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1.
Hematology ; 27(1): 318-321, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction associated with thrombosis. Clinical scoring systems and the presence of anti-platelet factor 4 (anti-PF4)/heparin antibodies determine the diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man who was treated with acenocoumarol due to a chronic left ventricular thrombus was admitted to the hospital for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. The patient was started on bemiparin and discharged. Left lower limb acute arterial ischemia and thrombocytopenia were diagnosed 18 days later. Computed tomography angiography revealed a large left ventricular thrombus and multiple arterial thrombi. Left femoral-popliteal thromboembolectomy was performed. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies confirmed an HIT diagnosis. Fondaparinux (7.5 mg/24 h) was initiated, but cardiac surgery was necessary. Bivalirudin was used during surgery, with an initial load (1.25 mg/kg) and maintenance infusion (2.5 mg/kg/h). The cardiac thrombus was extracted, but the patient experienced a postsurgical myocardial infarction. Percutaneous cardiovascular intervention (PCI) required a bivalirudin load (0.75 mg/kg) and maintenance infusion (1.75 mg/kg/h). No coronary lesions were detected, and argatroban was started afterwards (0.5 µg/kg/min). When the platelet count exceeded 100 × 109/L, acenocoumarol was initiated. Thereupon, acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/24 h) was added. No other complications have been reported to date. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of intraventricular and multiple arterial thrombi is remarkable. SARS-CoV-2 infection likely contributed to a hypercoagulable state. The management of patients with HIT undergoing cardiac surgery is challenging. If surgery cannot be delayed, then treatment with bivalirudin is recommended. Additionally, this drug is recommended for PCI. Bivalirudin is safe and well-tolerated in both procedures.


Subject(s)
Acenocoumarol/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin , Hirudins/administration & dosage , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pipecolic Acids/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Arginine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/therapy
2.
Life Sci ; 293: 120284, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620913

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) recently identified as the membrane receptor for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we aim to study whether two receptors from RAS, the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and the bradykinin 2 receptor (B2R) modulate ACE2 internalization induced by a recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Also, we investigated the impact of ACE2 coexpression on AT1R and B2R functionality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study ACE2 internalization, we assessed the distribution of green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal in HEK293T cells coexpressing GFP-tagged ACE2 and AT1R, or B2R, or AT1R plus B2R in presence of RBD alone or in combination with AT1R or B2R ligands. To estimate ACE2 internalization, we classified GFP signal distribution as plasma membrane uniform GFP (PMU-GFP), plasma membrane clustered GFP (PMC-GFP) or internalized GFP and calculated its relative frequency. Additionally, we investigated the effect of ACE2 coexpression on AT1R and B2R inhibitory action on voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV2.2) currents by patch-clamp technique. KEY FINDINGS: RBD induced ACE2-GFP internalization in a time-dependent manner. RBD-induced ACE2-GFP internalization was increased by angiotensin II and reduced by telmisartan in cells coexpressing AT1R. RBD-induced ACE2-GFP internalization was strongly inhibited by B2R co-expression. This effect was mildly modified by bradykinin and rescued by angiotensin II in presence of AT1R. ACE2 coexpression impacted on B2R- and AT1R-mediated inhibition of CaV2.2 currents. SIGNIFICANCE: Our work contributes to understand the role of RAS modulators in the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/biosynthesis , Receptor, Bradykinin B2/biosynthesis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Green Fluorescent Proteins/analysis , Green Fluorescent Proteins/biosynthesis , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/analysis , Receptor, Bradykinin B2/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage
3.
Virology ; 566: 56-59, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recombinant protein subunit vaccination is considered to be a safe, fast and reliable technique when combating emerging and re-emerging diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Typically, such subunit vaccines require the addition of adjuvants to attain adequate immunogenicity. AS01, which contains adjuvants MPL and saponin QS21, is a liposome-based vaccine adjuvant system that is one of the leading candidates. However, the adjuvant effect of AS01 in COVID-19 vaccines is not well described yet. METHODS: In this study, we utilized a mixture of AS01 as the adjuvant for an S1 protein-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The adjuvanted vaccine induced robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding antibody and virus-neutralizing antibody responses. Importantly, two doses induced similar levels of IgG binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses compared with three doses and the antibody responses weakened only slightly over time up to six weeks after immunization. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that two doses may be enough for a clinical vaccine strategy design using MPL & QS21 adjuvanted recombinant protein, especially in consideration of the limited production capacity of COVID-19 vaccine in a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lipid A/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Drug Combinations , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lipid A/administration & dosage , Lipid A/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Saponins/administration & dosage
4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 434: 115796, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510333

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has required the urgent development of new therapies, among which passive immunotherapy is contemplated. CoviFab (INM005) is a RBD-specific F(ab')2 fragment derived from equine polyclonal antibodies. We investigate their preclinical security and biodistribution by in vivo and ex vivo NIR imaging after intravenous administration of a dose of 4 mg/kg at time 0 and 48 h. Images were taken at 1, 12, 24, 36, 48, 49, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132 and 144 h after the first intravenous injection. At 96 and 144 h, mice were sacrificed for haematology, serum chemistry, clinical pathology, histopathology and ex vivo imaging. The biodistribution profile was similar in all organs studied, with the highest fluorescence at 1 h after each injection, gradually decreasing after that each one and until the end of the study (144 h). The toxicology study revealed no significant changes in the haematology and serum chemistry parameters. Further, there were no changes in the gross and histological examination of organs. Nonclinical data of the current study confirm that CoviFab is safe, without observable adverse effects in mice. Furthermore, we confirm that bioimaging studies are a useful approach in preclinical trials to determine biodistribution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/adverse effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , HEK293 Cells , Horses , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/methods , Tissue Distribution/drug effects , Tissue Distribution/physiology
5.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 21(10): 920-927, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known as Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has caused the sixth world's public health emergency. Healthcare staff, as the frontline population fighting the pandemic, are exposed to a high risk of infection. Therefore, developing a protective intervention for medical staff is of significant importance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human interferon alpha (rhIFN-α) nasal drops for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through administering it to medical staff. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label clinical trial with parallel intervention assignment conducted on 2944 medical staff including both doctors and nurses from Taihe Hospital, Shiyan City, Hubei Province, China from January 21, 2020 to July 30, 2020. The participants were bifurcated into two groups of low risk and high risk groups according to the level of direct exposure to COVID-19 patients. The individuals of the low-risk group received rhIFN-α nasal drops for one month in addition to first level protection, and the high-risk group received a combination of rhIFN-α nasal drops coupled with thymosin-α1 with either second or third-level protection protocol. Moreover, the new-outset of COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosed by chest computed tomography (CT), after thirty days, was the primary outcome. The adverse reactions were recorded in all participants. RESULTS: 2415 of 2944 individuals belonged to the low-risk group, while 529 to the high-risk group. There was no COVID-19 pneumonia in either of the group after thirty days. The pulmonary CT scans were negative for COVID-19 pneumonia in both the groups with no new clinical symptoms. No serious adverse event was observed during the course of the intervention. CONCLUSION: The rhIFN-α nasal drops along with augmented safeguards based on standard physical isolation could effectively protect medical staff against COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal , Adult , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Male , Personnel, Hospital , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(9): 1257-1270, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CoV2 preS dTM is a stabilised pre-fusion spike protein vaccine produced in a baculovirus expression system being developed against SARS-CoV-2. We present interim safety and immunogenicity results of the first-in-human study of the CoV2 preS dTM vaccine with two different adjuvant formulations. METHODS: This phase 1-2, randomised, double-blind study is being done in healthy, SARS-CoV-2-seronegative adults in ten clinical research centres in the USA. Participants were stratified by age (18-49 years and ≥50 years) and randomly assigned using an interactive response technology system with block randomisation (blocks of varying size) to receive one dose (on day 1) or two doses (on days 1 and 22) of placebo or candidate vaccine, containing low-dose (effective dose 1·3 µg) or high-dose (2·6 µg) antigen with adjuvant AF03 (Sanofi Pasteur) or AS03 (GlaxoSmithKline) or unadjuvanted high-dose antigen (18-49 years only). Primary endpoints were safety, assessed up to day 43, and immunogenicity, measured as SARS-C0V-2 neutralising antibodies (geometric mean titres), assessed on days 1, 22, and 36 serum samples. Safety was assessed according to treatment received in the safety analysis set, which included all randomly assigned participants who received at least one dose. Neutralising antibody titres were assessed in the per-protocol analysis set for immunogenicity, which included participants who received at least one dose, met all inclusion and exclusion criteria, had no protocol deviation, had negative results in the neutralisation test at baseline, and had at least one valid post-dose serology sample. This planned interim analysis reports data up to 43 days after the first vaccination; participants in the trial will be followed up for 12 months after the last study injection. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04537208, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Sept 3 and Sept 29, 2020, 441 individuals (299 aged 18-49 years and 142 aged ≥50 years) were randomly assigned to one of the 11 treatment groups. The interim safety analyses included 439 (>99%) of 441 randomly assigned participants (299 aged 18-49 years and 140 aged ≥50 years). Neutralising antibody titres were analysed in 326 (74%) of 441 participants (235 [79%] of 299 aged 18-49 years and 91 [64%] of 142 aged ≥50 years). There were no vaccine-related unsolicited immediate adverse events, serious adverse events, medically attended adverse events classified as severe, or adverse events of special interest. Among all study participants, solicited local and systemic reactions of any grade after two vaccine doses were reported in 81% (95% CI 61-93; 21 of 26) of participants in the low-dose plus AF03 group, 93% (84-97; 74 of 80) in the low-dose plus AS03 group, 89% (70-98; 23 of 26) in the high-dose plus AF03 group, 95% (88-99; 81 of 85) in the high-dose plus AS03 group, 29% (10-56; five of 17) in the unadjuvanted high-dose group, and 21% (8-40; six of 29) in the placebo group. A single vaccine dose did not generate neutralising antibody titres above placebo levels in any group at days 22 or 36. Among participants aged 18-49 years, neutralising antibody titres after two vaccine doses were 13·1 (95% CI 6·40-26·9) in the low-dose plus AF03 group, 20·5 (13·1-32·1) in the low-dose plus AS03 group, 43·2 (20·6-90·4) in the high-dose plus AF03 group, 75·1 (50·5-112·0) in the high-dose plus AS03 group, 5·00 (not calculated) in the unadjuvanted high-dose group, and 5·00 (not calculated) in the placebo group. Among participants aged 50 years or older, neutralising antibody titres after two vaccine doses were 8·62 (1·90-39·0) in the low-dose plus AF03 group, 12·9 (7·09-23·4) in the low-dose plus AS03 group, 12·3 (4·35-35·0) in the high-dose plus AF03 group, 52·3 (25·3-108·0) in the high-dose plus AS03 group, and 5·00 (not calculated) in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: The lower than expected immune responses, especially in the older age groups, and the high reactogenicity after dose two were probably due to higher than anticipated host-cell protein content and lower than planned antigen doses in the formulations tested, which was discovered during characterisation studies on the final bulk drug substance. Further development of the AS03-adjuvanted candidate vaccine will focus on identifying the optimal antigen formulation and dose. FUNDING: Sanofi Pasteur and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Viral/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , United States/epidemiology
7.
Immunotherapy ; 13(12): 1011-1029, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362211

