Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Shock ; 57(1): 95-105, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endotheliopathy is a key element in COVID-19 pathophysiology, contributing to both morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers distinguishing different COVID-19 phenotypes from sepsis syndrome remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To characterize circulating biomarkers of endothelial damage in different COVID-19 clinical disease stages compared with sepsis syndrome and normal volunteers. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (n = 49) were classified into moderate, severe, or critical (life-threatening) disease. Plasma samples were collected within 48 to 72 h of hospitalization to analyze endothelial activation markers, including soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), von Willebrand Factor (VWF), A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif no. 13 (ADAMTS-13) activity, thrombomodulin (TM), and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI); heparan sulfate (HS) for endothelial glycocalyx degradation; C5b9 deposits on endothelial cells in culture and soluble C5b9 for complement activation; circulating dsDNA for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) presence, and α2-antiplasmin and PAI-1 as parameters of fibrinolysis. We compared the level of each biomarker in all three COVID-19 groups and healthy donors as controls (n = 45). Results in critically ill COVID-19 patients were compared with other intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock (SS, n = 14), sepsis (S, n = 7), and noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (NI-SIRS, n = 7). RESULTS: All analyzed biomarkers were increased in COVID-19 patients versus controls (P < 0.001), except for ADAMTS-13 activity that was normal in both groups. The increased expression of sVCAM-1, VWF, sTNFRI, and HS was related to COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Several differences in these parameters were found between ICU groups: SS patients showed significantly higher levels of VWF, TM, sTNFRI, and NETS compared with critical COVID-19 patients and ADAMTS-13 activity was significantly lover in SS, S, and NI-SIRS versus critical COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, α2-antiplasmin activity was higher in critical COVID-19 versus NI-SIRS (P < 0.01) and SS (P < 0.001), whereas PAI-1 levels were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared with NI-SIRS, S, and SS patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients present with increased circulating endothelial stress products, complement activation, and fibrinolytic dysregulation, associated with disease severity. COVID-19 endotheliopathy differs from SS, in which endothelial damage is also a critical feature of pathobiology. These biomarkers could help to stratify the severity of COVID-19 disease and may also provide information to guide specific therapeutic strategies to mitigate endotheliopathy progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/analysis , DNA/blood , Female , Heparitin Sulfate/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Sepsis/blood , Thrombomodulin/blood , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , alpha-2-Antiplasmin/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
2.
Hypertension ; 79(2): 365-378, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541968

ABSTRACT

ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)-2 as the target for SARS-CoV-2 also negatively regulates the renin-angiotensin system. Pathological activation of ADAM17 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17) may potentiate inflammation and diminish ACE2-mediated tissue protection through proteolytic shedding, contributing to SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. We aim to examine plasma soluble ACE2 and angiotensin profiles in relation to outcomes by enrolling consecutive patients admitted for COVID-19 with baseline blood collection at admission and repeated sampling at 7 days. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality, and secondary outcomes were the incidence of end-organ injuries. Overall, 242 patients were included, the median age was 63 (52-74) years, 155 (64.0%) were men, and 57 (23.6%) patients reached the primary end point. Baseline soluble ACE2 was elevated in COVID-19 but was not associated with disease severity or mortality. In contrast, an upward trajectory of soluble ACE2 at repeat sampling was independently associated with an elevated risk of mortality and incidence of acute myocardial injury and circulatory shock. Similarly, an increase in soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor levels was also associated with adverse outcomes. Plasma Ang I, Ang 1-7 (angiotensin 1-7) levels, and the Ang 1-7/Ang II (angiotensin II) ratio were elevated during SARS-CoV-2 infection related to downregulation of ACE activity at baseline. Moreover, patients having an upward trajectory of soluble ACE2 were characterized by an imbalance in the Ang 1-7/Ang II ratio. The observed dysregulation of ACE2 and angiotensin peptides with disease progression suggest a potential role of ADAM17 inhibition and enhancing the beneficial Ang 1-7/Mas axis to improve outcomes against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/blood , Angiotensin I/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , ADAM17 Protein/blood , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Enzyme Activation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/blood , Respiration, Artificial , Risk , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 115-126, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of ESKD in the United States, identifying those patients who progress to ESKD is difficult. Efforts are under way to determine if plasma biomarkers can help identify these high-risk individuals. METHODS: In our case-cohort study of 894 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study participants with diabetes and an eGFR of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline, participants were randomly selected for the subcohort; cases were those patients who developed progressive diabetic kidney disease (ESKD or 40% eGFR decline). Using a multiplex system, we assayed plasma biomarkers related to tubular injury, inflammation, and fibrosis (KIM-1, TNFR-1, TNFR-2, MCP-1, suPAR, and YKL-40). Weighted Cox regression models related biomarkers to progression of diabetic kidney disease, and mixed-effects models estimated biomarker relationships with rate of eGFR change. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 8.7 years. Higher concentrations of KIM-1, TNFR-1, TNFR-2, MCP-1, suPAR, and YKL-40 were each associated with a greater risk of progression of diabetic kidney disease, even after adjustment for established clinical risk factors. After accounting for competing biomarkers, KIM-1, TNFR-2, and YKL-40 remained associated with progression of diabetic kidney disease; TNFR-2 had the highest risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.26). KIM-1, TNFR-1, TNFR-2, and YKL-40 were associated with rate of eGFR decline. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma levels of KIM-1, TNFR-1, TNFR-2, MCP-1, suPAR, and YKL-40 were associated with increased risk of progression of diabetic kidney disease; TNFR-2 had the highest risk after accounting for the other biomarkers. These findings validate previous literature on TNFR-1, TNFR-2, and KIM-1 in patients with prevalent CKD and provide new insights into the influence of suPAR and YKL-40 as plasma biomarkers that require validation.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/genetics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Adult , Aged , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/blood , Cohort Studies , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/blood , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Prevalence , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Risk , Young Adult
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470894

