Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 629
Filter
1.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742493

ABSTRACT

Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are treated with androgen pathway directed therapy (APDT). However, this treatment invariably fails and the cancer becomes castration resistant. To elucidate resistance mechanisms and to provide a more predictive pre-clinical research platform reflecting tumor heterogeneity, we established organoids from a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of bone metastatic prostate cancer, PCSD1. APDT-resistant PDX-derived organoids (PDOs) emerged when cultured without androgen or with the anti-androgen, enzalutamide. Transcriptomics revealed up-regulation of neurogenic and steroidogenic genes and down-regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle, circadian pathways and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 host viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Time course analysis of the cell cycle in live cells revealed that enzalutamide induced a gradual transition into a reversible dormant state as shown here for the first time at the single cell level in the context of multi-cellular, 3D living organoids using the Fucci2BL fluorescent live cell cycle tracker system. We show here a new mechanism of castration resistance in which enzalutamide induced dormancy and novel basal-luminal-like cells in bone metastatic prostate cancer organoids. These PDX organoids can be used to develop therapies targeting dormant APDT-resistant cells and host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Organoids/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/genetics , Androgens/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/metabolism , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transplantation, Heterologous , Virus Internalization
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(5): 133, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739301

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic which arose from China, is caused by a pathogenic virus named "severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)". Its rapid global expansion has inflicted an extreme public health concern. The attachment of receptor-binding domains (RBD) of the spike proteins (S) to the host cell's membrane, with or without the help of other cellular components such as proteases and especially co-receptors, is required for the first stage of its pathogenesis. In addition to humans, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is found on a wide range of vertebrate host's cellular surface. SARS-CoV-2 has a broad spectrum of tropism; thus, it can infect a vast range of tissues, organs, and hosts; even though the surface amino acids of the spike protein conflict in the receptor-binding region. Due to the heterogeneous ACE2 distribution and the presence of different domains on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for binding, the virus entry into diverse host cell types may depend on the host cells' receptor presentation with or without co-receptors. This review investigates multiple current types of receptor and co-receptor tropisms, with other molecular factors alongside their respective mechanisms, which facilitate the binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cells, extending the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from this perspective can effectively help prevent this disease and provide more potent treatment strategies, particularly in vulnerable people with various cellular-level susceptibilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Probability , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tropism
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5487-5504, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733919

ABSTRACT

Along with the control and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 transmission, infected animals might have potential to carry the virus to spark new outbreaks. However, very few studies explore the susceptibility of animals to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Viral attachment as a crucial step for cross-species infection requires angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and depends on TMPRSS2 protease activity. Here, we searched the genomes of metazoans from different classes using an extensive BLASTP survey and found ACE2 and TMPRSS2 occur in vertebrates, but some vertebrates lack Tmprss2. We identified 6 amino acids among 25 known human ACE2 residues are highly associated with the binding of ACE2 to SARS-CoV-2 (p value < .01) by Fisher exact test, and following this, calculated the probability of viral attachment within each species by the randomForest function from R randomForest library. Furthermore, we observed that Ace2 selected from seven animals based on the above analysis lack the hydrophobic contacts identified on human ACE2, indicating less affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to Ace2 in animals than humans. Finally, the alignment of 3D structure between human ACE2 and other animals by I-TASSER and TM-align displayed a reasonable structure for viral attachment within these species. Taken together, our data may shed light on the human-to-animal transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vertebrates/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vertebrates/genetics , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization , Virus Release
6.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(10): 682-686, 2020 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721664

ABSTRACT

Twenty years ago, an enzyme homologous to the previously known angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was identified, and subsequently named ACE2. In the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ACE2 has counter-regulatory functions against the classical effector peptide angiotensin II, for example in blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular remodeling. However, ACE2 provides an initially unexpected interesting link between virology and cardiovascular medicine. That is, ACE2 represents the binding receptor for the cellular uptake of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Thus, ACE2 is relevant for COVID-19. In this context, it was suspected that therapy with RAS blockers might promote transmission and complications of COVID-19 by upregulation of ACE2 expression. The aim of this short review is, to describe the link between the RAS, particularly ACE2, and COVID-19. Based on our analysis and evaluation of the available findings, we justify our conclusion: important drugs such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers should continue to be prescribed according to guidelines to stable patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707746

