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2.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 28(5): 278.e1-278.e4, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702033

ABSTRACT

Patients with delayed B-cell reconstitution/B-cell aplasia after cellular therapy show decreased immunogenicity to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. We prospectively evaluated both humoral and cellular immune response to a third vaccine dose in patients after allogeneic HCT (n = 10) or CD19-based chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) therapy (n = 6) with low absolute B cell numbers and who failed to mount a humeral response after 2 vaccine doses. Humoral response was documented in 40% and 17% after allogeneic HCT and CAR-T therapy, respectively. None of the patients with complete B-cell aplasia developed anti-vaccine antibodies. Cellular response was documented in all patients after allogeneic HCT and in 83% of the patients after CAR-T. T-cell subclasses levels were not predictive for response, while a longer duration from infusion of cells was associated with a better cellular response. We conclude that cellular response develops with repeated vaccine doses even in patients with B-cell aplasia or delayed B-cell reconstitution, and these patients should therefore be vaccinated. These results should be considered in future studies analyzing immunogenicity in this population. Larger and longer follow-up studies are required to confirm whether cellular immunogenicity translates into vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 515-519, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574756

ABSTRACT

Blockade of IL-6 function by an anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody (tocilizumab, trade name Actemra) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, treatment with tocilizumab has also been found to alleviate the cytokine storm induced by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy. Patients with serious cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which suggested that tocilizumab might be an effective therapeutic for serious cases of COVID-19. In the first part of this short review, the therapeutic effect of tocilizumab for the disease induced by IL-6 overproduction is described. CRS induced by CAR-T-cell therapy and COVID-19 is then discussed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans
5.
Bull Cancer ; 108(12S): S90-S97, 2021 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559003

ABSTRACT

Infections occurring after CAR T-cells are a common complication. At the acute phase of treatment following CAR T-cell infusion, the exact incidence of infections is unknown given the overlapping symptoms with cytokine release syndrome. The risk factors for infection include the malignant underlying disease and its multiple treatments, and an immunosuppressive state induced by CAR-T cells themselves and the treatment of their complications. During the twelfth edition of practice harmonization workshops of the Francophone society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC), a working group focused its work on the management of post-CAR infectious complications. In this review we discuss anti-infection prophylaxis and vaccination of patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy as well as a special chapter for the specific case of COVID-19. These recommendations apply to commercial CAR-T cells, in order to guide strategies for the management and prevention of infectious complications associated with this new therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Mycoses/prevention & control , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Transplantation , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Immunization , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumocystis , Risk Factors
9.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(12): 973-987, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492350

