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1.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 165-176, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671597

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. While most infections are mild, some patients experience severe and potentially fatal systemic inflammation, tissue damage, cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The innate immune system acts as the first line of defense, sensing the virus through pattern recognition receptors and activating inflammatory pathways that promote viral clearance. Here, we discuss innate immune processes involved in SARS-CoV-2 recognition and the resultant inflammation. Improved understanding of how the innate immune system detects and responds to SARS-CoV-2 will help identify targeted therapeutic modalities that mitigate severe disease and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Proteins/immunology , NLR Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Virus Internalization
2.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 275-286, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661973

ABSTRACT

The humoral arm of innate immunity includes diverse molecules with antibody-like functions, some of which serve as disease severity biomarkers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Of 12 PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively. MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL2 locus were associated with disease severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID-19, a finding with translational implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689866, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503883

ABSTRACT

Rapid recruitment of neutrophils to an inflamed site is one of the hallmarks of an effective host defense mechanism. The main pathway through which this happens is by the innate immune response. Neutrophils, which play an important part in innate immune defense, migrate into lungs through the modulation actions of chemokines to execute a variety of pro-inflammatory functions. Despite the importance of chemokines in host immunity, little has been discussed on their roles in host immunity. A holistic understanding of neutrophil recruitment, pattern recognition pathways, the roles of chemokines and the pathophysiological roles of neutrophils in host immunity may allow for new approaches in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory disease of the lung. Herein, this review aims at highlighting some of the developments in lung neutrophil-immunity by focusing on the functions and roles of CXC/CC chemokines and pattern recognition receptors in neutrophil immunity during pulmonary inflammations. The pathophysiological roles of neutrophils in COVID-19 and thromboembolism have also been summarized. We finally summarized various neutrophil biomarkers that can be utilized as prognostic molecules in pulmonary inflammations and discussed various neutrophil-targeted therapies for neutrophil-driven pulmonary inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Degranulation/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Humans , Integrins/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Respiratory Burst/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/immunology
4.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(19): 2217-2242, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462047

ABSTRACT

The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to sense viral pathogens and orchestrate a proper immune response makes them one of the key players in antiviral immunity. Different DC subsets have complementing functions during viral infections, some specialize in antigen presentation and cross-presentation and others in the production of cytokines with antiviral activity, such as type I interferons. In this review, we summarize the latest updates concerning the role of DCs in viral infections, with particular focus on the complex interplay between DC subsets and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite being initiated by a vast array of immune receptors, DC-mediated antiviral responses often converge towards the same endpoint, that is the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of an adaptive immune response. Nonetheless, the inherent migratory properties of DCs make them a double-edged sword and often viral recognition by DCs results in further viral dissemination. Here we illustrate these various aspects of the antiviral functions of DCs and also provide a brief overview of novel antiviral vaccination strategies based on DCs targeting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Virus Diseases/immunology
5.
Inflammation ; 44(6): 2151-2169, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409422

ABSTRACT

At the end of December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic began in Wuhan of China. COVID-19 affects different people with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic with recovery without hospitalization up to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The innate and adaptive immunity appears responsible for the defense against the virus and recovery from the disease. The innate immune system, as the first line of defense, is essential for the detection of virus and subsequent activation of acquired immunity. The innate immune response is carried out by sentinel cells such as monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells and by receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRR). These receptors can recognize various components of the virus, which lead to intracellular signaling and subsequently the synthesis of various cytokines. These cytokines then recruit other immune cells, activate adaptive immune responses, and inhibit viral spreading. The most common receptors include Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, and RIG-I like receptors. This review describes the current knowledge about the interplay between innate immune responses and SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on the innate immune cells and the role of their receptors in viral RNA recognition, as well as their mechanisms for recognizing SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendrites/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology
6.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251799

ABSTRACT

The complement system represents a crucial part of innate immunity. It contains a diverse range of soluble activators, membrane-bound receptors, and regulators. Its principal function is to eliminate pathogens via activation of three distinct pathways: classical, alternative, and lectin. In the case of viruses, the complement activation results in effector functions such as virion opsonisation by complement components, phagocytosis induction, virolysis by the membrane attack complex, and promotion of immune responses through anaphylatoxins and chemotactic factors. Recent studies have shown that the addition of individual complement components can neutralise viruses without requiring the activation of the complement cascade. While the complement-mediated effector functions can neutralise a diverse range of viruses, numerous viruses have evolved mechanisms to subvert complement recognition/activation by encoding several proteins that inhibit the complement system, contributing to viral survival and pathogenesis. This review focuses on these complement-dependent and -independent interactions of complement components (especially C1q, C4b-binding protein, properdin, factor H, Mannose-binding lectin, and Ficolins) with several viruses and their consequences.


Subject(s)
Complement Activation/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Humans
7.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 740-755, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064860

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system (CNS) innate immunity plays essential roles in infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and brain or spinal cord injuries. Astrocytes and microglia are the principal cells that mediate innate immunity in the CNS. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), expressed by astrocytes and microglia, sense pathogen-derived or endogenous ligands released by damaged cells and initiate the innate immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-characterized family of PRRs. The contribution of microglial TLR signaling to CNS pathology has been extensively investigated. Even though astrocytes assume a wide variety of key functions, information about the role of astroglial TLRs in CNS disease and injuries is limited. Because astrocytes display heterogeneity and exhibit phenotypic plasticity depending on the effectors present in the local milieu, they can exert both detrimental and beneficial effects. TLRs are modulators of these paradoxical astroglial properties. The goal of the current review is to highlight the essential roles played by astroglial TLRs in CNS infections, injuries and diseases. We discuss the contribution of astroglial TLRs to host defense as well as the dissemination of viral and bacterial infections in the CNS. We examine the link between astroglial TLRs and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and present evidence showing the pivotal influence of astroglial TLR signaling on sterile inflammation in CNS injury. Finally, we define the research questions and areas that warrant further investigations in the context of astrocytes, TLRs, and CNS dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Toll-Like Receptors/physiology , Animals , Astrocytes/physiology , Brain/metabolism , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Central Nervous System Infections/pathology , Encephalitis/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Microglia/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
8.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 183: 114316, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898506

ABSTRACT

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and inflammasomes are a key part of the anti-viral innate immune system as they detect conserved viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A successful host response to viral infections critically depend on the initial activation of PRRs by viruses, mainly by viral DNA and RNA. The signalling pathways activated by PRRs leads to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to recruit immune cells, and type I and type III interferons which leads to the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISG), powerful virus restriction factors that establish the "antiviral state". Inflammasomes contribute to anti-viral responses through the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-18 and through triggering pyroptotic cell death. The activity of the innate immune system along with the adaptive immune response normally leads to successful virus elimination, although disproportionate innate responses contribute to viral pathology. In this review we will discuss recent insights into the influence of PRR activation and inflammasomes on viral infections and what this means for the mammalian host. We will also comment on how specific PRRs and inflammasomes may be relevant to how SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, interacts with host innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/metabolism
9.
J Med Virol ; 92(4): 424-432, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827679

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are by far the largest group of known positive-sense RNA viruses having an extensive range of natural hosts. In the past few decades, newly evolved Coronaviruses have posed a global threat to public health. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate CoV infections, however, maladjusted immune responses may result in immunopathology and impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between Coronaviruses and the innate immune systems of the hosts may shed light on the development and persistence of inflammation in the lungs and hopefully can reduce the risk of lung inflammation caused by CoVs. In this review, we provide an update on CoV infections and relevant diseases, particularly the host defense against CoV-induced inflammation of lung tissue, as well as the role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis and clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
10.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612678

ABSTRACT

It is well understood that the adaptive immune response to infectious agents includes a modulating suppressive component as well as an activating component. We now show that the very early innate response also has an immunosuppressive component. Infected cells upregulate the CD47 "don't eat me" signal, which slows the phagocytic uptake of dying and viable cells as well as downstream antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. A CD47 mimic that acts as an essential virulence factor is encoded by all poxviruses, but CD47 expression on infected cells was found to be upregulated even by pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that encode no mimic. CD47 upregulation was revealed to be a host response induced by the stimulation of both endosomal and cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines, including those found in the plasma of hepatitis C patients, upregulated CD47 on uninfected dendritic cells, thereby linking innate modulation with downstream adaptive immune responses. Indeed, results from antibody-mediated CD47 blockade experiments as well as CD47 knockout mice revealed an immunosuppressive role for CD47 during infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Since CD47 blockade operates at the level of pattern recognition receptors rather than at a pathogen or antigen-specific level, these findings identify CD47 as a novel potential immunotherapeutic target for the enhancement of immune responses to a broad range of infectious agents.IMPORTANCE Immune responses to infectious agents are initiated when a pathogen or its components bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRR binding sets off a cascade of events that activates immune responses. We now show that, in addition to activating immune responses, PRR signaling also initiates an immunosuppressive response, probably to limit inflammation. The importance of the current findings is that blockade of immunomodulatory signaling, which is mediated by the upregulation of the CD47 molecule, can lead to enhanced immune responses to any pathogen that triggers PRR signaling. Since most or all pathogens trigger PRRs, CD47 blockade could be used to speed up and strengthen both innate and adaptive immune responses when medically indicated. Such immunotherapy could be done without a requirement for knowing the HLA type of the individual, the specific antigens of the pathogen, or, in the case of bacterial infections, the antimicrobial resistance profile.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD47 Antigen/metabolism , Immunomodulation/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , A549 Cells , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Animals , CD47 Antigen/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation/immunology
11.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(2): e12895, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343507

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging coronavirus that belongs to the ß-genus, causing the outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infection can stimulate a pronounced immune response in the host, which embodies in the decrease of lymphocytes and aberrant increase of cytokines in COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and proteins interact with various pattern recognition receptors that switch on antiviral immune responses to regulate viral replication and spreading within the host in vivo. However, overactive and impaired immune responses also cause immune damage and subsequent tissue inflammation. This article focuses on the dual roles of immune system during SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing a theoretical basic for identifying therapeutic targets in a situation with an unfavourable immune reaction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/immunology
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