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in many cases is accompanied by the release of a large amount of proinflammatory cytokines in an event known as "cytokine storm", which is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and high mortality. The excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked, inter alia, to the enhanced activity of receptors capable of recognizing the conservative regions of pathogens and cell debris, namely TLRs, TREM-1 and TNFR1. Here we report that peptides derived from innate immunity protein Tag7 inhibit activation of TREM-1 and TNFR1 receptors during acute inflammation. Peptides from the N-terminal fragment of Tag7 bind only to TREM-1, while peptides from the C-terminal fragment interact solely with TNFR1. Selected peptides are capable of inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and in vivo in the mouse model of acute lung injury (ALI) by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Treatment with peptides significantly decreases the infiltration of mononuclear cells to lungs in animals with DAD. Our findings suggest that Tag7-derived peptides might be beneficial in terms of the therapy or prevention of acute lung injury, e.g., for treating COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary lesions.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Cytokines/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/metabolism , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341695

ABSTRACT

Overproduction of inflammatory cytokines is a keystone event in COVID-19 pathogenesis; TNF and its receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2) are critical pro-inflammatory molecules. ADAM17 releases the soluble (sol) forms of TNF, TNFR1, and TNFR2. This study evaluated TNF, TNFRs, and ADAM17 at the protein, transcriptional, and gene levels in COVID-19 patients with different levels of disease severity. In total, 102 patients were divided into mild, moderate, and severe condition groups. A group of healthy donors (HD; n = 25) was included. Our data showed that solTNFR1 and solTNFR2 were elevated among the COVID-19 patients (p < 0.0001), without increasing the transcriptional level. Only solTNFR1 was higher in the severe group as compared to the mildly ill (p < 0.01), and the level was higher in COVID-19 patients who died than those that survived (p < 0.0001). The solTNFR1 level had a discrete negative correlation with C-reactive protein (p = 0.006, Rho = -0.33). The solADAM17 level was higher in severe as compared to mild disease conditions (p < 0.01), as well as in COVID-19 patients who died as compared to those that survived (p < 0.001). Additionally, a potential association between polymorphism TNFRSF1A:rs767455 and a severe degree of disease was suggested. These data suggest that solTNFR1 and solADAM17 are increased in severe conditions. solTNFR1 should be considered a potential target in the development of new therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , ADAM17 Protein/blood , ADAM17 Protein/immunology , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 592727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225860