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights the importance of possible animal-to-human (zoonotic) and human-to-animal (zooanthroponotic) transmission and potential spread within animal species. A range of animal species have been verified for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, either in vitro or in vivo. However, the molecular bases of such a broad host spectrum for the SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive. Here, we structurally and genetically analysed the interaction between the spike protein, with a particular focus on receptor binding domains (RBDs), of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for all conceivably susceptible groups of animals to gauge the structural bases of the SARS-CoV-2 host spectrum. We describe our findings in the context of existing animal infection-based models to provide a foundation on the possible virus persistence in animals and their implications in the future eradication of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Host Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology
8.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705312

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) lose potency against variants of concern. In this study, we developed 2 strategies to produce mutation-resistant antibodies. First, a yeast library expressing mutant receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike protein was utilized to screen for potent nAbs that are least susceptible to viral escape. Among the candidate antibodies, P5-22 displayed ultrahigh potency for virus neutralization as well as an outstanding mutation resistance profile. Additionally, P14-44 and P15-16 were recognized as mutation-resistant antibodies with broad betacoronavirus neutralization properties. P15-16 has only 1 binding hotspot, which is K378 in the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the P5-22, P14-44, and RBD ternary complex clarified the unique mechanisms that underlie the excellent mutation resistance profiles of these antibodies. Secondly, polymeric IgG enhanced antibody avidity by eliminating P5-22's only hotspot, residue F486 in the RBD, thereby potently blocking cell entry by mutant viruses. Structural and functional analyses of antibodies screened using both potency assays and the yeast RBD library revealed rare, ultrapotent, mutation-resistant nAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1002, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702683

ABSTRACT

The molecular events that permit the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to bind and enter cells are important to understand for both fundamental and therapeutic reasons. Spike proteins consist of S1 and S2 domains, which recognize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors and contain the viral fusion machinery, respectively. Ostensibly, the binding of spike trimers to ACE2 receptors promotes dissociation of the S1 domains and exposure of the fusion machinery, although the molecular details of this process have yet to be observed. We report the development of bottom-up coarse-grained (CG) models consistent with cryo-electron tomography data, and the use of CG molecular dynamics simulations to investigate viral binding and S2 core exposure. We show that spike trimers cooperatively bind to multiple ACE2 dimers at virion-cell interfaces in a manner distinct from binding between soluble proteins, which processively induces S1 dissociation. We also simulate possible variant behavior using perturbed CG models, and find that ACE2-induced S1 dissociation is primarily sensitive to conformational state populations and the extent of S1/S2 cleavage, rather than ACE2 binding affinity. These simulations reveal an important concerted interaction between spike trimers and ACE2 dimers that primes the virus for membrane fusion and entry.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Algorithms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization
11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2242-2254, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes significan t morbidity, mainly from pulmonary involvement, extrapulmonary symptoms are also major componen ts of the disease. Kidney disease, usually presenting as AKI, is particularly severe among patients with COVID-19. It is unknown, however, whether such injury results from direct kidney infection with COVID-19's causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or from indirect mechanisms. METHODS: Using ex vivo cell models, we sought to analyze SARS-CoV-2 interactions with kidney tubular cells and assess direct tubular injury. These models comprised primary human kidney epithelial cells (derived from nephrectomies) and grown as either proliferating monolayers or quiescent three-dimensional kidney spheroids. RESULTS: We demonstrated that viral entry molecules and high baseline levels of type 1 IFN-related molecules were present in monolayers and kidney spheroids. Although both models support viral infection and replication, they did not exhibit a cytopathic effect and cell death, outcomes that were strongly present in SARS-CoV-2-infected controls (African green monkey kidney clone E6 [Vero E6] cultures). A comparison of monolayer and spheroid cultures demonstrated higher infectivity and replication of SARS-CoV-2 in actively proliferating monolayers, although the spheroid cultures exhibited high er levels of ACE2. Monolayers exhibited elevation of some tubular injury molecules-including molecules related to fibrosis (COL1A1 and STAT6) and dedifferentiation (SNAI2)-and a loss of cell identity, evident by reduction in megalin (LRP2). The three-dimensional spheroids were less prone to such injury. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can infect kidney cells without a cytopathic effect. AKI-induced cellular proliferation may potentially intensify infectivity and tubular damage by SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that early intervention in AKI is warranted to help minimize kidney infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spheroids, Cellular/virology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spheroids, Cellular/pathology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
13.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674831

ABSTRACT

This article aims to review all currently known interactions between animal and human coronaviruses and their cellular receptors. Over the past 20 years, three novel coronaviruses have emerged that have caused severe disease in humans, including SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2); therefore, a deeper understanding of coronavirus host-cell interactions is essential. Receptor-binding is the first stage in coronavirus entry prior to replication and can be altered by minor changes within the spike protein-the coronavirus surface glycoprotein responsible for the recognition of cell-surface receptors. The recognition of receptors by coronaviruses is also a major determinant in infection, tropism, and pathogenesis and acts as a key target for host-immune surveillance and other potential intervention strategies. We aim to highlight the need for a continued in-depth understanding of this subject area following on from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with the possibility for more zoonotic transmission events. We also acknowledge the need for more targeted research towards glycan-coronavirus interactions as zoonotic spillover events from animals to humans, following an alteration in glycan-binding capability, have been well-documented for other viruses such as Influenza A.


Subject(s)
Host Microbial Interactions , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Tropism , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Internalization
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1859, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671609

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is a coreceptor. Abnormal hepatic function in COVID-19 suggests specific or bystander liver disease. Because liver cancer cells express the ACE2 viral receptor, they are widely used as models of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression and localization in human liver cancers and in non-tumor livers. We studied ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in transcriptomic datasets totaling 1503 liver cancers, followed by high-resolution confocal multiplex immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis of a 41-HCC tissue microarray. In cancers, we detected ACE2 and TMPRSS2 at the biliary pole of tumor hepatocytes. In whole mount sections of five normal liver samples, we identified ACE2 in hepatocyte's bile canaliculi, biliary epithelium, sinusoidal and capillary endothelial cells. Tumors carrying mutated ß-catenin showed ACE2 DNA hypomethylation and higher mRNA and protein expression, consistently with predicted ß-catenin response sites in the ACE2 promoter. Finally, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expression networks highlighted hepatocyte-specific functions, oxidative stress and inflammation, suggesting a link between inflammation, ACE2 dysfunction and metabolic breakdown.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation , Mutation , Oxidative Stress/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , beta Catenin/genetics , beta Catenin/metabolism
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667199

ABSTRACT

The review aims to consolidate research findings on the molecular mechanisms and virulence and pathogenicity characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and their relevance to four typical stages in the development of acute viral infection. These four stages are invasion; primary blockade of antiviral innate immunity; engagement of the virus's protection mechanisms against the factors of adaptive immunity; and acute, long-term complications of COVID-19. The invasion stage entails the recognition of the spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 target cell receptors, namely, the main receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE2), its coreceptors, and potential alternative receptors. The presence of a diverse repertoire of receptors allows SARS-CoV-2 to infect various types of cells, including those not expressing ACE2. During the second stage, the majority of the polyfunctional structural, non-structural, and extra proteins SARS-CoV-2 synthesizes in infected cells are involved in the primary blockage of antiviral innate immunity. A high degree of redundancy and systemic action characterizing these pathogenic factors allows SARS-CoV-2 to overcome antiviral mechanisms at the initial stages of invasion. The third stage includes passive and active protection of the virus from factors of adaptive immunity, overcoming of the barrier function at the focus of inflammation, and generalization of SARS-CoV-2 in the body. The fourth stage is associated with the deployment of variants of acute and long-term complications of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2's ability to induce autoimmune and autoinflammatory pathways of tissue invasion and development of both immunosuppressive and hyperergic mechanisms of systemic inflammation is critical at this stage of infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667192

ABSTRACT

This review article was designed to evaluate the existing evidence related to the molecular processes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the oral cavity. The World Health Organization stated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission is produced by respiratory droplets and aerosols from the oral cavity of infected patients. The oral cavity structures, keratinized and non-keratinized mucosa, and salivary glands' epithelia express SARS-CoV-2 entry and transmission factors, especially angiotensin converting enzyme Type 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). Replication of the virus in cells leads to local and systemic infection spread, and cellular damage is associated with clinical signs and symptoms of the disease in the oral cavity. Saliva, both the cellular and acellular fractions, holds the virus particles and contributes to COVID-19 transmission. The review also presents information about the factors modifying SARS-CoV-2 infection potential and possible local pharmacotherapeutic interventions, which may confine SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and transmission in the oral cavity. The PubMed and Scopus databases were used to search for suitable keywords such as: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, oral virus infection, saliva, crevicular fluid, salivary gland, tongue, oral mucosa, periodontium, gingiva, dental pulp, ACE2, TMPRSS2, Furin, diagnosis, topical treatment, vaccine and related words in relevant publications up to 28 December 2021. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the articles were performed by two reviewers, and 63 articles were included in the final review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mouth , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth/metabolism , Mouth/pathology , Mouth/virology , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pathology, Oral , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Internalization
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 2321-2324, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664478

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies demonstrate parallels between CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and COVID-19 pathology, which accentuate pre-existing complications in patients infected with COVID-19 and potentially exacerbate the infection course. Antidiabetic drugs such as sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have garnered substantial attention recently due to their efficacy in reducing the severity of cardiorenal disease. The effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear particularly since SGLT-2 inhibitors contribute to altering the RAAS cascade activity, which includes ACE-2, the major cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV2. A study, DARE-19, was carried out to unveil the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment on comorbid disease complications and concomitant COVID-19 outcomes and demonstrated no statistical significance. However, the need for further studies is essential to provide conclusive clinical findings.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Drug Repositioning , Heart Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Mitochondria/drug effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/physiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662663

ABSTRACT

Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) is the primary causative agent of the highly contagious eye infection designated acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). It is solely responsible for two pandemics and several recurring outbreaks of the disease over the last decades, thus affecting millions of individuals throughout the world. To date, no antiviral agents or vaccines are available for combating this disease, and treatment is mainly supportive. CVA24v utilizes Neu5Ac-containing glycans as attachment receptors facilitating entry into host cells. We have previously reported that pentavalent Neu5Ac conjugates based on a glucose-scaffold inhibit CVA24v infection of human corneal epithelial cells. In this study, we report on the design and synthesis of scaffold-replaced pentavalent Neu5Ac conjugates and their effect on CVA24v cell transduction and the use of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to study the binding of these multivalent conjugates to CVA24v. The results presented here provide insights into the development of Neu5Ac-based inhibitors of CVA24v and, most significantly, the first application of cryo-EM to study the binding of a multivalent ligand to a lectin.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coxsackievirus Infections/diet therapy , Enterovirus C, Human/drug effects , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/pharmacology , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/metabolism , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/virology , Coxsackievirus Infections/metabolism , Coxsackievirus Infections/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Lectins/metabolism , Ligands , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 23, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655541
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650946

ABSTRACT

The development of small-molecules targeting different components of SARS-CoV-2 is a key strategy to complement antibody-based treatments and vaccination campaigns in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we show that two thiol-based chemical probes that act as reducing agents, P2119 and P2165, inhibit infection by human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and decrease the binding of spike glycoprotein to its receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Proteomics and reactive cysteine profiling link the antiviral activity to the reduction of key disulfides, specifically by disruption of the Cys379-Cys432 and Cys391-Cys525 pairs distal to the receptor binding motif in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein. Computational analyses provide insight into conformation changes that occur when these disulfides break or form, consistent with an allosteric role, and indicate that P2119/P2165 target a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket in the RBD with the benzyl thiol-reducing moiety pointed directly toward Cys432. These collective findings establish the vulnerability of human coronaviruses to thiol-based chemical probes and lay the groundwork for developing compounds of this class, as a strategy to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 infection by shifting the spike glycoprotein redox scaffold.


Subject(s)
Amino Alcohols/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Phenyl Ethers/pharmacology , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Allosteric Regulation , Amino Alcohols/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Disulfides/antagonists & inhibitors , Disulfides/chemistry , Disulfides/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Phenyl Ethers/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL