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1.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196306

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099330

ABSTRACT

After the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan variant that gave rise to the pandemic, other variants named Delta, Omicron, and Omicron-2 sequentially became prevalent, with mutations spread around the viral genome, including on the spike (S) protein; in order to understand the resultant in gains in infectivity, we interrogated in silico both the equilibrium binding and the binding pathway of the virus' receptor-binding domain (RBD) to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. We interrogated the molecular recognition between the RBD of different variants and ACE2 through supervised molecular dynamics (SuMD) and classic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to address the effect of mutations on the possible S protein binding pathways. Our results indicate that compensation between binding pathway efficiency and stability of the complex exists for the Omicron BA.1 receptor binding domain, while Omicron BA.2's mutations putatively improved the dynamic recognition of the ACE2 receptor, suggesting an evolutionary advantage over the previous strains.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Protein Binding , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , COVID-19/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Mutation
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010112

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the essential part in the Spike-protein (S-protein) of SARS-CoV-2 virus that directly binds to the human ACE2 receptor, making it a key target for many vaccines and therapies. Therefore, any mutations at this domain could affect the efficacy of these treatments as well as the viral-cell entry mechanism. We introduce ab initio DFT-based computational study that mainly focuses on two parts: (1) Mutations effects of both Delta and Omicron variants in the RBD-SD1 domain. (2) Impact of Omicron RBD mutations on the structure and properties of the RBD-ACE2 interface system. The in-depth analysis is based on the novel concept of amino acid-amino acid bond pair units (AABPU) that reveal the differences between the Delta and/or Omicron mutations and its corresponding wild-type strain in terms of the role played by non-local amino acid interactions, their 3D shapes and sizes, as well as contribution to hydrogen bonding and partial charge distributions. Our results also show that the interaction of Omicron RBD with ACE2 significantly increased its bonding between amino acids at the interface providing information on the implications of penetration of S-protein into ACE2, and thus offering a possible explanation for its high infectivity. Our findings enable us to present, in more conspicuous atomic level detail, the effect of specific mutations that may help in predicting and/or mitigating the next variant of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acids/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Syndactyly
4.
Methods Enzymol ; 675: 299-321, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995924

ABSTRACT

Mutations on the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 could induce structural changes that help increase viral transmissibility and enhance resistance to antibody neutralization. Here, we report a robust workflow to prepare recombinant S protein variants and its host receptor angiotensin-convert enzyme 2 (ACE2) by using a mammalian cell expression system. The functional states of the S protein variants are investigated by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and negative staining electron microscopy (NSEM) to visualize their molecular structures in response to mutations, receptor binding, antibody binding, and environmental changes. The folding stabilities of the S protein variants can be deduced from morphological changes based on NSEM imaging analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry provides thermodynamic information to complement NSEM. Impacts of the mutations on host receptor binding and antibody neutralization are in vitro by kinetic binding analyses in addition to atomic insights gleaned from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). This experimental strategy is generally applicable to studying the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensins/genetics , Angiotensins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
5.
PLoS Biol ; 20(7): e3001738, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962971

ABSTRACT

Viral spillover from animal reservoirs can trigger public health crises and cripple the world economy. Knowing which viruses are primed for zoonotic transmission can focus surveillance efforts and mitigation strategies for future pandemics. Successful engagement of receptor protein orthologs is necessary during cross-species transmission. The clade 1 sarbecoviruses including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 enter cells via engagement of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), while the receptor for clade 2 and clade 3 remains largely uncharacterized. We developed a mixed cell pseudotyped virus infection assay to determine whether various clades 2 and 3 sarbecovirus spike proteins can enter HEK 293T cells expressing human or Rhinolophus horseshoe bat ACE2 proteins. The receptor binding domains from BtKY72 and Khosta-2 used human ACE2 for entry, while BtKY72 and Khosta-1 exhibited widespread use of diverse rhinolophid ACE2s. A lysine at ACE2 position 31 appeared to be a major determinant of the inability of these RBDs to use a certain ACE2 sequence. The ACE2 protein from Rhinolophus alcyone engaged all known clade 3 and clade 1 receptor binding domains. We observed little use of Rhinolophus ACE2 orthologs by the clade 2 viruses, supporting the likely use of a separate, unknown receptor. Our results suggest that clade 3 sarbecoviruses from Africa and Europe use Rhinolophus ACE2 for entry, and their spike proteins appear primed to contribute to zoonosis under the right conditions.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Receptors, Coronavirus , Animals , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0087022, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938015