ABSTRACT

The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic melanoma generates clinical benefit, including improved survival. Yet disease resistance and immune-related adverse events persist as unmet needs. Sargramostim, a yeast-derived recombinant human GM-CSF, has shown clinical activity against diverse solid tumors, including metastatic melanoma. Here we review the use of sargramostim for treatment of advanced melanoma. Potential sargramostim applications in melanoma draw on the unique ability of GM-CSF to link innate and adaptive immune responses. We review preclinical and translational data describing the mechanism of action of sargramostim and synergy with immune checkpoint inhibitors to enhance efficacy and reduce treatment-related toxicity.


Lay abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors are medications that help the immune system to fight cancer. Side effects with these medicines may occur because the immune system may attack healthy cells. Sargramostim is a medication that is similar to a protein in the body (GM-CSF). Studies have shown that sargramostim can fight cancer, including melanoma. When sargramostim is used with immune checkpoint inhibitors, the body's natural defense to fight cancer (the immune system) is boosted and some side effects are reduced. This article reviews how GM-CSF is thought to boost the immune system's response against cancer in the laboratory and in animal models. We also review the use of sargramostim alone and combined with ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/administration & dosage , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Melanoma/drug therapy , Animals , Drug Synergism , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 892-898, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206802

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic within a matter of months. While subunit vaccines are one of the prominent options for combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the immunogenicity of spike protein-based antigens remains unknown. When immunized in mice, the S1 domain induced much higher IgG and IgA antibody levels than the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and more efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 when adjuvanted with alum. It is inferred that a large proportion of these neutralization epitopes are located in the S1 domain but outside the RBD and that some of these are spatial epitopes. This finding indicates that expression systems with posttranslational modification abilities are important to maintain the natural configurations of recombinant spike protein antigens and are critical for effective COVID-19 vaccines. Further, adjuvants prone to a Th1 response should be considered for S1-based subunit COVID-19 vaccines to reduce the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of conestat alfa in improving disease severity and short-term outcome in COVID-19 patients with pulmonary disease. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is an investigator-initiated, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, parallel-group, controlled, multi-center, phase 2a clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This trial is conducted in 3 hospitals in Switzerland, 1 hospital in Brazil and 1 hospital in Mexico (academic and non-academic). All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization for at least 3 calendar days for severe COVID-19 will be screened for study eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Signed informed consent - Age 18-85 years - Evidence of pulmonary involvement on CT scan or X-ray of the chest - Duration of symptoms associated with COVID-19 ≤ 10 days - At least one of the following risk factors for progression to mechanical ventilation on the day of enrolment: 1) Arterial hypertension 2) ≥ 50 years 3) Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 4) History of cardiovascular disease 5) Chronic pulmonary disease 6) Chronic renal disease 7) C-reactive protein > 35mg/L 8) Oxygen saturation at rest of ≤ 94% when breathing ambient air Exclusion criteria: - Incapacity or inability to provide informed consent - Contraindications to the class of drugs under investigation (C1 esterase inhibitor) - Treatment with tocilizumab or another IL-6R or IL-6 inhibitor before enrolment - History or suspicion of allergy to rabbits - Pregnancy or breast feeding - Active or anticipated treatment with any other complement inhibitor - Liver cirrhosis (any Child-Pugh score) - Admission to an ICU on the day or anticipated within the next 24 hours of enrolment - Invasive or non-invasive ventilation - Participation in another study with any investigational drug within the 30 days prior to enrolment - Enrolment of the study investigators, their family members, employees and other closely related or dependent persons INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the experimental arm will receive conestat alfa in addition to standard of care (SOC). Conestat alfa (8400 U followed by 4200 U every 8 hours) will be administered as a slow intravenous injection (5-10 minutes) over a 72-hour period (i.e. 9 administrations in total). The first conestat alfa treatment will be administered on the day of enrolment. The control group will receive SOC only. SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of this trial is disease severity on day 7 after enrolment assessed by an adapted WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (score 0 will be omitted and score 6 and 7 will be combined) from 1 (no limitation of activities) to 7 (death). Secondary outcomes include (i) the time to clinical improvement (time from randomization to an improvement of two points on the WHO ordinal scale or discharge from hospital) within 14 days after enrolment, (ii) the proportion of participants alive and not having required invasive or non-invasive ventilation at 14 days after enrolment and (iii) the proportion of subjects without an acute lung injury (defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment. Exploratory outcomes include virological clearance, C1 esterase inhibitor pharmacokinetics and changes in routine laboratory parameters and inflammatory proteins. RANDOMISATION: Subjects will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with conestat alfa in addition to SOC or SOC only. Randomization is performed via an interactive web response system (SecuTrial®). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label trial, participants, caregivers and outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): We will randomise approximately 120 individuals (80 in the active treatment arm, 40 in the SOC group). Two interim analyses after 40 and 80 patients are planned according to the Pocock adjusted levels αp = 0.0221. The results of the interim analysis will allow adjustment of the sample size (Lehmacher, Wassmer, 1999). TRIAL STATUS: PROTECT-COVID-19 protocol version 3.0 (July 07 2020). Participant recruitment started on July 30 2020 in one center (Basel, Switzerland, first participant included on August 06 2020). In four of five study centers patients are actively recruited. Participation of the fifth study center (Mexico) is anticipated by mid December 2020. Completion of trial recruitment depends on the development of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT04414631 , registered on 4 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/pharmacokinetics , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous/methods , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 170: 71-82, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012282

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic now ongoing for close to a year, people all over the world are still waiting for a vaccine to become available. The initial focus of accelerated global research and development efforts to bring a vaccine to market as soon as possible was on novel platform technologies that promised speed but had limited history in the clinic. In contrast, recombinant protein vaccines, with numerous examples in the clinic for many years, missed out on the early wave of investments from government and industry. Emerging data are now surfacing suggesting that recombinant protein vaccines indeed might offer an advantage or complement to the nucleic acid or viral vector vaccines that will likely reach the clinic faster. Here, we summarize the current public information on the nature and on the development status of recombinant subunit antigens and adjuvants targeting SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Resources/trends , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
11.
Trials ; 22(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of conestat alfa in improving disease severity and short-term outcome in COVID-19 patients with pulmonary disease. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is an investigator-initiated, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, parallel-group, controlled, multi-center, phase 2a clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This trial is conducted in 3 hospitals in Switzerland, 1 hospital in Brazil and 1 hospital in Mexico (academic and non-academic). All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization for at least 3 calendar days for severe COVID-19 will be screened for study eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Signed informed consent - Age 18-85 years - Evidence of pulmonary involvement on CT scan or X-ray of the chest - Duration of symptoms associated with COVID-19 ≤ 10 days - At least one of the following risk factors for progression to mechanical ventilation on the day of enrolment: 1) Arterial hypertension 2) ≥ 50 years 3) Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 4) History of cardiovascular disease 5) Chronic pulmonary disease 6) Chronic renal disease 7) C-reactive protein > 35mg/L 8) Oxygen saturation at rest of ≤ 94% when breathing ambient air Exclusion criteria: - Incapacity or inability to provide informed consent - Contraindications to the class of drugs under investigation (C1 esterase inhibitor) - Treatment with tocilizumab or another IL-6R or IL-6 inhibitor before enrolment - History or suspicion of allergy to rabbits - Pregnancy or breast feeding - Active or anticipated treatment with any other complement inhibitor - Liver cirrhosis (any Child-Pugh score) - Admission to an ICU on the day or anticipated within the next 24 hours of enrolment - Invasive or non-invasive ventilation - Participation in another study with any investigational drug within the 30 days prior to enrolment - Enrolment of the study investigators, their family members, employees and other closely related or dependent persons INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the experimental arm will receive conestat alfa in addition to standard of care (SOC). Conestat alfa (8400 U followed by 4200 U every 8 hours) will be administered as a slow intravenous injection (5-10 minutes) over a 72-hour period (i.e. 9 administrations in total). The first conestat alfa treatment will be administered on the day of enrolment. The control group will receive SOC only. SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of this trial is disease severity on day 7 after enrolment assessed by an adapted WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (score 0 will be omitted and score 6 and 7 will be combined) from 1 (no limitation of activities) to 7 (death). Secondary outcomes include (i) the time to clinical improvement (time from randomization to an improvement of two points on the WHO ordinal scale or discharge from hospital) within 14 days after enrolment, (ii) the proportion of participants alive and not having required invasive or non-invasive ventilation at 14 days after enrolment and (iii) the proportion of subjects without an acute lung injury (defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment. Exploratory outcomes include virological clearance, C1 esterase inhibitor pharmacokinetics and changes in routine laboratory parameters and inflammatory proteins. RANDOMISATION: Subjects will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with conestat alfa in addition to SOC or SOC only. Randomization is performed via an interactive web response system (SecuTrial®). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label trial, participants, caregivers and outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): We will randomise approximately 120 individuals (80 in the active treatment arm, 40 in the SOC group). Two interim analyses after 40 and 80 patients are planned according to the Pocock adjusted levels αp = 0.0221. The results of the interim analysis will allow adjustment of the sample size (Lehmacher, Wassmer, 1999). TRIAL STATUS: PROTECT-COVID-19 protocol version 3.0 (July 07 2020). Participant recruitment started on July 30 2020 in one center (Basel, Switzerland, first participant included on August 06 2020). In four of five study centers patients are actively recruited. Participation of the fifth study center (Mexico) is anticipated by mid December 2020. Completion of trial recruitment depends on the development of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT04414631 , registered on 4 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/pharmacokinetics , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous/methods , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 91, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 have a mortality of 24-53%, in part due to distal mucopurulent secretions interfering with ventilation. DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the viscosity of mucopurulent secretions and NETs are found in the serum of COVID-19 patients. Dornase alfa is recombinant human DNase 1 and is used to digest DNA in mucoid sputum. Here, we report a single-center case series where dornase alfa was co-administered with albuterol through an in-line nebulizer system. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were collected from the electronic medical records of five mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-including three requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-treated with nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa and albuterol, between March 31 and April 24, 2020. Data on tolerability and response were analyzed. RESULTS: The fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients after initiating dornase alfa administration. All patients were successfully extubated, discharged from hospital and remain alive. No drug-associated toxicities were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that dornase alfa will be well-tolerated by patients with severe COVID-19. Clinical trials are required to formally test the dosing, safety, and efficacy of dornase alfa in COVID-19, and several have been recently registered.


