Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 12461-12469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585255

ABSTRACT

Severe mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted from the lack of effective treatment. Although COVID-19 vaccines are available, their side effects have become a challenge for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases, especially cancer patients. In the current report, we applied network pharmacology and systematic bioinformatics to explore the use of biochanin A in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and COVID-19 infection. Using the network pharmacology approach, we identified two clusters of genes involved in immune response (IL1A, IL2, and IL6R) and cell proliferation (CCND1, PPARG, and EGFR) mediated by biochanin A in CRC/COVID-19 condition. The functional analysis of these two gene clusters further illustrated the effects of biochanin A on interleukin-6 production and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CRC/COVID-19 pathology. In addition, pathway analysis demonstrated the control of PI3K-Akt and JAK-STAT signaling pathways by biochanin A in the treatment of CRC/COVID-19. The findings of this study provide a therapeutic option for combination therapy against COVID-19 infection in CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genistein/therapeutic use , Phytoestrogens/therapeutic use , Atlases as Topic , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Cyclin D1/genetics , Cyclin D1/immunology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1alpha/genetics , Interleukin-1alpha/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Multigene Family , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/immunology , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction
2.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211054481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511642

ABSTRACT

Biological and cellular interleukin-6 (IL-6)-related therapies have been used to treat severe COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammatory syndrome and acute respiratory failure, which prompted further exploration of the role of IL-6 in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were responders cocultured with hUCMSCs or exogenous IL-6. A PBMC suppression assay was used to analyze the anti-inflammatory effects via MTT assay. The IL-6 concentration in the supernatant was measured using ELISA. The correlation between the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSCs and IL-6 levels and the relevant roles of IL-6 and IL-6 mRNA expression was analyzed using the MetaCore functional network constructed from gene microarray data. The location of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression was further evaluated. We reported that hUCMSCs did not initially exert any inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation; however, a potent inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation was observed, and the IL-6 concentration reached approximately 1000 ng/mL after 72 hours. Exogenous 1000 ng/mL IL-6 inhibited PHA-stimulated inflammation but less so than hUCMSCs. The inhibitory effects of hUCMSCs on PHA-stimulated PBMCs disappeared after adding an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or pretreatment with tocilizumab (TCZ), an IL-6R antagonist. hUCMSCs exert excellent anti-inflammatory effects by inducing higher IL-6 levels, which is different from TCZ. High concentration of IL-6 cytokine secretion plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSC therapy. Initial hUCMSC therapy, followed by TCZ, seems to optimize the therapeutic potential to treat COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Umbilical Cord/cytology
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5853-5863, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection may rely on a potential genetic background for the variations in the inflammatory response. We aimed to investigate the possible correlation between polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene at rs1800796/rs1800795, in IL-6R at rs2228145, in IL-10 at rs1800896 and rs1800871, in IL-17 at rs2275913 and rs763780 loci, and COVID-19 prevalence and mortality rates among populations of 23 countries. METHODS: We searched the literature for polymorphisms in China, Japan, India, Spain, Mexico, Sweden, Turkey, Brazil, Russia, Poland, Italy, South Africa, Netherlands, Greece, Germany, UK, Iran, Finland, Czechia, Tunisia, Norway, Egypt, Croatia. We recorded the prevalence and mortality rates (per million) caused by the Coronavirus infection recorded on 7th September 2020 and 6th December 2020. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between the frequency of AG genotype of rs1800896 and prevalence recorded on 6th December 2020 (r: 0.53, r2 : 0.28, p < .05). There was a significant negative correlation between the mortality rates recorded on 7th September, and the AG genotype of rs2275913 (r: -0.51, r2 : 0.26, p < .05). There was a significant positive correlation between the prevalence recorded on 6th December, and TT genotype at rs763780 (r: 0.65, r2 :0.42, p < .05) while a negative correlation between prevalence and TC genotype at rs763780 (r: -0.66, r2 : 0.43, p < .05). Also, a significant negative correlation was found between mortality rates recorded on 6th December 2020 and CC genotype at rs763780 (r: -0.56, r2 : 0.31, p < .05). CONCLUSION: The variations in prevalence of COVID-19 and its mortality rates among countries may be explained by the polymorphisms at rs1800896 in IL-10, rs2275913 in IL-17A, and rs763780 loci in the IL-17F gene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Interleukins/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prevalence , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 655122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365539

ABSTRACT

FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are central for maintaining peripheral tolerance and immune homeostasis. Because of their immunosuppressive characteristics, Tregs are a potential therapeutic target in various diseases such as autoimmunity, transplantation and infectious diseases like COVID-19. Numerous studies are currently exploring the potential of adoptive Treg therapy in different disease settings and novel genome editing techniques like CRISPR/Cas will likely widen possibilities to strengthen its efficacy. However, robust and expeditious protocols for genome editing of human Tregs are limited. Here, we describe a rapid and effective protocol for reaching high genome editing efficiencies in human Tregs without compromising cell integrity, suitable for potential therapeutic applications. By deletion of IL2RA encoding for IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) in Tregs, we demonstrated the applicability of the method for downstream functional assays and highlighted the importance for CD25 for in vitro suppressive function of human Tregs. Moreover, deletion of IL6RA (CD126) in human Tregs elicits cytokine unresponsiveness and thus may prevent IL-6-mediated instability of Tregs, making it an attractive target to potentially boost functionality in settings of adoptive Treg therapies to contain overreaching inflammation or autoimmunity. Thus, our rapid and efficient protocol for genome editing in human Tregs may advance possibilities for Treg-based cellular therapies.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing/methods , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Blood Buffy Coat/cytology , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Primary Cell Culture , RNA, Guide/genetics , Time Factors
5.
Cytokine ; 148: 155662, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated Interleukin-6 (IL-6) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 yet attenuated response is not seen across all severe patients. We aimed to determine the effect of IL-6 baseline levels and other clinical variables on mortality and outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients as well as to explore genetic variants associated with attenuated IL-6 response. METHODS: Baseline IL-6 cytokine levels were measured in hospitalized patients participating in ongoing ODYSSEY phase 3 randomized study of tradipitant and placebo in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 who are receiving supplemental oxygen support. Furthermore blood samples for whole genome sequencing analysis were collected from 150 participants. RESULTS: We report significantly elevated IL-6 in COVID-19 infected hospitalized patients, n = 100 (p-value < 0.0001) when compared to controls n = 324. We also report a significantly increased level of IL-6 (p-value < 0.01) between the severe and mild COVID-19 patients with severity defined on a WHO scale. Excessive IL-6 plasma levels correlate with higher mortality (p-value 0.001). Additionally, based on our classification analysis, combination of IL-6 elevation and high levels of serum glucose can identify highest risk-group of COVID19 patients. Furthermore, we explore the role of genetic regulatory variants affecting baseline IL-6 levels specifically in COVID-19 patients. We have directly tested the association between variants in the IL6 and IL6R gene region and IL6 plasma levels. We provide results for a common IL-6 variant previously associated with pneumonia, rs1800795, and rs2228145 that was previously shown to affect IL-6 plasma levels, as well as report on novel variants associated with IL-6 plasma levels detected in our study patients. CONCLUSIONS: While it is unlikely that "cytokine storm" is the norm in severe COVID19, baseline elevations above 150 pg/ml may be associated with worst outcomes and as such may warrant treatment considerations. So far no clinical studies used IL-6 baseline assessment to stratify the patient population participating in clinical studies. We believe that careful examination and interpretation of the IL-6 levels and genetic variants can help to determine a patient population with a potentially very robust clinical response to IL-6 inhibition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04326426.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Interleukin-6/blood , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Alleles , COVID-19/mortality , Heterozygote , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics
6.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(7): 1116-1123, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307318

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in host defense against infection and tissue injuries and is a bioindicator of multiple distinct types of cytokine storms. In this review, we present the current understanding of the diverse roles of IL-6, its receptors, and its signaling during acute severe systemic inflammation. IL-6 directly affects vascular endothelial cells, which produce several types of cytokines and chemokines and activate the coagulation cascade. Endothelial cell dysregulation, characterized by abnormal coagulation and vascular leakage, is a common complication in cytokine storms. Emerging evidence indicates that a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, can effectively block IL-6 signaling and has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile systemic idiopathic arthritis, and Castleman's disease. Recent work has also demonstrated the beneficial effect of tocilizumab in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy-induced cytokine storms as well as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we highlight the distinct contributions of IL-6 signaling to the pathogenesis of several types of cytokine storms and discuss potential therapeutic strategies for the management of cytokine storms, including those associated with sepsis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/prevention & control
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5853-5863, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection may rely on a potential genetic background for the variations in the inflammatory response. We aimed to investigate the possible correlation between polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene at rs1800796/rs1800795, in IL-6R at rs2228145, in IL-10 at rs1800896 and rs1800871, in IL-17 at rs2275913 and rs763780 loci, and COVID-19 prevalence and mortality rates among populations of 23 countries. METHODS: We searched the literature for polymorphisms in China, Japan, India, Spain, Mexico, Sweden, Turkey, Brazil, Russia, Poland, Italy, South Africa, Netherlands, Greece, Germany, UK, Iran, Finland, Czechia, Tunisia, Norway, Egypt, Croatia. We recorded the prevalence and mortality rates (per million) caused by the Coronavirus infection recorded on 7th September 2020 and 6th December 2020. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between the frequency of AG genotype of rs1800896 and prevalence recorded on 6th December 2020 (r: 0.53, r2 : 0.28, p < .05). There was a significant negative correlation between the mortality rates recorded on 7th September, and the AG genotype of rs2275913 (r: -0.51, r2 : 0.26, p < .05). There was a significant positive correlation between the prevalence recorded on 6th December, and TT genotype at rs763780 (r: 0.65, r2 :0.42, p < .05) while a negative correlation between prevalence and TC genotype at rs763780 (r: -0.66, r2 : 0.43, p < .05). Also, a significant negative correlation was found between mortality rates recorded on 6th December 2020 and CC genotype at rs763780 (r: -0.56, r2 : 0.31, p < .05). CONCLUSION: The variations in prevalence of COVID-19 and its mortality rates among countries may be explained by the polymorphisms at rs1800896 in IL-10, rs2275913 in IL-17A, and rs763780 loci in the IL-17F gene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Interleukins/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prevalence , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 831-842, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206798

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to a massive cytokine release. The use of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been proposed in this hyperinflammatory phase, although supporting evidence is limited. We retrospectively analyzed 88 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia that received at least one dose of intravenous TCZ in our institution between 16 and 27 March 2020. Clinical status from day 0 (first TCZ dose) through day 14 was assessed by a 6-point ordinal scale. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (hospital discharge and/or a decrease of ≥2 points on the 6-point scale) by day 7. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement by day 14 and dynamics of vital signs and laboratory values. Rates of clinical improvement by days 7 and 14 were 44.3% (39/88) and 73.9% (65/88). Previous or concomitant receipt of subcutaneous interferon-ß (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.94; P = .041) and serum lactate dehydrogenase more than 450 U/L at day 0 (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06-0.99; P = .048) were negatively associated with clinical improvement by day 7. All-cause mortality was 6.8% (6/88). Body temperature and respiratory and cardiac rates significantly decreased by day 1 compared to day 0. Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2. There were no TCZ-attributable adverse events. In this observational single-center study, TCZ appeared to be useful and safe as immunomodulatory therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Body Temperature/drug effects , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Interferon-beta/adverse effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Respiratory Rate/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
10.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 190, 2020 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992498

ABSTRACT

The rapid ability of SARS-CoV-2 to spread among humans, along with the clinical complications of coronavirus disease 2019-COVID-19, have represented a significant challenge to the health management systems worldwide. The acute inflammation and coagulation abnormalities appear as the main causes for thousands of deaths worldwide. The intense inflammatory response could be involved with the formation of thrombi. For instance, the presence of uncleaved large multimers of von Willebrand (vWF), due to low ADAMTS13 activity in plasma could be explained by the inhibitory action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as IL-1ß and C reactive protein. In addition, the damage to endothelial cells after viral infection and/or activation of endothelium by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-8, and TNF-α induces platelets and monocyte aggregation in the vascular wall and expression of tissue factor (TF). The TF expression may culminate in the formation of thrombi, and activation of cascade by the extrinsic pathway by association with factor VII. In this scenario, the phosphatidylserine-PtdSer exposure on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane as consequence of viral infection emerges as another possible underlying mechanism to acute immune inflammatory response and activation of coagulation cascade. The PtdSer exposure may be an important mechanism related to ADAM17-mediated ACE2, TNF-α, EGFR and IL-6R shedding, and the activation of TF on the surface of infected endothelial cells. In this review, we address the underlying mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of inflammation and coagulation abnormalities. Moreover, we introduce key biochemical and pathophysiological concepts that support the possible participation of PtdSer exposure on the outer side of the SARS-CoV-2 infected cells membrane, in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Phosphatidylserines/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAMTS13 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/virology , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , von Willebrand Factor/genetics
12.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 31(2): 44-49, 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence links COVID-19 severity to hyper-inflammation. Treatment with tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, was shown to lead to clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19. We, therefore, performed the present systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether the circulating levels of IL-6 is a reliable indicator of disease severity among patients affected with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar on April 19, 2020. RESULTS: Eleven studies provided data of IL-6 levels in patients with severe to critical COVID-19 (severe) and patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 (non-severe). The included studies were of moderate to high quality. The mean patients' age was 60.9 years, ranging from 45.2 to 76.7 years in the severe group and 46.8 years, ranging from 37.9 to 61 years, in the nonsevere group. Fifty-two percent were male in the severe group, as compared to 46% in the non-severe group. An overall random effects meta-analysis showed significantly higher serum levels of IL-6 in the severe group than in the non-severe group with a mean difference of +23.1 pg/mL (95% CI: 12.42-33.79) and the overall effect of 4.24 (P-value < 0.001). Meta-regressions showed that neither age nor sex significantly influenced the mean difference of IL-6 between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis and meta-regression reveal a reliable relationship between IL-6 and COVID-19 severity, independent of age and sex. Future research is, however, required to assess the effect of BMI on the pattern of IL-6 production in patients with COVID-19. Also, there might be confounding factors that influence the relationship between IL-6 and COVID-19 severity and remain as yet unknown.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(5): e2123, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639361

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a major concern globally. As of 14 April 2020, more than 1.9 million COVID-19 cases have been reported in 185 countries. Some patients with COVID-19 develop severe clinical manifestations, while others show mild symptoms, suggesting that dysregulation of the host immune response contributes to disease progression and severity. In this review, we have summarized and discussed recent immunological studies focusing on the response of the host immune system and the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as immunotherapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2, functional exhaustion of lymphocytes, and cytokine storm have been discussed as part of immunopathology mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some potential immunotherapeutic strategies to control the progression of COVID-19, such as passive antibody therapy and use of interferon αß and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) inhibitor, have also been discussed. This may help us to understand the immune status of patients with COVID-19, particularly those with severe clinical presentation, and form a basis for further immunotherapeutic investigations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Immune Evasion/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...