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 have a single envelope glycoprotein (S protein) that binds to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the host cell membrane. Previous mutational scanning studies have suggested that some substitutions corresponding to single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in human ACE2 affect the binding affinity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. However, the importance of these substitutions in actual virus infection is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reported ACE2 SNV substitutions on the entry of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 into cells, using vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) pseudotyped with S proteins of these coronaviruses (CoVs). HEK293T cells transfected with plasmids expressing ACE2 having each SNV substitution were infected with the pseudotyped VSIVs and relative infectivities were determined compared to the cells expressing wild-type ACE2. We found that some of the SNV substitutions positively or negatively affected the infectivities of the pseudotyped viruses. Particularly, the H505R substitution significantly enhanced the infection with the pseudotyped VSIVs, including those having the substitutions found in the S protein RBD of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Our findings suggest that human ACE2 SNVs may potentially affect cell susceptibilities to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are known to cause severe pneumonia in humans. The S protein of these CoVs binds to the ACE2 molecule on the plasma membrane and mediates virus entry into cells. The interaction between the S protein and ACE2 is thought to be important for host susceptibility to these CoVs. Although previous studies suggested that some SNV substitutions in ACE2 might affect the binding to the S protein, it remains elusive whether these SNV substitutions actually alter the efficiency of the entry of SARS CoVs into cells. We analyzed the impact of the ACE2 SNVs on the cellular entry of SARS CoVs using pseudotyped VSIVs having the S protein on the viral surface. We found that some of the SNV substitutions positively or negatively affected the infectivities of the viruses. Our data support the notion that genetic polymorphisms of ACE2 may potentially influence cell susceptibilities to SARS CoVs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(3): H403-H420, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923329

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is a global pandemic impacting 254 million people in 190 countries. Comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension, increase the risk of infection and poor outcomes. SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, generating inflammation and cytokine storm, often resulting in multiorgan failure. The mechanisms and effects of COVID-19 on patients with high-risk diabetes are not yet completely understood. In this review, we discuss the variety of coronaviruses, structure of SARS-CoV-2, mutations in SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, receptors associated with viral host entry, and disease progression. Furthermore, we focus on possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in diabetes, leading to inflammation and heart failure. Finally, we discuss existing therapeutic approaches, unanswered questions, and future directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(11): 10715-10727, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is known as the major viral entry site for SARS-CoV-2. However, viral tissue tropism and high rate of infectivity do not directly correspond with the level of ACE2 expression in the organs. It may suggest involvement of other receptors or accessory membrane proteins in SARSCoV-2 cell entry. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for studies reporting SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. We used a group of the MeSH terms including "cell entry", "surface receptor", "ACE2", and "SARS-CoV-2". We reviewed all selected papers published in English up to end of February 2022. We found several receptors or auxiliary membrane proteins (including CD147, NRP-1, CD26, AGTR2, Band3, KREMEN1, ASGR1, ANP, TMEM30A, CLEC4G, and LDLRAD3) along with ACE2 that facilitate virus entry and transmission. Expression of Band3 protein on the surface of erythrocytes and evidence of binding with S protein of SARS-CoV-2 may explain asymptomatic hypoxemia during COVID19 infection. The variants of SARS-CoV-2 including the B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.617.2+ (Delta+), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) may have different potency to bond with these receptors. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 may be due to its ability to enter the host cell through a group of cell surface receptors. These receptors are potential targets to develop novel therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Asialoglycoprotein Receptor/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 798767, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862592

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the biggest pandemic the world has seen this century. Alongside the respiratory damage observed in patients with severe forms of the disease, gastrointestinal symptoms have been frequently reported. These symptoms (e.g., diarrhoea), sometimes precede the development of respiratory tract illnesses, as if the digestive tract was a major target during early SARS-CoV-2 dissemination. We hypothesize that in patients carrying intestinal SARS-CoV-2, the virus may trigger epithelial barrier damage through the disruption of E-cadherin (E-cad) adherens junctions, thereby contributing to the overall gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19. Here, we use an intestinal Caco-2 cell line of human origin which expresses the viral receptor/co-receptor as well as the membrane anchored cell surface adhesion protein E-cad to investigate the expression of E-cad after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. We found that the expression of CDH1/E-cad mRNA was significantly lower in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 at 24 hours post-infection, compared to virus-free Caco-2 cells. The viral receptor ACE2 mRNA expression was specifically down-regulated in SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells, while it remained stable in HCoV-OC43-infected Caco-2 cells, a virus which uses HLA class I instead of ACE2 to enter cells. It is worth noting that SARS-CoV-2 induces lower transcription of TMPRSS2 (involved in viral entry) and higher expression of B0AT1 mRNA (that encodes a protein known to co-express with ACE2 on intestinal cells). At 48 hours post-exposure to the virus, we also detected a small but significant increase of soluble E-cad protein (sE-cad) in the culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells. The increase of sE-cad release was also found in the intestinal HT29 cell line when infected by SARS-CoV-2. Beside the dysregulation of E-cad, SARS-CoV-2 infection of Caco-2 cells also leads to the dysregulation of other cell adhesion proteins (occludin, JAMA-A, zonulin, connexin-43 and PECAM-1). Taken together, these results shed light on the fact that infection of Caco-2 cells with SARS-CoV-2 affects tight-, adherens-, and gap-junctions. Moreover, intestinal tissues damage was associated to the intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cadherins , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antigens, CD/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Cadherins/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Mice , RNA, Messenger , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids ; 41(8): 778-814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830783

ABSTRACT

Viruses have multiple mutation rates that are higher than any other member of the kingdom of life. This gives them the ability to evolve, even within the course of a single infection, and to evade multiple host defenses, thereby impacting pathogenesis. Additionally, there are also interplays between mutation and recombination and the high multiplicity of infection (MOI) that enhance viral adaptability and increase levels of recombination leading to complex and conflicting effects on genome selection, and the net results is difficult to predict. Recently, the outbreak of COVID-19 virus represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. Up to present, however, due to the high mutation rate of COVID-19 virus, there are no effective procedures to contain the spread of this virus across the globe. For such a purpose, there is then an urgent need to explore new approaches. As an opinion, the present approach emphasizes on (a) the use of a nonspecific way of blocking the entry of COVID-19 virus as well as its variants into the cells via a therapeutic biocompatible compound (ideally, "in a pill") targeting its spike (S) glycoprotein; and (b) the construction of expression vectors via the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol, GPI, anchor for studying intermolecular interactions between the spike S of COVID-19 virus as well as its variants and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of its host receptor for checking the efficacy of any therapeutic biocompatible compound of the nonspecific way of blocking. Such antiviral drug would be safer than the ACE1 and ACE2 inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and recombinant human ACE2 as well as nucleoside analogs or protease inhibitors used for fighting the spread of the virus inside the cells, and it would also be used as a universal one for any eventual future pandemic related to viruses, especially the RNA viruses with high mutation rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Nature ; 604(7907): 723-731, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799583

ABSTRACT

Studying tissue composition and function in non-human primates (NHPs) is crucial to understand the nature of our own species. Here we present a large-scale cell transcriptomic atlas that encompasses over 1 million cells from 45 tissues of the adult NHP Macaca fascicularis. This dataset provides a vast annotated resource to study a species phylogenetically close to humans. To demonstrate the utility of the atlas, we have reconstructed the cell-cell interaction networks that drive Wnt signalling across the body, mapped the distribution of receptors and co-receptors for viruses causing human infectious diseases, and intersected our data with human genetic disease orthologues to establish potential clinical associations. Our M. fascicularis cell atlas constitutes an essential reference for future studies in humans and NHPs.


Subject(s)
Macaca fascicularis , Transcriptome , Animals , Cell Communication , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Wnt Signaling Pathway
12.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742493

ABSTRACT

Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are treated with androgen pathway directed therapy (APDT). However, this treatment invariably fails and the cancer becomes castration resistant. To elucidate resistance mechanisms and to provide a more predictive pre-clinical research platform reflecting tumor heterogeneity, we established organoids from a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of bone metastatic prostate cancer, PCSD1. APDT-resistant PDX-derived organoids (PDOs) emerged when cultured without androgen or with the anti-androgen, enzalutamide. Transcriptomics revealed up-regulation of neurogenic and steroidogenic genes and down-regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle, circadian pathways and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 host viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Time course analysis of the cell cycle in live cells revealed that enzalutamide induced a gradual transition into a reversible dormant state as shown here for the first time at the single cell level in the context of multi-cellular, 3D living organoids using the Fucci2BL fluorescent live cell cycle tracker system. We show here a new mechanism of castration resistance in which enzalutamide induced dormancy and novel basal-luminal-like cells in bone metastatic prostate cancer organoids. These PDX organoids can be used to develop therapies targeting dormant APDT-resistant cells and host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Organoids/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/genetics , Androgens/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/metabolism , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transplantation, Heterologous , Virus Internalization
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(5): 133, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739301

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic which arose from China, is caused by a pathogenic virus named "severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)". Its rapid global expansion has inflicted an extreme public health concern. The attachment of receptor-binding domains (RBD) of the spike proteins (S) to the host cell's membrane, with or without the help of other cellular components such as proteases and especially co-receptors, is required for the first stage of its pathogenesis. In addition to humans, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is found on a wide range of vertebrate host's cellular surface. SARS-CoV-2 has a broad spectrum of tropism; thus, it can infect a vast range of tissues, organs, and hosts; even though the surface amino acids of the spike protein conflict in the receptor-binding region. Due to the heterogeneous ACE2 distribution and the presence of different domains on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for binding, the virus entry into diverse host cell types may depend on the host cells' receptor presentation with or without co-receptors. This review investigates multiple current types of receptor and co-receptor tropisms, with other molecular factors alongside their respective mechanisms, which facilitate the binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cells, extending the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from this perspective can effectively help prevent this disease and provide more potent treatment strategies, particularly in vulnerable people with various cellular-level susceptibilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Probability , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tropism
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1859, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671609

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is a coreceptor. Abnormal hepatic function in COVID-19 suggests specific or bystander liver disease. Because liver cancer cells express the ACE2 viral receptor, they are widely used as models of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression and localization in human liver cancers and in non-tumor livers. We studied ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in transcriptomic datasets totaling 1503 liver cancers, followed by high-resolution confocal multiplex immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis of a 41-HCC tissue microarray. In cancers, we detected ACE2 and TMPRSS2 at the biliary pole of tumor hepatocytes. In whole mount sections of five normal liver samples, we identified ACE2 in hepatocyte's bile canaliculi, biliary epithelium, sinusoidal and capillary endothelial cells. Tumors carrying mutated ß-catenin showed ACE2 DNA hypomethylation and higher mRNA and protein expression, consistently with predicted ß-catenin response sites in the ACE2 promoter. Finally, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expression networks highlighted hepatocyte-specific functions, oxidative stress and inflammation, suggesting a link between inflammation, ACE2 dysfunction and metabolic breakdown.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation , Mutation , Oxidative Stress/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , beta Catenin/genetics , beta Catenin/metabolism
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667192

ABSTRACT

This review article was designed to evaluate the existing evidence related to the molecular processes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the oral cavity. The World Health Organization stated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission is produced by respiratory droplets and aerosols from the oral cavity of infected patients. The oral cavity structures, keratinized and non-keratinized mucosa, and salivary glands' epithelia express SARS-CoV-2 entry and transmission factors, especially angiotensin converting enzyme Type 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). Replication of the virus in cells leads to local and systemic infection spread, and cellular damage is associated with clinical signs and symptoms of the disease in the oral cavity. Saliva, both the cellular and acellular fractions, holds the virus particles and contributes to COVID-19 transmission. The review also presents information about the factors modifying SARS-CoV-2 infection potential and possible local pharmacotherapeutic interventions, which may confine SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and transmission in the oral cavity. The PubMed and Scopus databases were used to search for suitable keywords such as: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, oral virus infection, saliva, crevicular fluid, salivary gland, tongue, oral mucosa, periodontium, gingiva, dental pulp, ACE2, TMPRSS2, Furin, diagnosis, topical treatment, vaccine and related words in relevant publications up to 28 December 2021. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the articles were performed by two reviewers, and 63 articles were included in the final review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mouth , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth/metabolism , Mouth/pathology , Mouth/virology , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pathology, Oral , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Internalization
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650946

ABSTRACT

The development of small-molecules targeting different components of SARS-CoV-2 is a key strategy to complement antibody-based treatments and vaccination campaigns in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we show that two thiol-based chemical probes that act as reducing agents, P2119 and P2165, inhibit infection by human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and decrease the binding of spike glycoprotein to its receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Proteomics and reactive cysteine profiling link the antiviral activity to the reduction of key disulfides, specifically by disruption of the Cys379-Cys432 and Cys391-Cys525 pairs distal to the receptor binding motif in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein. Computational analyses provide insight into conformation changes that occur when these disulfides break or form, consistent with an allosteric role, and indicate that P2119/P2165 target a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket in the RBD with the benzyl thiol-reducing moiety pointed directly toward Cys432. These collective findings establish the vulnerability of human coronaviruses to thiol-based chemical probes and lay the groundwork for developing compounds of this class, as a strategy to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 infection by shifting the spike glycoprotein redox scaffold.


Subject(s)
Amino Alcohols/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Phenyl Ethers/pharmacology , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Allosteric Regulation , Amino Alcohols/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Disulfides/antagonists & inhibitors , Disulfides/chemistry , Disulfides/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Phenyl Ethers/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry
20.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594678

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is mainly dependent on the underlying mechanisms that mediate the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) into the host cells of the various human tissues/organs. Recent studies have indicated a higher order of complexity of the mechanisms of infectivity, given that there is a wide­repertoire of possible cell entry mediators that appear to co­localise in a cell­ and tissue­specific manner. The present study provides an overview of the 'canonical' SARS­CoV­2 mediators, namely angiotensin converting enzyme 2, transmembrane protease serine 2 and 4, and neuropilin­1, expanding on the involvement of novel candidates, including glucose­regulated protein 78, basigin, kidney injury molecule­1, metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (also termed tumour necrosis factor­α convertase) and Toll­like receptor 4. Furthermore, emerging data indicate that changes in microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression levels in patients with COVID­19 are suggestive of further complexity in the regulation of these viral mediators. An in silico analysis revealed 160 candidate miRNAs with potential strong binding capacity in the aforementioned genes. Future studies should concentrate on elucidating the association between the cellular tropism of the SARS­CoV­2 cell entry mediators and the mechanisms through which they might affect the clinical outcome. Finally, the clinical utility as a biomarker or therapeutic target of miRNAs in the context of COVID­19 warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , /metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Viral Tropism
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