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1.
Sci Immunol ; 6(64): eabj2901, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470496

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2­specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across ß-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2­specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common ß-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , Young Adult
2.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10243, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395372

ABSTRACT

Systems serology provides a broad view of humoral immunity by profiling both the antigen-binding and Fc properties of antibodies. These studies contain structured biophysical profiling across disease-relevant antigen targets, alongside additional measurements made for single antigens or in an antigen-generic manner. Identifying patterns in these measurements helps guide vaccine and therapeutic antibody development, improve our understanding of diseases, and discover conserved regulatory mechanisms. Here, we report that coupled matrix-tensor factorization (CMTF) can reduce these data into consistent patterns by recognizing the intrinsic structure of these data. We use measurements from two previous studies of HIV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects as examples. CMTF outperforms standard methods like principal components analysis in the extent of data reduction while maintaining equivalent prediction of immune functional responses and disease status. Under CMTF, model interpretation improves through effective data reduction, separation of the Fc and antigen-binding effects, and recognition of consistent patterns across individual measurements. Data reduction also helps make prediction models more replicable. Therefore, we propose that CMTF is an effective general strategy for data exploration in systems serology.


Subject(s)
AIDS Serodiagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , HIV Infections/immunology , AIDS Serodiagnosis/methods , AIDS Serodiagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Logistic Models , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389395

ABSTRACT

As an essential modulator of IgG disposition, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) governs the pharmacokinetics and functions many therapeutic modalities. In this review, we thoroughly reexamine the hitherto elucidated biological and thermodynamic properties of FcRn to provide context for our assessment of more recent advances, which covers antigen-binding fragment (Fab) determinants of FcRn affinity, transgenic preclinical models, and FcRn targeting as an immune-complex (IC)-clearing strategy. We further comment on therapeutic antibodies authorized for treating SARS-CoV-2 (bamlanivimab, casirivimab, and imdevimab) and evaluate their potential to saturate FcRn-mediated recycling. Finally, we discuss modeling and simulation studies that probe the quantitative relationship between in vivo IgG persistence and in vitro FcRn binding, emphasizing the importance of endosomal transit parameters.


Subject(s)
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Receptors, Fc/chemistry , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Tissue Distribution/immunology
4.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(6): 467-477, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145996

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antibodies mediate pathogen neutralization in addition to several cytotoxic Fc functions through engaging cellular receptors and recruiting effector cells. Fc effector functions have been well described in disease control and protection against infectious diseases including HIV, Ebola, malaria, influenza and tuberculosis, making them attractive targets for vaccine design. AREAS COVERED: We briefly summarize the role of Fc effector functions in disease control and protection in viral, bacterial and parasitic infectious diseases. We review Fc effector function in passive immunization and vaccination, and primarily focus on strategies to elicit and modulate these functions as part of a robust vaccine strategy. EXPERT OPINION: Despite their known correlation with vaccine efficacy for several diseases, only recently have seminal studies addressed how these Fc effector functions can be elicited and modulated in vaccination. However, gaps remain in assay standardization and the precise mechanisms of diverse functional assays. Furthermore, there are inherent difficulties in the translation of findings from animal models to humans, given the difference in sequence, expression and function of Fc receptors and Fc portions of antibodies. However, overall it is clear that vaccine development to elicit Fc effector function is an important goal for optimal prevention against infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Receptors, Fc/physiology , Viral Vaccines/chemical synthesis , Animals , Humans , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
5.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195825

ABSTRACT

Beyond neutralization, antibodies binding to their Fc receptors elicit several innate immune functions including antibody-dependent complement deposition (ADCD), antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). These functions are beneficial, as they contribute to pathogen clearance; however, they also can induce inflammation. We tested the possibility that qualitative differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody-mediated innate immune functions contribute to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. We found that anti-S1 and anti-RBD antibodies from hospitalized COVID-19 patients elicited higher ADCD but lower ADCP compared to antibodies from nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients. Consistently, higher ADCD was associated with higher systemic inflammation, whereas higher ADCP was associated with lower systemic inflammation during COVID-19. Our study points to qualitative, differential features of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies as potential contributors to COVID-19 severity. Understanding these qualitative features of natural and vaccine-induced antibodies will be important in achieving optimal efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and/or COVID-19 therapeutics.IMPORTANCE A state of hyperinflammation and increased complement activation has been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to this phenomenon remain mostly unknown. Our data point to a qualitative, rather than quantitative, difference in SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies' ability to elicit Fc-mediated innate immune functions as a potential contributor to COVID-19 severity and associated inflammation. These data highlight the need for further studies to understand these qualitative features and their potential contribution to COVID-19 severity. This understanding could be essential to develop antibody-based COVID-19 therapeutics and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with an optimal balance between efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phagocytosis , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
JCI Insight ; 6(1)2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066996

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), coupled with a lack of therapeutics, has paralyzed the globe. Although significant effort has been invested in identifying antibodies that block infection, the ability of antibodies to target infected cells through Fc interactions may be vital to eliminate the virus. To explore the role of Fc activity in SARS-CoV-2 immunity, the functional potential of a cross-SARS-reactive antibody, CR3022, was assessed. CR3022 was able to broadly drive antibody effector functions, providing critical immune clearance at entry and upon egress. Using selectively engineered Fc variants, no protection was observed after administration of WT IgG1 in mice or hamsters. Conversely, the functionally enhanced Fc variant resulted in increased pathology in both the mouse and hamster models, causing weight loss in mice and enhanced viral replication and weight loss in the more susceptible hamster model, highlighting the pathological functions of Fc-enhancing mutations. These data point to the critical need for strategic Fc engineering for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cricetinae , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Mesocricetus , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Protein Engineering , Receptors, Fc/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , THP-1 Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects
7.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830212

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting, and frequently death in piglets, causing serious economic losses to the pig industry. The strain CHN-JS-2017 was isolated and identified by cytopathology, immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy, and sequence analysis. A nucleotide sequence alignment showed that the whole genome of CHN-JS-2017 is 97.4%-99.6% identical to other PDCoV strains. The pathogenicity of the CHN-JS-2017 strain was investigated in orally inoculated five-day-old piglets; the piglets developed acute, watery diarrhea, but all recovered and survived. CHN-JS-2017 infection-induced microscopic lesions were observed, and viral antigens were detected mainly by immunohistochemical staining in the small intestine. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) are crucial immunoglobulin (Ig) receptors for the transcytosis ofimmunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, or IgM. Importantly, CHN-JS-2017 infected five-day-old piglets could significantly down-regulate the expression of FcRn, pIgR, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)in the intestinal mucosa. Note that the level of FcRn mRNA in the intestinal mucosa of normal piglets is positively correlated with pIgR and NF-κB. At the same time, the expressions of FcRn, pIgR, and NF-κB mRNA are also positively correlated in infected piglets. These results may help explain the immunological and pathological changes associated with porcine deltacorononirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/classification , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Intestine, Small/immunology , Intestine, Small/virology , NF-kappa B/immunology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Virus Shedding
8.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110043, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671756

ABSTRACT

HYPOTHESIS: The delayed lung damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection may be caused by an autoimmune response to ACE2 induced by forced presentation of the ACE2 protein in a complex with CoV Spike in Fc Receptor positive Antigen Presenting Cells in the lung. The likelihood that this hypothesis is valid is low, but it is easily tested. TESTABLE PREDICTIONS: 1) Autoantibodies and T cells to ACE2 may be found in patients with the lung damage but not in those without 2) There may be an HLA linkage with the delayed lung disease 3) Vaccines based on the spike protein might initiate the process by amplifying Fc mediated uptake of ACE2-Spike complexes into APCs. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The development of autoantibodies to ACE2 might predict the development of the inflammatory phase of Covid-19 disease. It might be wise to consider engineering versions of the spike that no longer bind to ACE2 for inclusion in vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Lung Diseases/immunology , Models, Theoretical , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Internalization
9.
EBioMedicine ; 55: 102768, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-146031

ABSTRACT

The pandemic spread of a novel coronavirus - SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a cause of acute respiratory illness, named Covid-19, is placing the healthcare systems of many countries under unprecedented stress. Global economies are also spiraling towards a recession in fear of this new life-threatening disease. Vaccines that prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and therapeutics that reduces the risk of severe Covid-19 are thus urgently needed. A rapid method to derive antiviral treatment for Covid-19 is the use of convalescent plasma derived hyperimmune globulin. However, both hyperimmune globulin and vaccine development face a common hurdle - the risk of antibody-mediated disease enhancement. The goal of this review is to examine the body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of immune enhancement that could be pertinent to Covid-19. We also discuss how this risk could be mitigated so that both hyperimmune globulin and vaccines could be rapidly translated to overcome the current global health crisis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dendritic Cells/virology , Global Health , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Macrophages/virology , Models, Animal , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plasma , Plasmapheresis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Receptors, Fc/immunology
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