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy has shown unprecedented response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) hematologic malignancies. Although CAR-T therapy gives hope to heavily pretreated patients, the rapid commercialization and cumulative immunosuppression of this therapy predispose patients to infections for a prolonged period. CAR-T therapy poses distinctive short- and long-term toxicities and infection risks among patients who receive CAR T-cells after multiple prior treatments, often including hematopoietic cell transplantation. The acute toxicities include cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. The long-term B cell depletion, hypogammaglobulinemia, and cytopenia further predispose patients to severe infections and abrogate the remission success achieved by the living drug. These on-target-off-tumor toxicities deplete B-cells across the entire lineage and further diminish immune responses to vaccines. Early observational data suggest that patients with hematologic malignancies may not mount adequate humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this review, we summarize the immune compromising factors indigenous to CAR-T recipients. We discuss the immunogenic potential of different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for CAR-T recipients based on the differences in vaccine manufacturing platforms. Given the lack of data related to the safety and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in this distinctively immunosuppressed cohort, we summarize the infection risks associated with Food and Drug Administration-approved CAR-T constructs and the potential determinants of vaccine responses. The review further highlights the potential need for booster vaccine dosing and the promise for heterologous prime-boosting and other novel vaccine strategies in CAR-T recipients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Shock ; 56(5): 667-672, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: "Cytokine storm" has been used to implicate increased cytokine levels in the pathogenesis of serious clinical conditions. Similarities with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronoavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) and the 2012 Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome led early investigators to suspect a "cytokine storm" resulting in an unregulated inflammatory response associated with the significant morbidity and mortality induced by SARS CoV-2. The threshold of blood cytokines necessary to qualify as a "cytokine storm" has yet to be defined. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify cytokine levels released during 11 assorted clinical conditions or diseases. Weighted averages for various cytokines were calculated by multiplying the number of patients in the paper by the average concentration of each cytokine. Correlation between cytokine levels for individual conditions or diseases were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The literature was reviewed to determine blood levels of cytokines in a wide variety of clinical conditions. These conditions ranged from exercise and autoimmune disease to septic shock and therapy with chimeric antigen receptor T cells. The most frequently measured cytokine was IL-6 which ranged from 24,123 pg/mL in septic shock to 11 pg/mL after exercise. In patients with severe SARS CoV-2 infections, blood levels of IL-6 were only 43 pg/mL, nearly three magnitudes lower than IL-6 levels in patients with septic shock. The clinical presentations of these different diseases do not correlate with blood levels of cytokines. Additionally, there is poor correlation between the concentrations of different cytokines among the different diseases. Specifically, blood levels of IL-6 did not correlate with levels of IL-8, IL-10, or TNF. Septic shock had the highest concentrations of cytokines, yet multiple cytokine inhibitors have failed to demonstrate improved outcomes in multiple clinical trials. Patients with autoimmune diseases have very low blood levels of cytokines (rheumatoid arthritis, IL-6 = 34 pg/mL; Crohn's disease, IL-6 = 5 pg/mL), yet respond dramatically to cytokine inhibitors. CONCLUSION: The misleading term "cytokine storm" implies increased blood levels of cytokines are responsible for a grave clinical condition. Not all inflammatory conditions resulting in worsened disease states are correlated with significantly elevated cytokine levels, despite an association with the term "cytokine storm". "Cytokine storm" should be removed from the medical lexicon since it does not reflect the mediators driving the disease nor does it predict which diseases will respond to cytokine inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/blood , COVID-19/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/blood , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/blood , Shock, Septic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(6): 394-400, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the clinical experience of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hematopoietic cell transplant and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy recipients over the past year and to identify key knowledge gaps for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunocompromised individuals and those with chronic health conditions are especially susceptible to infections, which have had a disproportionate impact on health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Several studies have evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of transplant and cellular therapy (TCT) recipients who developed COVID-19. Age, sex, comorbid conditions, and social determinants of health are important predictors of the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and of the eventual severity of the disease. Various treatment approaches have been investigated over the last year. The paradigm of management strategies continues to evolve as more experience is accumulated. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize some important findings as they relate to the clinical characteristics of TCT recipients who develop COVID-19. We also discuss some treatment approaches that are currently recommended and opine on vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/standards , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Immunocompromised Host , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(9): 796.e1-796.e7, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371489