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 112M patients and resulted in almost 2.5M deaths worldwide. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) possibly associated with a cytokine storm. Objectives: To elucidate serum levels of TNF-α and soluble TNF-Receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in patients with severe and mild COVID-19 disease as determinants of disease severity. Methods: We determined serum TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in 46 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (17 patients with severe disease within the intensive care unit [ICU] and 29 non-severe, non-ICU patients) and 15 healthy controls upon admission using ELISA. Subjects were recruited between March-May 2020 at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran, Iran. Results: Serum levels of sTNFRI were significantly higher in ICU patients (P<0.0001) and non-ICU patients (P=0.0342) compared with healthy subjects. Serum sTNFR1 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (P<0.0001). Serum TNF-α levels were greater in ICU and non-ICU patients than in the healthy subjects group (p<0.0001). The sTNFRI concentration in ICU (r=0.79, p=0.0002) and non-ICU (r=0.42, p=0.02) patients positively correlated with age although serum sTNFRI levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in older healthy subjects. The sTNFRI concentration in ICU patients negatively correlated with ESR. Conclusions: The study demonstrates higher sTNFRI in ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease and this be a biomarker of disease severity and mortality. Future studies should examine whether lower levels of systemic sTNFR1 at admission may indicate a better disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 592727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221944

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 112M patients and resulted in almost 2.5M deaths worldwide. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) possibly associated with a cytokine storm. Objectives: To elucidate serum levels of TNF-α and soluble TNF-Receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in patients with severe and mild COVID-19 disease as determinants of disease severity. Methods: We determined serum TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in 46 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (17 patients with severe disease within the intensive care unit [ICU] and 29 non-severe, non-ICU patients) and 15 healthy controls upon admission using ELISA. Subjects were recruited between March-May 2020 at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran, Iran. Results: Serum levels of sTNFRI were significantly higher in ICU patients (P<0.0001) and non-ICU patients (P=0.0342) compared with healthy subjects. Serum sTNFR1 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (P<0.0001). Serum TNF-α levels were greater in ICU and non-ICU patients than in the healthy subjects group (p<0.0001). The sTNFRI concentration in ICU (r=0.79, p=0.0002) and non-ICU (r=0.42, p=0.02) patients positively correlated with age although serum sTNFRI levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in older healthy subjects. The sTNFRI concentration in ICU patients negatively correlated with ESR. Conclusions: The study demonstrates higher sTNFRI in ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease and this be a biomarker of disease severity and mortality. Future studies should examine whether lower levels of systemic sTNFR1 at admission may indicate a better disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 805-810, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117029

ABSTRACT

People infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 display a wide range of illness, from asymptomatic infection to severe respiratory distress resulting in death. We measured serum biomarkers in uninfected individuals and in individuals with mild, moderate, or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Levels of monocyte activation (soluble CD14 and fatty acid-binding protein 4) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 [TNFR1 and TNFR2]) were increased in COVID-19 individuals, regardless of disease severity. Among patients with critical disease, individuals who recovered from COVID-19 had lower levels of TNFR1 and TNFR2 at hospital admission compared to these levels in patients with critical disease who ultimately died.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/blood , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/blood , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(12): 1209-1218, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) unrelated to COVID-19, two phenotypes, based on the severity of systemic inflammation (hyperinflammatory and hypoinflammatory), have been described. The hyperinflammatory phenotype is known to be associated with increased multiorgan failure and mortality. In this study, we aimed to identify these phenotypes in COVID-19-related ARDS. METHODS: In this prospective observational study done at two UK intensive care units, we recruited patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected at baseline. Plasma samples were analysed for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR1) using a novel point-of-care assay. A parsimonious regression classifier model was used to calculate the probability for the hyperinflammatory phenotype in COVID-19 using IL-6, soluble TNFR1, and bicarbonate levels. Data from this cohort was compared with patients with ARDS due to causes other than COVID-19 recruited to a previous UK multicentre, randomised controlled trial of simvastatin (HARP-2). FINDINGS: Between March 17 and April 25, 2020, 39 patients were recruited to the study. Median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air (PaO2/FiO2) was 18 kpa (IQR 15-21) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 12 (10-16). 17 (44%) of 39 patients had died by day 28 of the study. Compared with survivors, patients who died were older and had lower PaO2/FiO2. The median probability for the hyperinflammatory phenotype was 0·03 (IQR 0·01-0·2). Depending on the probability cutoff used to assign class, the prevalence of the hyperinflammatory phenotype was between four (10%) and eight (21%) of 39, which is lower than the proportion of patients with the hyperinflammatory phenotype in HARP-2 (186 [35%] of 539). Using the Youden index cutoff (0·274) to classify phenotype, five (63%) of eight patients with the hyperinflammatory phenotype and 12 (39%) of 31 with the hypoinflammatory phenotype died. Compared with matched patients recruited to HARP-2, levels of IL-6 were similar in our cohort, whereas soluble TNFR1 was significantly lower in patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. INTERPRETATION: In this exploratory analysis of 39 patients, ARDS due to COVID-19 was not associated with higher systemic inflammation and was associated with a lower prevalence of the hyperinflammatory phenotype than that observed in historical ARDS data. This finding suggests that the excess mortality observed in COVID-19-related ARDS is unlikely to be due to the upregulation of inflammatory pathways described by the parsimonious model. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Innovate UK, and Randox.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/classification , APACHE , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2265-2283, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639094

