Levels of these markers were re-measured in 21 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were followed up 3 months after recovery. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 had significantly higher serum sCD25 and sCD163 than healthy control children (P < 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 patients had significantly higher sCD25 than patients with HLH (P < 0.05). Serum sCD25 was a good differentiating marker between patients with SARS-CoV-2 and HLH. Although there was a significant decrease of serum sCD25 and sCD163 of the 21 SARS-CoV-2 patients who were followed up, these levels were still significantly higher than the healthy controls levels (P < 0.001).  Conclusion: Serum sCD25 and sCD163 levels were up-regulated in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Serum sCD25 was a good differentiating marker between SARS-CoV-2 and HLH. This initial report requires further studies, on large scales, to investigate the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and both sCD25 and sCD163, including the disease severity and outcome. The therapeutic role of sCD25 and sCD163 antagonists should also be studied in SARS-CoV-2 patients. What is Known: • Similar to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), some patients with COVID-19 have cytokine storm due to excessive pro-inflammatory host response. • Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sCD25) and soluble CD163 (sCD163) are potential diagnostic biomarkers for HLH. Monitoring of serum sCD25 and sCD163 levels can also help in guiding the treatment. What is New: • Serum sCD25 and sCD163 levels are up-regulated in patients with COVID-19, including patients presenting with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). • Serum sCD25 is a good differentiating marker between SARS-CoV-2 and HLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Infant , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Receptors, Cell Surface , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
19.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0199521, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745826

ABSTRACT

C-type lectin domain-containing proteins (CTLDcps) shape host responses to pathogens and infectious disease outcomes. Previously, we identified the murine CTLDcp Cd302 as restriction factor, limiting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of murine hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated in detail the human orthologue's ability to restrict HCV infection in human liver cells. CD302 overexpression in Huh-7.5 cells potently inhibited infection of diverse HCV chimeras representing seven genotypes. Transcriptional profiling revealed abundant CD302 mRNA expression in human hepatocytes, the natural cellular target of HCV. Knockdown of endogenously expressed CD302 modestly enhanced HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells and primary human hepatocytes. Functional analysis of naturally occurring CD302 transcript variants and engineered CD302 mutants showed that the C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) is essential for HCV restriction, whereas the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) is dispensable. Coding single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring in human populations and mapping to different domains of CD302 did not influence the capacity of CD302 to restrict HCV. Assessment of the anti-HCV phenotype at different life cycle stages indicated that CD302 preferentially targets the viral entry step. In contrast to the murine orthologue, overexpression of human CD302 did not modulate downstream expression of nuclear receptor-controlled genes. Ectopic CD302 expression restricted infection of liver tropic hepatitis E virus (HEV), while it did not affect infection rates of two respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the alpha coronavirus HVCoV-229E. Together, these findings suggest that CD302 contributes to liver cell-intrinsic defense against HCV and might mediate broader antiviral defenses against additional hepatotropic viruses. IMPORTANCE The liver represents an immunoprivileged organ characterized by enhanced resistance to immune responses. However, the importance of liver cell-endogenous, noncytolytic innate immune responses in pathogen control is not well defined. Although the role of myeloid cell-expressed CTLDcps in host responses to viruses has been characterized in detail, we have little information about their potential functions in the liver and their relevance for immune responses in this organ. Human hepatocytes endogenously express the CTLDcp CD302. Here, we provide evidence that CD302 limits HCV infection of human liver cells, likely by inhibiting a viral cell entry step. We confirm that the dominant liver-expressed transcript variant, as well as naturally occurring coding variants of CD302, maintain the capacity to restrict HCV. We further show that the CTLD of the protein is critical for the anti-HCV activity and that overexpressed CD302 limits HEV infection. Thus, CD302 likely contributes to human liver-intrinsic antiviral defenses.


Subject(s)
Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Lectins, C-Type , Receptors, Cell Surface , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatocytes/immunology , Hepatocytes/virology , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Virus Replication
20.
Nature ; 607(7917): 97-103, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730298

ABSTRACT

Critical COVID-19 is caused by immune-mediated inflammatory lung injury. Host genetic variation influences the development of illness requiring critical care1 or hospitalization2-4 after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The GenOMICC (Genetics of Mortality in Critical Care) study enables the comparison of genomes from individuals who are critically ill with those of population controls to find underlying disease mechanisms. Here we use whole-genome sequencing in 7,491 critically ill individuals compared with 48,400 controls to discover and replicate 23 independent variants that significantly predispose to critical COVID-19. We identify 16 new independent associations, including variants within genes that are involved in interferon signalling (IL10RB and PLSCR1), leucocyte differentiation (BCL11A) and blood-type antigen secretor status (FUT2). Using transcriptome-wide association and colocalization to infer the effect of gene expression on disease severity, we find evidence that implicates multiple genes-including reduced expression of a membrane flippase (ATP11A), and increased expression of a mucin (MUC1)-in critical disease. Mendelian randomization provides evidence in support of causal roles for myeloid cell adhesion molecules (SELE, ICAM5 and CD209) and the coagulation factor F8, all of which are potentially druggable targets. Our results are broadly consistent with a multi-component model of COVID-19 pathophysiology, in which at least two distinct mechanisms can predispose to life-threatening disease: failure to control viral replication; or an enhanced tendency towards pulmonary inflammation and intravascular coagulation. We show that comparison between cases of critical illness and population controls is highly efficient for the detection of therapeutically relevant mechanisms of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Genome, Human , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Whole Genome Sequencing , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Critical Care , Critical Illness/mortality , E-Selectin , Factor VIII , Fucosyltransferases , Genome, Human/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit , Lectins, C-Type , Mucin-1 , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Phospholipid Transfer Proteins , Receptors, Cell Surface , Repressor Proteins , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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