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1.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 27(6): 1256-1257, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454310

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a surgical video wherein a robot-assisted colostomy takedown was performed with anastomosis of the descending colon to the rectum after reduction of ventral hernias and extensive lysis of adhesions. DESIGN: Case report and a step-by-step video demonstration of a robot-assisted colostomy takedown and end-to-side anastomosis. SETTING: Tertiary referral center in New Haven, Connecticut. A 64-year-old female was diagnosed with stage IIIA endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma in 2015 when she underwent an optimal cytoreductive surgery. In addition, she required resection of the sigmoid colon and a descending end colostomy with Hartmann's pouch, mainly secondary to extensive diverticulitis. After adjuvant chemoradiation, she remained disease free and desired colostomy reversal. Body mass index at the time was 32 kg/m2. Computed tomography of her abdomen and pelvis did not show any evidence of recurrence but was notable for a large ventral hernia and a parastomal hernia. She then underwent a colonoscopy, which was negative for any pathologic condition, except for some narrowing of the distal rectum above the level of the levator ani. INTERVENTIONS: Enterolysis was extensive and took approximately 2 hours. The splenic flexure of the colon had to be mobilized to provide an adequate proximal limb to the anastomosis site. An anvil was then introduced into the distal descending colon through the colostomy site. A robotic stapler was used to seal the colostomy site and detach it from the anterior abdominal wall. Unfortunately, the 28-mm EEA sizer (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland) perforated through the distal rectum, caudal to the stricture site. A substantial length of the distal rectum had to be sacrificed secondary to the perforation, which mandated further mobilization of the splenic flexure. The rectum was then reapproximated with a 3-0 barbed suture in 2 layers. This provided us with approximately 6- to 8-cm distal rectum. An end-to-side anastomosis of the descending colon to the distal rectum was performed. Anastomotic integrity was confirmed using the bubble test. Because of the lower colorectal anastomosis, a protective diverting loop ileostomy was performed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. A hypaque enema performed 3 months after the colostomy takedown showed no evidence of anastomotic leak or stricture. The ileostomy was then reversed without any complications. CONCLUSION: Robot-assisted colostomy takedown and anastomosis of the descending colon to rectum were successfully performed. Although there is a paucity of literature examining this technique within gynecologic surgery, the literature on general surgery has supported laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal and has demonstrated improved rates of postoperative complications and incisional hernia and reduced duration of hospitalization [1]. Minimally invasive technique is a feasible alternative to laparotomy for gynecologic oncology patients who undergo colostomy, as long as the patients are recurrence free.


Subject(s)
Colostomy/adverse effects , Hernia, Ventral/etiology , Hernia, Ventral/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Tissue Adhesions/etiology , Tissue Adhesions/surgery , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Anastomotic Leak/surgery , Colon, Sigmoid/pathology , Colon, Sigmoid/surgery , Colonic Pouches/adverse effects , Colostomy/methods , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Reoperation/methods , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(5): 556.e1-556.e10, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pelvic reconstructive surgery may cause significant postoperative pain, especially with posterior colporrhaphy, contributing to a longer hospital stay and increased pain medication utilization. Regional blocks are being increasingly utilized in gynecologic surgery to improve postoperative pain and decrease opioid usage, yet preoperative pudendal blocks have not been used routinely during posterior colporrhaphy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effect of preoperative regional pudendal nerve block using a combination of 1.3% liposomal and 0.25% plain bupivacaine vs 0.25% plain bupivacaine alone on vaginal pain after posterior colporrhaphy on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. We hypothesized that there would be a reduction in vaginal pain scores for the study group vs the control group over the first 72 hours. STUDY DESIGN: This was a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial that included patients undergoing a posterior colporrhaphy, either independently or in conjunction with other vaginal or abdominal reconstructive procedures. Patients were block randomized to receive 20 mL of either a combination of 1.3% liposomal and 0.25% plain bupivacaine (study) or 20 mL of 0.25% plain bupivacaine (control) in a regional pudendal block before the start of surgery. Double blinding was achieved by covering four 5-mL syringes containing the randomized local anesthetic. After induction of anesthesia, a pudendal nerve block was performed per standard technique (5 mL superiorly and 5 mL inferiorly each ischial spine) using a pudendal kit. The primary outcome was to evaluate postoperative vaginal pain using a visual analog scale on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. Secondary outcomes included total analgesic medication usage through postoperative day 3, postoperative voiding and defecatory dysfunction, and impact of vaginal pain on quality of life factors. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients were enrolled (60 in each group). There were no significant differences in demographic data, including baseline vaginal pain (P=.88). Postoperative vaginal pain scores were significantly lower in the combined liposomal and bupivacaine group at all time points vs the plain bupivacaine group. Median pain scores for the study and control groups, respectively, were 0 (0-2) and 2 (0-4) for postoperative day 1 (P=.03), 2 (1-4) and 3 (2-5) for postoperative day 2 (P=.05), and 2 (1-4) and 3 (2-5) for postoperative day 3 (P=.02). Vaginal pain scores increased from postoperative day 1 to postoperative days 2 and 3 in both groups. There was a significant decrease in ibuprofen (P=.01) and acetaminophen (P=.03) usage in the study group; however, there was no difference between groups in total opioid consumption through postoperative day 3 (P=.82). There was no difference in successful voiding trials (study 72%, control 82%, P=.30), return of bowel function (P>.99), or quality of life factors (sleep, stress, mood, and activity). CONCLUSION: Preoperative regional pudendal block with a combination of liposomal and plain bupivacaine provided more effective vaginal pain control than plain bupivacaine alone for reconstructive surgery that included posterior colporrhaphy. Given the statistically significant decrease in vaginal pain in the study group, this block may be considered as a potential adjunct for multimodal pain reduction in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Vagina/surgery , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Liposomes , Middle Aged , Pelvis/surgery
3.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 487-499, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364383

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine, which provides safe, equitable, patient-centered care, has gained significant momentum in recent years. Success using telemedicine has been seen across diverse groups of patients for a variety of diagnoses, including older adults and gynecology patients. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, federal and local governments have issued provisions to improve reimbursement and accessibility to telemedicine. In urogynecology, virtual care is growing in popularity, along with a growing body of literature in support of this method of providing care. Providers should use clinical judgment and existing data to guide them on which clinical conditions are appropriate for virtual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gynecology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Urology/methods , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement , Pandemics , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5554500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the advantages of preoperative digital design of skin flaps to repair fingertip defects during the COVID-19 pandemic. We combined digital design with a 3D-printed model of the affected finger for preoperative communication with fingertip defect patients under observation in a buffer ward. METHODS: From December 2019 to January 2021, we obtained data from 25 cases of 30 fingertip defects in 15 males and 10 females, aged 20-65 years old (mean 35 ± 5 years). All cases were treated by digitally designing preoperative fingertip defect flaps combined with a 3D-printed model. Preoperative 3D Systems Sense scanning was routinely performed, 3-matic 12.0 was used to measure the fingertip defect area ranging from 1.5 cm × 3.5 cm to 2.0 cm × 5.0 cm, and the skin flap was designed. The flap area was 1.6 cm × 3.6 cm to 2.1 cm × 5.1 cm. CURA 15.02.1 was used to set parameters, and the 3D model of the affected finger was printed prior to the operation. Full-thickness skin grafts were taken from donor areas for repair. RESULTS: No vascular crises occurred in any of the 25 cases, and all flaps survived. The postoperative follow-up occurred over 3-12 months. All patients were evaluated 3 months after operation according to the trial standard of hand function evaluation of the Chinese Hand Surgery Society. The results showed that 20 cases had excellent outcomes (80%), four cases had good outcomes (16%), and one case had a fair outcome (4%). The excellent and good rate was 96%. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, fingertip defects were treated with preoperative digital design of fingertip defect flaps combined with 3D printing. Precision design saves surgery time and improves the success rate of surgery and the survival rates of skin flaps. In addition, 3D model simulations improve preoperative communication efficiency, and the personalized design improves patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Finger Injuries/surgery , Fingers/surgery , Pandemics , Preoperative Care/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Skin Transplantation/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , Graft Survival , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Anatomic , Printing, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Transplantation/psychology , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Surgical Flaps/innervation , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing/physiology
5.
Plast Surg Nurs ; 41(1): 36-39, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218019

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic, challenging health care systems all over the world. National health care systems have reorganized to cope with the disease. Surgical services departments around the world have been affected and elective surgical procedures have been postponed to conserve medical resources. When a patient with COVID-19 requires an urgent microsurgical free flap due to trauma or a tumor, personnel from the health care facility must have a protocol in place to follow for the patient's care and follow-up. In this article, we present our protocol for patients with COVID-19 requiring reconstructive microsurgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Free Tissue Flaps/transplantation , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Microsurgery/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Protocols , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Microsurgery/standards , Perioperative Care/standards , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/standards , Spain
6.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 120, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the head and neck cancers are time-critical and need urgent surgical treatment. Our unit is one of the departments in the region, at the forefront in treating head and neck cancers in Pakistan. We have continued treating these patients in the COVID-19 pandemic with certain modified protocols. The objective of this study is to share our experience and approach towards head and neck reconstruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: There were a total of 31 patients, 20 (64.5%) were males and 11 (35.4%) patients were females. The mean age of patients was 52 years. Patients presented with different pathologies, i.e. Squamous cell carcinoma n = 26 (83.8%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma n = 2 (6.4%), adenoid cystic carcinoma n = 2 (6.4%) and mucormycosis n = 1 (3%). The reconstruction was done with loco-regional flaps like temporalis muscle flap n = 12 (38.7%), Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap n = 8 (25.8%), supraclavicular artery flap n = 10 (32.2%) and combination of fore-head, temporalis major and cheek rotation flaps n = 1 (3%). Defects involved different regions like maxilla n = 11 (35.4%), buccal mucosa n = 6 (19.3%), tongue with floor of mouth n = 6 (19.3%), mandible n = 4 (12.9%), parotid gland, mastoid n = 3 (9.6%) and combination of defects n = 1 (3%). Metal reconstruction plate was used in 3 (9.6%) patients with mandibular defects. All flaps survived, with the maximum follow-up of 8 months and minimum follow-up of 6 months. CONCLUSION: Pedicled flaps are proving as the workhorse for head and neck reconstruction in unique global health crisis. Vigilant use of proper PPE and adherence to the ethical principles proves to be the only shield that will benefit patients, HCW and health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Surgical Flaps
7.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(19): 1386-1394, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109345

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case series. OBJECTIVE: For each of the most frequent clinical scenarios, the authors reached a consensus on how should be timing and indications be optimized to reduce risk while maintaining the expected outcomes under the Covid-19 pandemics. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The organization of health care has been changed by the Covid-19 pandemic with a direct impact on Spine Oncology Surgery. Emergency surgery is still a priority, but in case of spinal tumors it should be better defined which conditions require emergency treatment. METHODS: An expert panel with general spine surgeons, oncological spine surgeons, and radiation oncologists was formed to analyze the most frequent scenarios in spinal musculoskeletal oncology during Covid-19 pandemics. RESULTS: Spine metastases can be found incidentally during follow-up or can clinically occur by increasing pain, pathologic fracture, and/or neurological symptoms. Primary spine tumors are much more rare and very rarely present with acute onset. The first step is to suspect this rare condition, to avoid to treat a primary tumor as it were a metastasis. Most complex surgery, like en bloc resection, associated with high morbidity and mortality rate for the treatment of low grade malignancy like chordoma or chondrosarcomas, if intensive care unit availability is reduced, can be best delayed some weeks, as not impacting on prognosis, due to the slow growth rate of these conditions. The currently accepted protocols for Ewing sarcoma (ES) and osteogenic sarcoma must be performed for local and systemic disease control. For ES, after the first courses of chemotherapy, radiotherapy can be selected instead of surgery, during Covid-19, to the end of the full course of chemotherapy. In immunocompromised patients, (treated by chemotherapy), it is necessary to avoid contact with affected or exposed people. CONCLUSION: Even more than during normal times, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to share the decision to modify a treatment strategy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Medical Oncology/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Spinal Neoplasms/surgery , Surgeons/standards , Adult , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Team/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Surgeons/psychology
8.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(9): 2133-2140, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated enormous pressure on healthcare establishments, prompting the restructuring of services to rationalise resources. Complex head and neck reconstructive surgery in this setting may carry substantial risk to patients and staff. This paper outlines the management strategy and outcomes of major head and neck oncological cases at a single regional tertiary referral centre. METHODS: A database review was undertaken of consecutive patients undergoing major head and neck surgery and reconstruction during the COVID-19 pandemic at St Andrew's Centre for Plastic Surgery & Burns, Chelmsford UK. Patient demographics, tumour and reconstruction characteristics as well as peri­operative information were determined. Patients were prospectively contacted with regard to COVID-related symptoms and investigations. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (15 males and 7 females) with a mean age of 67 years (range: 36-92 years) were included between March 1 and June 13, 2020. Patients underwent pre-operative throat swabs at 72 h and 24 h as well as chest CT scanning as part of a robust protocol. Twelve free flaps, four loco-regional flaps, four parotidectomies and 23 cervical lymphadenectomies were performed. Two patients required a return to theatre. No post-operative deaths occurred and flap survival rate was 100%. A single patient tested positive for COVID-19 pre-operatively and no post-operative COVID-19 infections occurred. CONCLUSION: Although head and neck surgery represents a high-risk procedure to patients and healthcare professionals, our institutional experience suggests that in the presence of a robust peri­operative protocol and judicious patient selection, major head and neck surgery, including free tissue transfer reconstruction, may be performed safely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infection Control/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Clinical Protocols , Female , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Neck Dissection , Patient Selection , Perioperative Care/standards , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/standards , Surgical Flaps , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom
10.
Injury ; 52(3): 402-406, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has created huge pressures on healthcare systems. The ongoing provision of major trauma services during this time has proved challenging. We report our experience of managing open lower limb fractures (oLLFs) during the pandemic in a London major trauma centre (MTC). METHODS: This was a prospective study of all open lower limb fractures presenting to our unit over the initial 48 days of UK government lockdown - 24th March till 10th May 2020. Results were compared to the same time period in 2019 retrospectively. Epidemiological data, mechanism, Gustilo-Anderson (G-A) severity grading, time to initial debridement and definitive coverage were analysed. RESULTS: There was a 64% reduction in emergency department (ED) attendances (25,264 vs 9042). There was an 18% reduction in oLLFs (22 vs 18). Approximately three-quarters of injuries were in males across both cohorts (77% vs 78%) and tended to occur in younger patients (median age, 37 vs 35). Road-traffic-accidents (RTAs) were the most common injury mechanism in both 2019 and lockdown, but a rise in jumpers from height was seen in the latter. A similar pattern of G-A severities were seen, however only 3 injuries during lockdown required major soft tissue reconstruction. There was no significant difference in times taken for initial debridement (p = 0.72786) or definitive wound coverage (p = 0.16152). A greater proportion of independent operating was seen during lockdown between orthopaedics and plastic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Despite government lockdown measures, oLLFs still placed significant burden on our MTC. Notwithstanding significant staffing alterations and theatre pressures, we have been able to ensure these lower limb emergencies remain a surgical priority and have managed to utilise resources appropriately.


Subject(s)
Femoral Fractures/surgery , Foot Injuries/surgery , Fractures, Open/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Skin Transplantation/methods , Tibial Fractures/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Debridement/methods , Female , Femoral Fractures/epidemiology , Foot Injuries/epidemiology , Fractures, Open/epidemiology , Free Tissue Flaps , Humans , Length of Stay , London , Male , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgery, Plastic , Surgical Flaps , Tibial Fractures/epidemiology , Time Factors , Trauma Centers , Wound Closure Techniques , Young Adult
11.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(8)2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979308

ABSTRACT

Dermatologic surgeons are at increased risk of contracting SARS-COV-2. At time of writing, there is no published standard for the role of pre-operative testing or the use of smoke evacuators, and personal protective equipment (PPE) in dermatologic surgery. Risks and safety measures in otolaryngology, plastic surgery, and ophthalmology are discussed. In Mohs surgery, cases involving nasal or oral mucosa are highest risk for SARS-COV-2 transmission; pre-operative testing and N95 masks should be urgently prioritized for these cases. Other key safety recommendations include strict control of patient droplets and expanded pre-clinic screening. Dermatologic surgeons are encouraged to advocate for appropriate pre-operative tests, smoke evacuators, and PPE. Future directions would include national consensus guidelines with continued refinement of safety protocols.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dermatologists , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Safety Management/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Mohs Surgery/adverse effects , Mohs Surgery/methods , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Preoperative Care , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/prevention & control
13.
Oral Oncol ; 115: 105114, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968920

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 pandemic era, one major concern is related to ensure optimal management to oncologic patients, even though a context of radical uncertainty. The aim of our effort is to guarantee high-quality and timely care, minimizing COVID-19 infection risk, according to our head and neck (HN) reconstructive mission, still more challenging because of the criticality of the period. Thus, our reconstructive decision algorithm is changed. Microvascular free flaps, reported to be the gold standard for surgical reconstruction, represent extremely specialized procedures necessitating an extended resource allocation not affordable in the adversities of the period. Therefore, we are obliged to define a paradigm shift in our approach, based on free-style reconstructive surgery principles of propeller flap concept. According to our experience, we believe that this viable and feasible surgical technique could represent a reconstructive landmark in this pandemic era, since any guideline is missing, besides HN reconstructive surgery is most likely heading towards a new reconstructive approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Free Tissue Flaps/transplantation , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843626

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, surgical elective procedures were stopped in our plastic surgery unit. Limitations for consultations and for follow-up of previous surgical procedures were imposed in order to minimize the risk of contagion in waiting rooms and outpatient clinics. We have identified telemedicine as an alternative way to follow patients during the lockdown. Nevertheless, we have experienced different difficulties. We have not had the possibility to use a secure teleconferencing software. In our unit we had not technological devices. Surgeons in our department were not able to use remote video technology for patient management. Guidelines for an appropriate selection of patients which could be served via telemedicine had to be created. Telemedicine must be regulated by healthcare organizations for legal, ethical, medico-legal and risk management aspects. Even if we have experienced an important need to use telematic solutions during the COVID-19 lockdown, liability and risk management issues has greatly limited this possibility in our unit. The need of telemedicine in the time of COVID-19 pandemic has encouraged us to implement future virtual encounters in order to reduce unnecessary in-person visits by taking into consideration all legal, ethical and medico-legal aspects.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Risk Management/methods , Surgery, Plastic/organization & administration , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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