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1.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(2): e00940, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712175

ABSTRACT

Anti-proinflammatory cytokine therapies against interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1 are major advancements in treating inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Such therapies are mainly performed by injection of antibodies against cytokines or cytokine receptors. We initially found that the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a simple monosaccharide, attenuated cellular responses to IL-6 by inhibiting N-linked glycosylation of the IL-6 receptor gp130. Aglycoforms of gp130 did not bind to IL-6 or activate downstream intracellular signals that included Janus kinases. 2-DG completely inhibited dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, a mouse model for inflammatory bowel disease, and alleviated laminarin-induced arthritis in the SKG mouse, an experimental model for human rheumatoid arthritis. These diseases have been shown to be partially dependent on IL-6. We also found that 2-DG inhibited signals for other proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, and interferon -γ, and accordingly, prevented death by another inflammatory disease, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock. Furthermore, 2-DG prevented LPS shock, a model for a cytokine storm, and LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, a model for acute respiratory distress syndrome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These results suggest that targeted therapies that inhibit cytokine receptor glycosylation are effective for treatment of various inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Glycosylation/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Receptors, Cytokine/drug effects , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytokine Receptor gp130/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokine Receptor gp130/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/chemically induced , Janus Kinases/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Receptors, Cytokine/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism
2.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 6, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized people with HIV (PWH) there is an increased risk of mortality from COVID-19 among hospitalized PWH as compared to HIV-negative individuals. Evidence suggests that tocilizumab-a humanized monoclonal interleukin (IL)-6 receptor inhibitor (IL-6ri) antibody-has a modest mortality benefit when combined with corticosteroids in select hospitalized COVID-19 patients who are severely ill. Data on clinical outcomes after tocilizumab use in PWH with severe COVID-19 are lacking. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a multinational case series of 18 PWH with COVID-19 who were treated with IL-6ri's during the period from April to June 2020. Four patients received tocilizumab, six sarilumab, and eight received an undocumented IL-6ri. Of the 18 patients in the series, 4 (22%) had CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3; 14 (82%) had a suppressed HIV viral load. Eight patients (44%), all admitted to ICU, were treated for secondary infection; 5 had a confirmed organism. Of the four patients with CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3, three were treated for secondary infection, with 2 confirmed organisms. Overall outcomes were poor-12 patients (67%) were admitted to the ICU, 11 (61%) required mechanical ventilation, and 7 (39%) died. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series of hospitalized PWH with COVID-19 and given IL-6ri prior to the common use of corticosteroids, there are reports of secondary or co-infection in severely ill patients. Comprehensive studies in PWH, particularly with CD4 counts < 200 cells, are warranted to assess infectious and other outcomes after IL-6ri use, particularly in the context of co-administered corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 522-532, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated proinflammatory cytokines are associated with greater COVID-19 severity. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of sarilumab, an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor, in patients with severe (requiring supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula or face mask) or critical (requiring greater supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal support) COVID-19. METHODS: We did a 60-day, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational phase 3 trial at 45 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Russia, and Spain. We included adults (≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumonia, who required oxygen supplementation or intensive care. Patients were randomly assigned (2:2:1 with permuted blocks of five) to receive intravenous sarilumab 400 mg, sarilumab 200 mg, or placebo. Patients, care providers, outcome assessors, and investigators remained masked to assigned intervention throughout the course of the study. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement of two or more points (seven point scale ranging from 1 [death] to 7 [discharged from hospital]) in the modified intention-to-treat population. The key secondary endpoint was proportion of patients alive at day 29. Safety outcomes included adverse events and laboratory assessments. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04327388; EudraCT, 2020-001162-12; and WHO, U1111-1249-6021. FINDINGS: Between March 28 and July 3, 2020, of 431 patients who were screened, 420 patients were randomly assigned and 416 received placebo (n=84 [20%]), sarilumab 200 mg (n=159 [38%]), or sarilumab 400 mg (n=173 [42%]). At day 29, no significant differences were seen in median time to an improvement of two or more points between placebo (12·0 days [95% CI 9·0 to 15·0]) and sarilumab 200 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 12·0]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·03 [95% CI 0·75 to 1·40]; log-rank p=0·96) or sarilumab 400 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 13·0]; HR 1·14 [95% CI 0·84 to 1·54]; log-rank p=0·34), or in proportions of patients alive (77 [92%] of 84 patients in the placebo group; 143 [90%] of 159 patients in the sarilumab 200 mg group; difference -1·7 [-9·3 to 5·8]; p=0·63 vs placebo; and 159 [92%] of 173 patients in the sarilumab 400 mg group; difference 0·2 [-6·9 to 7·4]; p=0·85 vs placebo). At day 29, there were numerical, non-significant survival differences between sarilumab 400 mg (88%) and placebo (79%; difference +8·9% [95% CI -7·7 to 25·5]; p=0·25) for patients who had critical disease. No unexpected safety signals were seen. The rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were 65% (55 of 84) in the placebo group, 65% (103 of 159) in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 70% (121 of 173) in the sarilumab 400 mg group, and of those leading to death 11% (nine of 84) were in the placebo group, 11% (17 of 159) were in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 10% (18 of 173) were in the sarilumab 400 mg group. INTERPRETATION: This trial did not show efficacy of sarilumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and receiving supplemental oxygen. Adequately powered trials of targeted immunomodulatory therapies assessing survival as a primary endpoint are suggested in patients with critical COVID-19. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , International Cooperation , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 511-521, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global randomised controlled trials of the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have shown conflicting results but potential decreases in time to discharge and burden on intensive care. Tocilizumab reduced progression to mechanical ventilation and death in a trial population enriched for racial and ethnic minorities. We aimed to investigate whether tocilizumab treatment could prevent COVID-19 progression in the first multicentre randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab done entirely in a lower-middle-income country. METHODS: COVINTOC is an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 12 public and private hospitals across India. Adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 (Indian Ministry of Health grading) confirmed by positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result were randomly assigned (1:1 block randomisation) to receive tocilizumab 6 mg/kg plus standard care (the tocilizumab group) or standard care alone (the standard care group). The primary endpoint was progression of COVID-19 (from moderate to severe or from severe to death) up to day 14 in the modified intention-to-treat population of all participants who had at least one post-baseline assessment for the primary endpoint. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients. The trial is completed and registered with the Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI/2020/05/025369). FINDINGS: 180 patients were recruited between May 30, 2020, and Aug 31, 2020, and randomly assigned to the tocilizumab group (n=90) or the standard care group (n=90). One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group inadvertently received tocilizumab at baseline and was included in the tocilizumab group for all analyses. One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group withdrew consent after the baseline visit and did not receive any study medication and was not included in the modified intention-to-treat population but was still included in safety analyses. 75 (82%) of 91 in the tocilizumab group and 68 (76%) of 89 in the standard care group completed 28 days of follow-up. Progression of COVID-19 up to day 14 occurred in eight (9%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 11 (13%) of 88 in the standard care group (difference -3·71 [95% CI -18·23 to 11·19]; p=0·42). 33 (36%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 22 (25%) of 89 patients in the standard care group had adverse events; 18 (20%) and 15 (17%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse event was acute respiratory distress syndrome, reported in seven (8%) patients in each group. Grade 3 adverse events were reported in two (2%) patients in the tocilizumab group and five (6%) patients in the standard care group. There were no grade 4 adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in 18 (20%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 15 (17%) in the standard care group; 13 (14%) and 15 (17%) patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION: Routine use of tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 is not supported. However, post-hoc evidence from this study suggests tocilizumab might still be effective in patients with severe COVID-19 and so should be investigated further in future studies. FUNDING: Medanta Institute of Education and Research, Roche India, Cipla India, and Action COVID-19 India.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211054481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511642

ABSTRACT

Biological and cellular interleukin-6 (IL-6)-related therapies have been used to treat severe COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammatory syndrome and acute respiratory failure, which prompted further exploration of the role of IL-6 in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were responders cocultured with hUCMSCs or exogenous IL-6. A PBMC suppression assay was used to analyze the anti-inflammatory effects via MTT assay. The IL-6 concentration in the supernatant was measured using ELISA. The correlation between the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSCs and IL-6 levels and the relevant roles of IL-6 and IL-6 mRNA expression was analyzed using the MetaCore functional network constructed from gene microarray data. The location of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression was further evaluated. We reported that hUCMSCs did not initially exert any inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation; however, a potent inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation was observed, and the IL-6 concentration reached approximately 1000 ng/mL after 72 hours. Exogenous 1000 ng/mL IL-6 inhibited PHA-stimulated inflammation but less so than hUCMSCs. The inhibitory effects of hUCMSCs on PHA-stimulated PBMCs disappeared after adding an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or pretreatment with tocilizumab (TCZ), an IL-6R antagonist. hUCMSCs exert excellent anti-inflammatory effects by inducing higher IL-6 levels, which is different from TCZ. High concentration of IL-6 cytokine secretion plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSC therapy. Initial hUCMSC therapy, followed by TCZ, seems to optimize the therapeutic potential to treat COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Umbilical Cord/cytology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21522, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500507

ABSTRACT

There is controversy whether IL-6 (receptor) antagonists are beneficial in treating COVID-19 patients. We therefore update our systematic review to answer the following research questions: (1) Do patients hospitalized for COVID-19 treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists have lower mortality compared to standard of care? (2) Do patients hospitalized for COVID-19 treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists have more side effects compared to standard of care? The following databases were search up to December 1st 2020: PubMed, PMC PubMed Central, MEDLINE, WHO COVID-19 Database, Embase, Web-of-Science, COCHRANE LIBRARY, Emcare and Academic Search Premier. In order to pool the risk ratio (RR) and risk difference of individual studies we used random effects meta-analysis. The search strategy retrieved 2975 unique titles of which 71 studies (9 RCTs and 62 observational) studies comprising 29,495 patients were included. Mortality (RR 0.75) and mechanical ventilation (RR 0.78) were lower and the risk of neutropenia (RR 7.3), impaired liver function (RR 1.67) and secondary infections (RR 1.26) were higher for patients treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists compared to patients not treated with treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists. Our results showed that IL-6 (receptor) antagonists are effective in reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients, while the risk of side effects was higher. The baseline risk of mortality was an important effect modifier: IL-6 (receptor) antagonists were effective when the baseline mortality risk was high (e.g. ICU setting), while they could be harmful when the baseline mortality risk was low.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate
7.
Anaesthesist ; 70(2): 121-126, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453674

ABSTRACT

A 59-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital diagnosed with moderate pneumonia associated with COVID-19. Upfront treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was started. Due to a clinical deterioration (ARDS, circulatory shock) and greatly increased inflammation markers 6 days after admission, a cytokine storm was suspected and off-label treatment with the IL­6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab was initiated. Subsequently there was a dramatic rise of D­dimers indicating pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy and respiratory insufficiency worsened. After a second dose of tocilizumab was administered severe perimyocarditis with cardiac arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and ST elevation occurred. Shortly afterwards the patient died due to multiorgan failure. From our experience, exacerbation of COVID-19 following treatment with tocilizumab cannot be ruled out. Randomized controlled studies are necessary to further investigate the efficacy, safety and patient selection criteria for tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Off-Label Use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Treatment Outcome
8.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 117, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists (IL-6RAs) and steroids are emerging immunomodulatory therapies for severe and critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this preliminary report, we aim to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of adult critically ill COVID-19 patients, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV), and receiving IL-6RA and steroids therapy over the last 11 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: International, multicenter, cohort study derived from Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness University Study registry and conducted through Discovery Network, Society of Critical Care Medicine. Data were collected between March 01, 2020, and January 10, 2021. RESULTS: Of 860 patients who met eligibility criteria, 589 received steroids, 170 IL-6RAs, and 101 combinations. Patients who received IL-6RAs were younger (median age of 57.5 years vs. 61.1 and 61.8 years in the steroids and combination groups, respectively). The median C-reactive protein level was > 75 mg/L, indicating a hyperinflammatory phenotype. The median daily steroid dose was 7.5 mg dexamethasone or equivalent (interquartile range: 6-14 mg); 80.8% and 19.2% received low-dose and high-dose steroids, respectively. Of the patients who received IL-6RAs, the majority received one dose of tocilizumab and sarilumab (dose range of 600-800 mg for tocilizumab and 200-400 mg for sarilumab). Regarding the timing of administration, we observed that steroid and IL-6RA administration on day 0 of ICU admission was only 55.6% and 39.5%, respectively. By day 28, when compared with steroid use alone, IL-6RA use was associated with an adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88, 1.4) for ventilator-free days, while combination therapy was associated with an aIRR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.6, 1.14). IL-6RA use was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.68 (95% CI 0.44, 1.07) for the 28-day mortality rate, while combination therapy was associated with an aOR of 1.07 (95% CI 0.67, 1.70). Liver dysfunction was higher in IL-6RA group (p = 0.04), while the bacteremia rate did not differ among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Discordance was observed between the registry utilization patterns (i.e., timing of steroids and IL-6RA administration) and new evidence from the recent randomized controlled trials and guideline recommendations. These data will help us to identify areas of improvement in prescribing patterns and enhance our understanding of IL-6RA safety with different steroid regimens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the drivers of hospital-level variation and their impact on clinical outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04486521. Registered on July 2020.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , International Agencies , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
9.
Inflamm Res ; 70(10-12): 1233-1246, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III CORONA clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IL-6 receptor inhibitor levilimab (LVL) in subjects with severe COVID-19. SUBJECTS: The study included 217 patients. The eligible were men and non-pregnant women aged 18 years or older, hospitalized for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. TREATMENT: 206 subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive single subcutaneous administration of LVL 324 mg or placebo, both in combination with standard of care (SOC). 204 patients received allocated therapy. After the LVL/placebo administration in case of deterioration of symptoms, the investigator could perform a single open-label LVL 324 mg administration as the rescue therapy. METHODS: The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with sustained clinical improvement on the 7-category ordinal scale on Day 14. All efficacy data obtained after rescue therapy administration were considered missing. For primary efficacy analysis, all subjects with missing data were considered non-responders. RESULTS: 63.1% and 42.7% of patients in the LVL and in the placebo groups, respectively, achieved sustained clinical improvement on Day 14 (P = .0017). The frequency of adverse drug reactions was comparable between the groups. CONCLUSION: In patients with radiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, requiring or not oxygen therapy (but not ventilation) with no signs of other active infection administration of LVL + SOC results in an increase of sustained clinical improvement rate. TRAIL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT04397562).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Endpoint Determination , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(7): 1116-1123, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307318

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in host defense against infection and tissue injuries and is a bioindicator of multiple distinct types of cytokine storms. In this review, we present the current understanding of the diverse roles of IL-6, its receptors, and its signaling during acute severe systemic inflammation. IL-6 directly affects vascular endothelial cells, which produce several types of cytokines and chemokines and activate the coagulation cascade. Endothelial cell dysregulation, characterized by abnormal coagulation and vascular leakage, is a common complication in cytokine storms. Emerging evidence indicates that a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, can effectively block IL-6 signaling and has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile systemic idiopathic arthritis, and Castleman's disease. Recent work has also demonstrated the beneficial effect of tocilizumab in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy-induced cytokine storms as well as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we highlight the distinct contributions of IL-6 signaling to the pathogenesis of several types of cytokine storms and discuss potential therapeutic strategies for the management of cytokine storms, including those associated with sepsis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/prevention & control
14.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211019557, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262488

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, initially in December 2019 at Wuhan, China, subsequently spread around the world. We describe a case series of COVID-19 patients treated at our academic medical center with focus on cytokine storm and potential therapeutic role of tocilizumab. A 59-year-old female admitted for shortness of breath (SOB), productive cough, fever, and nausea in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. Oxygen saturation was 81% necessitating supplemental oxygen. She was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for worsening hypoxia; intubated and received tocilizumab following which her oxygen requirements improved. A 52-year-old female admitted from an outside hospital with SOB, intubated for worsening hypoxia, in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. She received tocilizumab 400 mg intravenous for 2 doses on ICU admission, with clinical improvement. A 56-year-old female hospitalized with worsening SOB, fever, and cough for 8 days saturating 88% on room air in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. Worsening hypoxia necessitated high flow nasal cannula. She was transferred to the ICU where she received 2 doses of tocilizumab 400 mg intravenous. She did not require intubation and was transitioned to nasal cannula. A hyperinflammatory syndrome may cause a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Tocilizumab is the first marketed interleukin-6 blocking antibody, and through targeting interleukin-6 receptors likely has a role in treating cytokine storm. We noted clinical improvement of patients treated with tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pennsylvania , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
15.
Radiol Med ; 126(9): 1170-1180, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252205

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate CT and laboratory changes in COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab, compared to a control group, throughout a combined semiquantitative and texture analysis of images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 11 to April 20, 2020, 57 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were retrospectively compared: group T (n = 30) receiving tocilizumab and group non-T (n = 27) undergoing only antivirals/antimalarials. Chest-CT and laboratory findings were analyzed before and after treatment. CT evaluation included both semiquantitative scoring and texture analysis of all parenchymal lesions. Survival and recovery analyses were also provided with Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: In group T, no significant differences were found for CT score after treatment, while several texture features significantly changed, including mean attenuation (p < 0.0001), skewness (p < 0.0001), entropy (p = 0.0146) and higher-order parameters, suggesting considerable fading of parenchymal lesions. PaO2/FiO2 mean value significantly increased after treatment, from 240 ± 93 to 363 ± 107 (p = 0.0003), with parallel decrease in inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, D-dimer and LDH). In group non-T, CT scoring, texture and laboratory parameters showed significant worsening at follow-up. Findings were clinically associated with opposite trends between two groups, with reduction of severe cases in group T (from 21/30 to 5/30; p < 0.0001) as compared to a significant worsening in group non-T (severe cases increasing from 6/27 to 14/27; p = 0.0473). Probability of discharge was significantly higher in group T (p < 0.0001), as well as survival rate, although not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the potential role of CT texture analysis for assessing response to treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia, using Tocilizumab, as compared to semiquantitative evaluation, providing insight into the intrinsic parenchymal changes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
16.
Lung ; 199(3): 239-248, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, only dexamethasone has been shown to reduce mortality in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. Tocilizumab has been recently added to the treatment guidelines for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but data remain conflicting. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Electronic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane central were searched from March 1, 2020, until March 10, 2021, for randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of tocilizumab in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The outcomes assessed were all-cause mortality, mechanical ventilation, and time to discharge. RESULTS: Nine studies (with 6490 patients) were included in the analysis. In total, 3358 patients received tocilizumab, and 3132 received standard care/placebo. Pooled analysis showed a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98, p = 0.02) and progression to mechanical ventilation (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.89, p < 0.0001) in the tocilizumab arm compared to standard therapy or placebo. In addition, there was a trend towards improved median time to hospital discharge (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12-1.45, p = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab therapy improves outcomes of mortality and need for mechanical ventilation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection compared with standard therapy or placebo. Our findings suggest the efficacy of tocilizumab therapy in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and strengthen the concept that tocilizumab is a promising therapeutic intervention to improve mortality and morbidity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Invest ; 68(1.2): 192-195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231288

ABSTRACT

This report presents a case of a 74-year-old man who showed dramatic therapeutic response to treatment of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. He reported four-day history of sustained fever and acute progressive dyspnea. He developed severe respiratory failure, underwent urgent endotracheal intubation and showed marked elevation of inflammatory and coagulation markers such as c-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and D-dimer. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated diffuse consolidation and ground glass opacity (GGO). We diagnosed critical COVID-19 pneumonia with detailed sick contact history and naso-pharyngeal swab of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay testing. He received anti-viral drug, anti-interleukin (IL-6) receptor antagonist and intravenous methylprednisolone. After commencing combined intensive therapy, he showed dramatic improvement of clinical condition, serum biomarkers and radiological findings. Early diagnosis and rapid critical care management may provide meaningful clinical benefit even if severe case. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 192-195, February, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Amides/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 655-664, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209411

ABSTRACT

The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, but uncertainty remains about the potential benefits and harms of targeting IL-6 signalling in patients with the disease. The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab and sarilumab, which block the binding of IL-6 to its receptor, have been tested in adults with COVID-19-related acute respiratory illness in randomised trials, with important differences in trial design, characteristics of included patients, use of co-interventions, and outcome measurement scales. In this Series paper, we review the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of studies of IL-6 receptor antagonists, and consider how this heterogeneity might have influenced reported treatment effects. Timing from clinical presentation to treatment, severity of illness, and concomitant use of corticosteroids are among the factors that might have contributed to apparently inconsistent results. With an understanding of the sources of variability in these trials, available evidence could be applied to guide clinical decision making and to inform the enrichment of future studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Patient Selection , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 831-842, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206798

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to a massive cytokine release. The use of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been proposed in this hyperinflammatory phase, although supporting evidence is limited. We retrospectively analyzed 88 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia that received at least one dose of intravenous TCZ in our institution between 16 and 27 March 2020. Clinical status from day 0 (first TCZ dose) through day 14 was assessed by a 6-point ordinal scale. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (hospital discharge and/or a decrease of ≥2 points on the 6-point scale) by day 7. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement by day 14 and dynamics of vital signs and laboratory values. Rates of clinical improvement by days 7 and 14 were 44.3% (39/88) and 73.9% (65/88). Previous or concomitant receipt of subcutaneous interferon-ß (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.94; P = .041) and serum lactate dehydrogenase more than 450 U/L at day 0 (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06-0.99; P = .048) were negatively associated with clinical improvement by day 7. All-cause mortality was 6.8% (6/88). Body temperature and respiratory and cardiac rates significantly decreased by day 1 compared to day 0. Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2. There were no TCZ-attributable adverse events. In this observational single-center study, TCZ appeared to be useful and safe as immunomodulatory therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Body Temperature/drug effects , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Interferon-beta/adverse effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Respiratory Rate/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1620-1630, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196483

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of tocilizumab (TOC), monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients has led to conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of addition of TOC to standard of care (SOC) versus SOC in patients with COVID-19. We performed a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, WHO COVID, LitCOVID, and Cochrane databases. Pooled outcomes (overall mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and secondary infections) were compared using DerSimonian-Laird/Random-effects approach. Risk difference (RD), confidence interval (CI), and p values were generated. A total of 23 studies with 6279 patients (1897 in TOC and 4382 in SOC group, respectively) were included. The overall mortality was lower in TOC group compared to SOC group (RD: -0.06; CI: -0.12 to -0.01; p = .03). Subgroup analysis including studies with only severe cases revealed lower mortality (RD: -0.12; CI: -0.18 to -0.06; p < .01) and need for mechanical ventilation (RD: -0.11; CI: -0.19 to -0.02; p = .01) in TOC group compared to SOC group. The addition of TOC to SOC has the potential to reduce mortality and need for mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19. Randomized controlled trials are needed to validate this.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors
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