Subject(s)
Albuterol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Albuterol/therapeutic use , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 84-91, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The antiviral effects of Novaferon, a potent antiviral protein drug, on COVID-19 was evaluated in the laboratory, and in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial. METHODS: In the laboratory, Novaferon's inhibition of viral replication in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry into healthy cells was determined. Antiviral effects of Novaferon in COVID-19 patients with treatment of Novaferon, Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir, or Lopinavir/Ritonavir were evaluated. The primary endpoint was the SARS-CoV-2 clearance rates on day six of treatment, and the secondary endpoint was the time to SARS-CoV-2 clearance. RESULTS: Novaferon inhibited viral replication (EC50=1.02ng/ml), and prevented viral infection (EC50=0.10ng/ml). Results from the 89 enrolled COVID-19 patients showed that both Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups had significantly higher viral clearance rates on day six than Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (50.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0400, and 60.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0053). The median time to viral clearance was six days, six days, and nine days for three groups, respectively, a 3-day reduction in both the Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups compared with the Lopinavir/Ritonavir group. CONCLUSIONS: Novaferon exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in vitro and in COVID-19 patients. These data justify further evaluation of Novaferon. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Number ChiCTR2000029496 at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferons/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , Male , Pandemics , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 892-898, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661060

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic within a matter of months. While subunit vaccines are one of the prominent options for combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the immunogenicity of spike protein-based antigens remains unknown. When immunized in mice, the S1 domain induced much higher IgG and IgA antibody levels than the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and more efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 when adjuvanted with alum. It is inferred that a large proportion of these neutralization epitopes are located in the S1 domain but outside the RBD and that some of these are spatial epitopes. This finding indicates that expression systems with posttranslational modification abilities are important to maintain the natural configurations of recombinant spike protein antigens and are critical for effective COVID-19 vaccines. Further, adjuvants prone to a Th1 response should be considered for S1-based subunit COVID-19 vaccines to reduce the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(4): 1149-1153, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650635

ABSTRACT

In its severe manifestation, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compromises oxygenation in a manner that is refractory to maximal conventional support and requires escalation to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Maintaining ECMO support for extended durations requires a delicately balanced anticoagulation strategy to maintain circuit viability by preventing thrombus deposition while avoiding excessive anticoagulation yielding hemorrhage-a task that is complicated in COVID-19 secondary to an inherent hypercoagulable state. Bivalirudin, a member of the direct thrombin inhibitor drug class, offers potential advantages during ECMO, including to its ability to exert its effect by directly attaching to and inhibiting freely circulating and fibrin-bound thrombin. Herein, the successful use of an anticoagulation strategy using the off-label use of a continuous infusion of bivalirudin in a case of severe hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 requiring venovenous ECMO is reported. Importantly, therapeutic anticoagulation intensity was achieved rapidly with stable pharmacokinetics, and there was no need for any circuit interventions throughout the patient's 27-day ECMO course. In COVID-19, bivalirudin offers a potential option for maintaining systemic anticoagulation during ECMO in a manner that may mitigate the prothrombotic nature of the underlying pathophysiologic state.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Antithrombins/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hirudins/administration & dosage , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
16.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13745, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644313

ABSTRACT

Protecting health care workers is crucial during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and facemask wearing is considered an effective measure to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, long-time use of a facemask can cause pressure sores on the ears and nose bridge and increase the risk of infection. The topical recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (rh-aFGF) was used to cure pressure sores for health care workers at Zhongfaxincheng campus of Tongji Hospital. The results from a small sample size survey conducted in Zhongfaxincheng campuses of Tongji Hospital showed that treatment with topical rh-aFGF could significantly inhibit the progression of pressure sores and accelerate the wound healing with no apparent ill-effects. Therefore, we propose that topical rh-aFGF is an effective therapeutic agent for facemask wearing-induced pressure sores and worth of popularizing and applying.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fibroblast Growth Factor 1/administration & dosage , Masks/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/drug therapy , Administration, Topical , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Neurol Sci ; 41(9): 2325-2329, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640307

ABSTRACT

The sudden worldwide outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has certainly provided new challenges in the management of acute ischaemic stroke, and the risk-benefit ratio of intravenous thrombolysis in COVID-19 positive patients is not well known. We describe four COVID-19 patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. Although rt-PA administration is the main therapeutic strategy, our patients experienced unpredictable complications and showed atypical features: the overall mortality was very high. In conclusion, in this article, we provide information about these cases and discuss the possible explanation behind this trend.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
18.
Trials ; 21(1): 548, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may trigger severe pneumonia in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients through release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and recruitment of neutrophils in the lungs. Activated neutrophils induce inflammation and severe alveolar injury by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The backbones of many DAMPs and NETs are made of extracellular, cell-free DNA decorated with highly toxic compounds such as elastase, myeloperoxidase and citrullinated histones. Dornase alfa is a FDA-approved recombinant human DNAse 1 for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, which cleaves extracellular DNA and may break up cell-free DNA, loosening sticky mucus in the distal airways and reducing NETs-induced toxicity on alveolar pneumocytes. The COVIDornase trial intends to define the impact of aerosolized intra-tracheal dornase alfa administration on the severity and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients. This drug might make lung mucus thinner and looser, promoting improved clearance of secretions and reduce extracellular double-stranded DNA-induced hyperinflammation in alveoli, preventing further damage to the lungs. TRIAL DESIGN: COVIDornase is a prospective, randomized, controlled, 2-arm (1:1 ratio), multicentric, open-label clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: The study will recruit mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) in the recruiting centres (at the time of writing: The Rothschild foundation hospital in Paris, the Strasbourg university hospitals, and Metz-Thionville hospital) who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 and meet ARDS criteria. INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Adult patient (age ≥ 18 years old); - Hospitalized in ICU; - With severe COVID-19 pneumonia and ARDS according to Berlin criteria (PaO2/FiO2 < 300 and PEEP > 5 cmH2O); - Intubated for less than 8 days; - With an anticipated duration of mechanical ventilation > 48 hours; - Carrier of an arterial catheter; - For whom 4 PaO2/FiO2 values over the preceding 24 hours are available; NON-INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Known hypersensitivity to dornase alfa or any of its excipients; - Pregnant or breastfeeding status; - Patient under legal protection. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention 1, Study group Dornase alfa (Pulmozyme®, Roche, Switzerland) will be administered by aerosol, at a dose of 2500 IU twice daily, 12 hours apart, for 7 consecutive days, using a vibrating mesh nebulizer (Aerogen Solo®, Aerogen, Ireland). The remainder of the management will be performed in accordance with good clinical practice, including mechanical ventilation (protective ventilation, PEEP > 5 cmH2O, tracheal balloon pressure check every 4 hours or automatic device, 30° head of the bed elevation, tidal volume 6-8mL/kg, plateau pressure < 30 cmH2O), neuromuscular blockers if necessary, prone position if PaO2/FiO2 < 150, early enteral nutrition, glycemic control and a sedation protocol based on the RASS score. Intervention 2, Comparator Patients will receive usual care in accordance with good practice (as detailed above), without aerosols. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the occurrence of at least one grade improvement between D0 (inclusion) and D7 in the ARDS scale severity (Berlin criteria). For instance from "severe" to "moderate" or from "moderate" to "mild". RANDOMISATION: All consecutive patients meeting the inclusion criteria will be randomised 1:1 using an eCRF-based, computer-generated randomisation table, either to the dornase alfa arm or to the control arm. An interim analysis will be performed after inclusion of 20 patients. Inclusions may be stopped at the interim analysis per data safety and monitoring board (DSMB) advice, if statistical analyses conclude on the futility or efficacy of the intervention or by other DSMB decision. BLINDING (MASKING): The participants and caregivers will not be blinded to study group assignment. Those assessing the outcomes will be blinded to study group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Fifty patients will be randomized to each group, 100 patients in total. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version number 2, April 29th, 2020. Recruitment is ongoing. The trial started recruitment on the 21st April 2020. We estimate recruitment will finish August 21st 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on 21 April 2020, updated on 8 May 2020. Trial registration number is NCT04355364. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated. This Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Deoxyribonuclease I/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Aerosols , COVID-19 , Deoxyribonuclease I/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea
20.
Mol Genet Metab ; 130(4): 227-229, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548553

ABSTRACT

Fabry disease is an X-linked disease due to a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. Clinical symptoms in classically affected males include acroparesthesia, anhydrosis and angiokeratoma, which may present during childhood followed by cardiac, cerebral and renal complications. Even though pulmonary involvement is not widely appreciated by clinicians, an obstructive lung disease is another recognized component of Fabry disease. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus was labeled as a global pandemic and patients with Fabry disease can be considered at high risk of developing severe complications. The impact of COVID-19 on patients with Fabry disease receiving enzyme replacement therapy is still unknown. Many patients who receive treatment in the hospital experienced infusion disruptions due to fear of infection. Effects of temporary treatment interruption was described in more detail in other lysosomal storage diseases, but the recommencement of therapy does not fully reverse clinical decline due to the temporary discontinuation. When possible, home-therapy seems to be the most efficient way to maintain enzyme replacement therapy access during pandemic. Sentence take-home message: Home-therapy, when possible, seems to be the most efficient way to maintain enzyme replacement therapy access during pandemic in patients with Fabry disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Continuity of Patient Care/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme Replacement Therapy/standards , Fabry Disease/therapy , Home Infusion Therapy/standards , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Fabry Disease/complications , Fabry Disease/diagnosis , Female , Home Infusion Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Infusions, Intravenous , Isoenzymes/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , alpha-Galactosidase/administration & dosage
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