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic in March 2020, and has caused more than 600,000 deaths in the United States at the time of this report. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy recipients have a higher risk of mortality with COVID-19 owing to profound immune dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 in HCT/CAR-T therapy recipients. This single-center prospective study included all (n = 58) adult HCT/CAR-T recipients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at the University of Kansas Medical Center between March 2020 and May 2021. Baseline and disease-related characteristics were ascertained from medical records. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Bivariate analyses, using the chi-square and t-test, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The study included 58 HCT/CAR-T patients who acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection, including recipients of allogeneic HCT (n = 32), autologous HCT (n = 23), and CAR-T therapy (n = 3). The median patient age was 58 years (range, 24 to 77 years), and 64% were males. The median time from HCT/CAR-T therapy to SARS-CoV-2 infection was 17.7 months (range, 0.2 to 201.9 months), and 22% of the patients acquired SARS-CoV-2 within the first 100 days post-HCT/CAR-T therapy. The primary hematologic disorders were plasma cell (36%), myeloid (38%), and lymphoid (26%) malignancies. Myeloablative conditioning was performed in 62% of patients. Donors were autologous (45%), matched sibling (15%), matched unrelated (21%), and haploidentical (19%). Prior history of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), active GVHD, and current immunosuppressive therapy (IST) was noted in 22%, 31%, and 36% of patients, respectively. Concurrent infections were observed in 19%. Lymphopenia (P = .049) and high serum ferritin concentration (P = .020) were associated with mortality. COVID-19 severity was mild in 50% of the patients, moderate in 22%, and severe in 28%. Clinical findings included pneumonia or abnormal chest imaging (in 50%), hypoxia (28%), intensive care unit admission (19%), and mechanical ventilation (10%). Therapies included remdesivir (in 41%), convalescent plasma (35%), dexamethasone (22%), monoclonal antibodies (19%), and tocilizumab (3%). The median duration of viral shedding (positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR) was 7.7 weeks (range, 2 to 18.7 weeks), and 2 patients had a persistent infection for >5 months post-CAR-T therapy. After a median follow-up of 6.1 months (range, 0.5-13.6 months), the mortality rate was 16% in all patients and 28% in allogeneic HCT recipients. Among 9 patients who died, the median survival after SARS-CoV-2 infection was 23 days (range, 14 to 140 days). In survivors with moderate-severe COVID-19, the median time to recovery was 4.2 weeks (range, 1.1 to 24.7 weeks). Among allogeneic HCT recipients, 5 (16%) developed subsequent pulmonary chronic GVHD necessitating systemic steroids and additional IST. Significant predictors of COVID-19 severity included allogeneic HCT (odds ratio [OR], 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 10.8; P = .020), history of grade II-IV acute GVHD (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.10 to 18.86; P = .036) and concurrent IST (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 19.8; P = .004). HCT and CAR-T cell therapy recipients are at an increased risk of moderate-severe COVID-19 pneumonia and higher mortality with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings confirm the need for continuing vigilance with social distancing and masks, vaccination prioritization, close monitoring, and aggressive treatment of HCT/CAR-T therapy recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
15.
Cancer J ; 27(4): 297-305, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354351

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Despite multiple advances in the treatment landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) during recent years, cellular therapies, such as allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and chimeric antigen-engineered T cells, represent valuable therapeutic options for patients with multiply relapsed or poor-risk disease. This brief overview will summarize current results of cellular therapies in CLL including Richter transformation, suggest an indication algorithm and strategies for performing cellular therapies in these conditions, and discuss the impact of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and chimeric antigen-engineered T cells in CLL.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 652223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348483

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious and presents a significant public health issue. Current therapies used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include monoclonal antibody cocktail, convalescent plasma, antivirals, immunomodulators, and anticoagulants. The vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna have recently been authorized for emergency use, which are invaluable for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their long-term side effects are not yet documented, and populations with immunocompromised conditions (e.g., organ-transplantation and immunodeficient patients) may not be able to mount an effective immune response. In addition, there are concerns that wide-scale immunity to SARS-CoV-2 may introduce immune pressure that could select for escape mutants to the existing vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies. Emerging evidence has shown that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)- natural killer (NK) immunotherapy has potent antitumor response in hematologic cancers with minimal adverse effects in recent studies, however, the potentials of CAR-NK cells in treating COVID-19 has not yet been fully exploited. Here, we improve upon a novel approach for the generation of CAR-NK cells for targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its various mutants. CAR-NK cells were generated using the scFv domain of S309 (henceforward, S309-CAR-NK), a SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAbs) that targets the highly conserved region of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein and is therefore more likely to recognize different variants of SARS-CoV-2 isolates. S309-CAR-NK cells can specifically bind to pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus and its D614G, N501Y, and E484K mutants. Furthermore, S309-CAR-NK cells can specifically kill target cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein in vitro and show superior killing activity and cytokine production, compared to that of the recently reported CR3022-CAR-NK cells. Thus, these results pave the way for generating 'off-the-shelf' S309-CAR-NK cells for treatment in high-risk individuals as well as provide an alternative strategy for patients unresponsive to current vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , A549 Cells , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e815-e821, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338685

ABSTRACT

A chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy recipient developed severe coronavirus disease 2019, intractable RNAemia, and viral replication lasting >2 months. Premortem endotracheal aspirate contained >2 × 1010 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copies/mL and infectious virus. Deep sequencing revealed multiple sequence variants consistent with intrahost virus evolution. SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cell-mediated immunity were minimal. Prolonged transmission from immunosuppressed patients is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
18.
Bull Cancer ; 108(12S): S20-S25, 2021 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293624

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly impacted cell therapy activities across the globe. Not only was this, unexpected event, a threat to patients who had previously received hematopoietic cell transplantation or other cell therapy such as CAR-T cells, but also, it was responsible for a disruption of cell therapy activities due to the danger of the virus and to the lack of solid scientific data on the management of patients and donors. The Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) devoted a workshop to issue useful recommendations in such an unexpected event in order to harmonize the actions of all the actors involved in cellular therapy programs so that we can collectively face, in the future, the challenges that could threaten our patients. This work is not specifically dedicated to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, but the latter has been used as a concrete example of an unexpected event to build up our recommendations.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Transplantation/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Transplantation/standards , Pandemics , Cryopreservation , Health Services Accessibility , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/standards , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , Societies, Medical , Tissue Donors
19.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 668-678, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264197

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a paradigm-shifting immunotherapy modality in oncology; however, unique toxicities such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome limit its ability to be implemented more widely in the outpatient setting or at smaller-volume centers. Three operational challenges with CAR-T therapy include the following: (1) the logistics of toxicity monitoring, ie, with frequent vital sign checks and neurologic assessments; (2) the specialized knowledge required for toxicity management, particularly with regard to CRS and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome; and (3) the need for high-quality symptomatic and supportive care during this intensive period. In this review, we explore potential niches for digital innovations that can improve the implementation of CAR-T therapy in each of these domains. These tools include patient-facing technologies and provider-facing platforms: for example, wearable devices and mobile health apps to screen for fevers and encephalopathy, electronic patient-reported outcome assessments-based workflows to assist with symptom management, machine learning algorithms to predict emerging CRS in real time, clinical decision support systems to assist with toxicity management, and digital coaching to help maintain wellness. Televisits, which have grown in prominence since the novel coronavirus pandemic, will continue to play a key role in the monitoring and management of CAR-T-related toxicities as well. Limitations of these strategies include the need to ensure care equity and stakeholder buy-in, both operationally and financially. Nevertheless, once developed and validated, the next-generation implementation of CAR-T therapy using these digital tools may improve both its safety and accessibility.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/adverse effects , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Machine Learning , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Precision Medicine , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261212

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies that specifically target the CD19 antigen have emerged as a highly effective treatment option in patients with refractory B-cell hematological malignancies. Safety and efficacy outcomes from the pivotal prospective clinical trials of axicabtagene ciloleucel, tisagenlecleucel and lisocabtagene maraleucel and the retrospective, postmarketing, real-world analyses have confirmed high response rates and durable remissions in patients who had failed multiple lines of therapy and had no meaningful treatment options. Although initially administered in the inpatient setting, there has been a growing interest in delivering CAR-T cell therapy in the outpatient setting; however, this has not been adopted as standard clinical practice for multiple reasons, including logistic and reimbursement issues. CAR-T cell therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach and coordination, particularly if given in an outpatient setting. The ability to monitor patients closely is necessary and proper protocols must be established to respond to clinical changes to ensure efficient, effective and rapid evaluation either in the clinic or emergency department for management decisions regarding fever, sepsis, cytokine release syndrome and neurological events, specifically immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. This review presents the authors' institutional experience with the preparation and delivery of outpatient CD19-directed CAR-T cell therapy.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antigens, CD19/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Lymphoma, B-Cell/therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , Ambulatory Care/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospital Costs , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/economics , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/mortality , Lymphoma, B-Cell/economics , Lymphoma, B-Cell/immunology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/mortality , Patient Safety , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/economics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
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