ABSTRACT

ARDS, first described in 1967, is the commonest form of acute severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. Despite considerable advances in our knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of ARDS, insights into the biologic mechanisms of lung injury and repair, and advances in supportive care, particularly ventilatory management, there remains no effective pharmacological therapy for this syndrome. Hospital mortality at 40% remains unacceptably high underlining the need to continue to develop and test therapies for this devastating clinical condition. The purpose of the review is to critically appraise the current status of promising emerging pharmacological therapies for patients with ARDS and potential impact of these and other emerging therapies for COVID-19-induced ARDS. We focus on drugs that: (1) modulate the immune response, both via pleiotropic mechanisms and via specific pathway blockade effects, (2) modify epithelial and channel function, (3) target endothelial and vascular dysfunction, (4) have anticoagulant effects, and (5) enhance ARDS resolution. We also critically assess drugs that demonstrate potential in emerging reports from clinical studies in patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS. Several therapies show promise in earlier and later phase clinical testing, while a growing pipeline of therapies is in preclinical testing. The history of unsuccessful clinical trials of promising therapies underlines the challenges to successful translation. Given this, attention has been focused on the potential to identify biologically homogenous subtypes within ARDS, to enable us to target more specific therapies 'precision medicines.' It is hoped that the substantial number of studies globally investigating potential therapies for COVID-19 will lead to the rapid identification of effective therapies to reduce the mortality and morbidity of this devastating form of ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Citrulline/therapeutic use , Glycoproteins/therapeutic use , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Pandemics , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/therapeutic use , Steroids/therapeutic use , Trypsin Inhibitors/therapeutic use
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(6): 812-821, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614625

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global threat to health. Its inflammatory characteristics are incompletely understood.Objectives: To define the cytokine profile of COVID-19 and to identify evidence of immunometabolic alterations in those with severe illness.Methods: Levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and sTNFR1 (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1) were assessed in plasma from healthy volunteers, hospitalized but stable patients with COVID-19 (COVIDstable patients), patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission (COVIDICU patients), and patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring ICU support (CAPICU patients). Immunometabolic markers were measured in circulating neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19. The acute phase response of AAT (alpha-1 antitrypsin) to COVID-19 was also evaluated.Measurements and Main Results: IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and sTNFR1 were all increased in patients with COVID-19. COVIDICU patients could be clearly differentiated from COVIDstable patients, and demonstrated higher levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and sTNFR1 but lower IL-10 than CAPICU patients. COVID-19 neutrophils displayed altered immunometabolism, with increased cytosolic PKM2 (pyruvate kinase M2), phosphorylated PKM2, HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α), and lactate. The production and sialylation of AAT increased in COVID-19, but this antiinflammatory response was overwhelmed in severe illness, with the IL-6:AAT ratio markedly higher in patients requiring ICU admission (P < 0.0001). In critically unwell patients with COVID-19, increases in IL-6:AAT predicted prolonged ICU stay and mortality, whereas improvement in IL-6:AAT was associated with clinical resolution (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: The COVID-19 cytokinemia is distinct from that of other types of pneumonia, leading to organ failure and ICU need. Neutrophils undergo immunometabolic reprogramming in severe COVID-19 illness. Cytokine ratios may predict outcomes in this population.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blotting, Western , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphorylation , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL