Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 2 de 2
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1275-1287, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771322


The airway epithelial cells (AECs) lining the conducting passageways of the lung secrete a variety of immunomodulatory factors. Among these, PGE2 limits lung inflammation and promotes bronchodilation. By contrast, IL-6 drives intense airway inflammation, remodeling, and fibrosis. The signaling that differentiates the production of these opposing mediators is not understood. In this study, we find that the production of PGE2 and IL-6 following stimulation of human AECs by the damage-associated molecular pattern extracellular ATP shares a common requirement for Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. ATP-mediated synthesis of PGE2 required activation of metabotropic P2Y2 receptors and CRAC channel-mediated cytosolic phospholipase A2 signaling. By contrast, ATP-evoked synthesis of IL-6 occurred via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors and CRAC channel-mediated calcineurin/NFAT signaling. In contrast to ATP, which elicited the production of both PGE2 and IL-6, the uridine nucleotide, UTP, stimulated PGE2 but not IL-6 production. These results reveal that human AECs employ unique receptor-specific signaling mechanisms with CRAC channels as a signaling nexus to regulate release of opposing immunomodulatory mediators. Collectively, our results identify P2Y2 receptors, CRAC channels, and P2X receptors as potential intervention targets for airway diseases.

Dinoprostone/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alarmins/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Immunomodulation , Interleukin-6/genetics , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Phospholipases A2/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Signal Transduction , Uracil Nucleotides/metabolism
Brain Behav Immun ; 89: 480-490, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669660


The incidence of infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) has been increasing over the last several years. Among the reasons for the expansion of these diseases and the appearance of new neuropathogens are globalization, global warming, and the increased proximity between humans and wild animals due to human activities such as deforestation. Neurotropism affecting normal brain function is shared by organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Neuroinfections caused by these agents activate immune responses, inducing neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. Purinergic signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway associated with these neuropathologies. During neuroinfections, host cells release ATP as an extracellular danger signal with pro-inflammatory activities. ATP is metabolized to its derivatives by ectonucleotidases such as CD39 and CD73; ATP and its metabolites modulate neuronal and immune mechanisms through P1 and P2 purinergic receptors that are involved in pathophysiological mechanisms of neuroinfections. In this review we discuss the beneficial or deleterious effects of various components of the purinergic signaling pathway in infectious diseases that affect the CNS, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, bacterial meningitis, sepsis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, and malaria. We also provide a description of this signaling pathway in emerging viral infections with neurological implications such as Zika and SARS-CoV-2.

Central Nervous System Infections/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y/metabolism , AIDS Dementia Complex/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/metabolism , Humans , Malaria/metabolism , Meningitis, Bacterial/metabolism , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism