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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007767, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The expense of clinical trials mandates new strategies to efficiently generate evidence and test novel therapies. In this context, we designed a decentralized, patient-centered randomized clinical trial leveraging mobile technologies, rather than in-person site visits, to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of canagliflozin for the treatment of heart failure, regardless of ejection fraction or diabetes status, on the reduction of heart failure symptoms. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred patients will be enrolled with a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of heart failure, stratified by reduced (≤40%) or preserved (>40%) ejection fraction and randomized 1:1 to 100 mg daily of canagliflozin or matching placebo. The primary outcome will be the 12-week change in the total symptom score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be daily step count and other scales of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. RESULTS: The trial is currently enrolling, even in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: CHIEF-HF (Canagliflozin: Impact on Health Status, Quality of Life and Functional Status in Heart Failure) is deploying a novel model of conducting a decentralized, patient-centered, randomized clinical trial for a new indication for canagliflozin to improve the symptoms of patients with heart failure. It can model a new method for more cost-effectively testing the efficacy of treatments using mobile technologies with patient-reported outcomes as the primary clinical end point of the trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04252287.


Subject(s)
Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Actigraphy/instrumentation , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Fitness Trackers , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Mobile Applications , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 518, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need for scalable healthcare solutions and a shift in the rehabilitation paradigm from hospitals to homes to tackle the increase in stroke incidence while reducing the practical and economic burden for patients, hospitals, and society. Digital health technologies can contribute to addressing this challenge; however, little is known about their effectiveness in at-home settings. In response, we have designed the RGS@home study to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and cost of a deep tech solution called the Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS). RGS is a cloud-based system for delivering AI-enhanced rehabilitation using virtual reality, motion capture, and wearables that can be used in the hospital and at home. The core principles of the brain theory-based RGS intervention are to deliver rehabilitation exercises in the form of embodied, goal-oriented, and task-specific action. METHODS: The RGS@home study is a randomized longitudinal clinical trial designed to assess whether the combination of the RGS intervention with standard care is superior to standard care alone for the functional recovery of stroke patients at the hospital and at home. The study is conducted in collaboration with hospitals in Spain, Sweden, and France and includes inpatients and outpatients at subacute and chronic stages post-stroke. The intervention duration is 3 months with assessment at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The impact of RGS is evaluated in terms of quality of life measurements, usability, and acceptance using standardized clinical scales, together with health economic analysis. So far, one-third of the patients expected to participate in the study have been recruited (N = 90, mean age 60, days after stroke ≥ 30 days). The trial will end in July 2023. DISCUSSION: We predict an improvement in the patients' recovery, high acceptance, and reduced costs due to a soft landing from the clinic to home rehabilitation. In addition, the data provided will allow us to assess whether the prescription of therapy at home can counteract deterioration and improve quality of life while also identifying new standards for online and remote assessment, diagnostics, and intervention across European hospitals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: C linicalTrials.gov NCT04620707. Registered on November 3, 2020.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods
5.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(5): 548-556, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256696

ABSTRACT

As recovery of congenital heart surgery programs begins during this COVID-19 pandemic, we review key considerations such as screening, protection of patients and health care workers (HCWs), case prioritization, barriers to reactivation, redesign of patient care teams, contribution of telemedicine, modification of trainees' experiences, preparation for potential resurgence, and strategies to maintain HCW wellness. COVID-19 has tested the resolve and grit of our specialty and we have an opportunity to emerge more refined.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Recovery of Function , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 37(2-3): 131-141, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enhanced neural plasticity early after stroke suggests the potential to improve outcomes with intensive rehabilitation therapy. Most patients do not get such therapy, however, due to limited access, changing rehabilitation therapy settings, low therapy doses, and poor compliance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility, safety, and potential efficacy of an established telerehabilitation (TR) program after stroke initiated during admission to an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) and completed in the patient's home. METHODS: Participants with hemiparetic stroke admitted to an IRF received daily TR targeting arm motor function in addition to usual care. Treatment consisted of 36, 70-minute sessions (half supervised by a licensed therapist via videoconference), over a 6-week period, that included functional games, exercise videos, education, and daily assessments. RESULTS: Sixteen participants of 19 allocated completed the intervention (age 61.3 ± 9.4 years; 6 female; baseline Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer [UEFM] score 35.9 ± 6.4 points, mean ± SD; NIHSS score 4 (3.75, 5.25), median, IQR; intervention commenced 28.3 ± 13.0 days post-stroke). Compliance was 100%, retention 84%, and patient satisfaction 93%; 2 patients developed COVID-19 and continued TR. Post-intervention UEFM improvement was 18.1 ± 10.9 points (P < .0001); Box and Blocks, 22.4 ± 9.8 blocks (P = .0001). Digital motor assessments, acquired daily in the home, were concordant with these gains. The dose of rehabilitation therapy received as usual care during this 6-week interval was 33.9 ± 20.3 hours; adding TR more than doubled this to 73.6 ± 21.8 hours (P < .0001). Patients enrolled in Philadelphia could be treated remotely by therapists in Los Angeles. CONCLUSIONS: These results support feasibility, safety, and potential efficacy of providing intense TR therapy early after stroke. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov; NCT04657770.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Telerehabilitation , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Feasibility Studies , Telerehabilitation/methods , Upper Extremity , Treatment Outcome , Recovery of Function
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216025

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has detrimental multi-system consequences. Symptoms may appear during the acute phase of infection, but the literature on long-term recovery of young adults after mild to moderate infection is lacking. Heart rate variability (HRV) allows for the observation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation post-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since physical activity (PA) can help improve ANS modulation, investigating factors that can influence HRV outcomes after COVID-19 is essential to advancements in care and intervention strategies. Clinicians may use this research to aid in the development of non-medication interventions. At baseline, 18 control (CT) and 20 post-COVID-19 (PCOV) participants were observed where general anamnesis was performed, followed by HRV and PA assessment. Thus, 10 CT and 7 PCOV subjects returned for follow-up (FU) evaluation 6 weeks after complete immunization (two doses) and assessments were repeated. Over the follow-up period, a decrease in sympathetic (SNS) activity (mean heart rate: p = 0.0024, CI = -24.67--3.26; SNS index: p = 0.0068, CI = -2.50--0.32) and increase in parasympathetic (PNS) activity (mean RR: p = 0.0097, CI = 33.72-225.51; PNS index: p = 0.0091, CI = -0.20-1.47) were observed. At follow-up, HRV was not different between groups (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in PA between moments and groups. This study provides evidence of ANS recovery after SARS-CoV-2 insult in young adults over a follow-up period, independent of changes in PA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Young Adult , Recovery of Function , Case-Control Studies , Follow-Up Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Autonomic Nervous System , Exercise/physiology , Immunization , Heart Rate/physiology
9.
Shock ; 58(6): 514-523, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Background: Severe progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes respiratory failure and critical illness. Recently, COVID-19 has been associated with heparanase (HPSE)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction and inflammation, so called endothelitis, and therapeutic treatment with heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) targeting HPSE has been postulated. Because, up to this date, clinicians are unable to measure the severity of endothelitis, which can lead to multiorgan failure and concomitant death, we investigated plasma levels of HPSE and heparin-binding protein (HBP) in COVID-19 intensive care patients to render a possible link between endothelitis and these plasma parameters. Therefore, a prospective prolonged cohort study was conducted, including 47 COVID-19 patients from the intensive care unit. Plasma levels of HPSE, and HBP were measured daily by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in survivors (n = 35) and nonsurvivors (n = 12) of COVID-19 from admission until discharge or death. All patients were either treated with heparin or LMWH, aiming for an activated partial thromboplastin time of ≥60 seconds or an anti-Xa level of >0.8 IU/mL using enoxaparin, depending on the clinical status of the patient (patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or >0.1 µg/kg/min noradrenaline received heparin, all others enoxaparin). Results: We found significantly higher plasma levels of HPSE and HBP in survivors and nonsurvivors of COVID-19, compared with healthy controls. Still, interestingly, plasma HPSE levels were significantly higher ( P < 0.001) in survivors compared with nonsurvivors of COVID-19. In contrast, plasma HBP levels were significantly reduced ( P < 0.001) in survivors compared with nonsurvivors of COVID-19. Furthermore, when patients received heparin, they had significantly lower HPSE ( P = 2.22 e - 16) and significantly higher HBP ( P = 0.00013) plasma levels as when they received LMWH. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that patients, who recover from COVID-19-induced vascular and pulmonary damage and were discharged from the intensive care unit, have significantly higher plasma HPSE level than patients who succumb to COVID-19. Therefore, HPSE is not suitable as marker for disease severity in COVID-19 but maybe as marker for patient's recovery. In addition, patients receiving therapeutic heparin treatment displayed significantly lower heparanse plasma level than upon therapeutic treatment with LMWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelium, Vascular , Glucuronidase , Lung , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enoxaparin , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Glucuronidase/blood , Recovery of Function , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Vascular Diseases/virology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
11.
JAMA ; 328(16): 1595-1603, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084929

ABSTRACT

Importance: The effectiveness of ivermectin to shorten symptom duration or prevent hospitalization among outpatients in the US with mild to moderate symptomatic COVID-19 is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin, 400 µg/kg, daily for 3 days compared with placebo for the treatment of early mild to moderate COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: ACTIV-6, an ongoing, decentralized, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled platform trial, was designed to evaluate repurposed therapies in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. A total of 1591 participants aged 30 years and older with confirmed COVID-19, experiencing 2 or more symptoms of acute infection for 7 days or less, were enrolled from June 23, 2021, through February 4, 2022, with follow-up data through May 31, 2022, at 93 sites in the US. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive ivermectin, 400 µg/kg (n = 817), daily for 3 days or placebo (n = 774). Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to sustained recovery, defined as at least 3 consecutive days without symptoms. There were 7 secondary outcomes, including a composite of hospitalization or death by day 28. Results: Among 1800 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 48 [12] years; 932 women [58.6%]; 753 [47.3%] reported receiving at least 2 doses of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine), 1591 completed the trial. The hazard ratio (HR) for improvement in time to recovery was 1.07 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.96-1.17; posterior P value [HR >1] = .91). The median time to recovery was 12 days (IQR, 11-13) in the ivermectin group and 13 days (IQR, 12-14) in the placebo group. There were 10 hospitalizations or deaths in the ivermectin group and 9 in the placebo group (1.2% vs 1.2%; HR, 1.1 [95% CrI, 0.4-2.6]). The most common serious adverse events were COVID-19 pneumonia (ivermectin [n = 5]; placebo [n = 7]) and venous thromboembolism (ivermectin [n = 1]; placebo [n = 5]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19, treatment with ivermectin, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve time to recovery. These findings do not support the use of ivermectin in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04885530.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Ivermectin , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Drug Repositioning , Time Factors , Recovery of Function , Male , Adult
12.
Neurology ; 98(3): e315-e325, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), disorders of consciousness (DoC) have emerged as a serious complication. The prognosis and pathophysiology of COVID-DoC remain unclear, complicating decisions about continuing life-sustaining treatment. We describe the natural history of COVID-DoC and investigate its associated brain connectivity profile. METHODS: In a prospective longitudinal study, we screened consecutive patients with COVID-19 at our institution. We enrolled critically ill adult patients with a DoC unexplained by sedation or structural brain injury and who were planned to undergo a brain MRI. We performed resting-state fMRI and diffusion MRI to evaluate functional and structural connectivity compared to healthy controls and patients with DoC resulting from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed the recovery of consciousness (command following) and functional outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended [GOSE] and the Disability Rating Scale [DRS]) at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge. We also explored whether clinical variables were associated with recovery from COVID-DoC. RESULTS: After screening 1,105 patients with COVID-19, we enrolled 12 with COVID-DoC. The median age was 63.5 years (interquartile range 55-76.3 years). After the exclusion of 1 patient who died shortly after enrollment, all of the remaining 11 patients recovered consciousness 0 to 25 days (median 7 [5-14.5] days) after the cessation of continuous IV sedation. At discharge, all surviving patients remained dependent: median GOSE score 3 (1-3) and median DRS score 23 (16-30). Ultimately, however, except for 2 patients with severe polyneuropathy, all returned home with normal cognition and minimal disability: at 3 months, median GOSE score 3 (3-3) and median DRS score 7 (5-13); at 6 months, median GOSE score 4 (4-5), median DRS score 3 (3-5). Ten patients with COVID-DoC underwent advanced neuroimaging; functional and structural brain connectivity in those with COVID-DoC was diminished compared to healthy controls, and structural connectivity was comparable to that in patients with severe TBI. DISCUSSION: Patients who survived invariably recovered consciousness after COVID-DoC. Although disability was common after hospitalization, functional status improved over the ensuing months. While future research is necessary, these prospective findings inform the prognosis and pathophysiology of COVID-DoC. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04476589.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Consciousness Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Consciousness Disorders/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969283

ABSTRACT

Long COVID-19 has been defined as the condition occurring in individuals with a history of probable or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with related symptoms lasting at least 2 months and not explainable by an alternative diagnosis. The practice of digital physiotherapy presents itself as a promising complementary treatment method to standard physiotherapy, playing a key role in the recovery of function in subjects who have passed the disease and who maintain some symptomatology over time. The aims of this research are to explore the effect of a digital physiotherapy intervention on functional recovery in patients diagnosed with Long COVID-19 and to identify the level of adherence to the treatment carried out. A quasi-experimental pre-post study assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week intervention the functional capacity (1-min STS and SPPB) and the adherence (software) of a total of 32 participants. After the 4-week digital physiotherapy practice intervention with an individualised and customise exercise programme, a statistically significant improvement was observed (p < 0.05) with a small to medium effect size, high adherence rates and values above the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). We consider our intervention feasible, safe and consistent with our objectives. However, further randomised clinical trials and studies with larger samples are needed to draw extrapolable conclusions. Trial registration NCT04742946.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
14.
Hum Mov Sci ; 85: 102977, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Impairments of upper limb (UL) sensory-motor functions are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Virtual reality exercises may improve sensory-motor functions in a safe environment and can be used in tele-rehabilitation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supervised and non-supervised UL virtual reality exercises (ULVRE) on UL sensory-motor functions in patients with idiopathic PD. METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 45 patients with idiopathic PD (29 male) by mean ± SD age of 58.64 ± 8.69 years were randomly allocated to either the control group (conventional rehabilitation exercises), supervised ULVRE or non-supervised ULVRE. Interventions were 24 sessions, 3 sessions/week. Before/after of interventions and follow-up period all assessment was done. Hand Active Sensation Test and Wrist Position Sense Test were used for assessing UL sensory function. Gross and fine manual dexterity were assessed by Box-Block Test and Nine-Hole Peg Test, respectively. Grip and pinch strength were evaluated by a dynamometer and pinch gauge, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed significant improvement in discriminative sensory function (HAST-weight and HAST-total), wrist proprioception, gross manual dexterity and grip strength of both less and more affected hands as well as fine manual dexterity of the more affected hand in the three groups in patients with idiopathic PD (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that both supervised and non-supervised ULVRE using the Kinect device might potentially improve some aspects of UL sensory-motor functions in patients with PD. Therefore, ULVRE using the Kinect device can be used in tele-rehabilitation, especially in the current limitations induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, for improving UL functions in patients with PD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Aged , Exercise Therapy/methods , Exergaming , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Recovery of Function , Sensation , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
15.
Physiother Res Int ; 27(4): e1965, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many patients experience post-COVID-19 functional limitations. This study aimed to monitor the functional improvement of patients over 3 months of follow-up and determine the risk factors. METHODS: This prospective cohort study evaluated 100 hospitalized patients who recovered from COVID-19 infection. The mean age was 53.2 ± 13.1 years. Fifty-nine had at least one comorbid condition. The mean lengths of the hospital and ICU stays were 7.8 ± 3.3 and 5.3 ± 2.5 days, respectively. The functional status of the patients was evaluated using functional independence measure (FIM) and post-COVID-19 functional status (PCFS) questionnaires at four time-points of discharge, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after discharge. RESULTS: Mean FIM score was 107.2 ± 17.4 at the time of discharge, 113.3 ± 14.9 at 1 week, 120.3 ± 10.2 at 1 month, and 124.3 ± 6.4 at 3 months after discharge (p < 0.001). The PCFS score was 2.71 ± 1.25 at discharge, 2.09 ± 1.3 at 1 week, 1.14 ± 1.1 at 1 month, and 0.64 ± 0.59 at 3 months after discharge (p < 0.001). Female sex, older age, and the lengths of hospital and ICU stays were negatively correlated with the functional status score. DISCUSSION: Post-COVID-19 functional limitations are observed in hospitalized patients and improve over 3 months after discharge. Female sex, older age, longer hospital, and ICU stays are risk factors that negatively impact functional status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function
16.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(3): 237-242, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the olfactory recovery rates and patterns in a cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients, and to investigate the clinical predictors of poor long-term olfactory restoration. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted on 146 patients between September 2020 and January 2021 at a tertiary referral hospital. Coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients with olfactory dysfunction were sent a modified version of the COVID-19 Anosmia Reporting Tool for Clinicians via e-mail. RESULTS: The difference in median recovery time between complete recovery and incomplete or no recovery was statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with incomplete or no recovery was anosmia duration. CONCLUSION: After a mean time of 5.6 months from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, persistent olfactory disorders were self-reported in 36.7 per cent of patients. Complete recovery was more likely to occur within 15 days. Given the high prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019, a large number of patients are expected to suffer from long-term olfactory morbidity.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Recovery of Function/physiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Self Report , Time Factors
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1042-1048, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the olfactory function in patients affected by COVID-19 often have an early onset and a variable duration ranging from a few weeks to months. The aim of this study was to evaluate olfactory dysfunction persistence after recovery from COVID-19, and potential related clinical-demographic conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients recovered from COVID-19 from at least 20 days with olfactory dysfunction during the infection were included in the study. For the subjective evaluation of olfactory function, a visual analogic scale (VAS) was used. The objective evaluation was performed with the use of the Sniffin' Sticks test. RESULTS: Objective assessment of olfactory function revealed that 48 (63.16%) patients were found to be normosmic (TDI ≥ 30.5), 26 (34.21%) were hyposmic (TDI from 30.5 to 16.5) and two (2.63%) were anosmic (TDI ≤ 16.5) at the time of the evaluation. These results did not show a significant difference between subjective and objective tests (p = 0.45). Most patients recovered their sense of smell within the first two months after recovery while a portion (22.2%) still experienced olfactory alterations 4-6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who had not recovered their sense of smell had a significantly longer period of SARS-CoV-2 positivity compared to patients that fully recovered (36.07 ± 7.78 days vs. 29 ± 7.89 days; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the duration of the infection negatively correlates with the recovery of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Young Adult
18.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(7): 955-972, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693757

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: The aim of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the assessment and management of individuals with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 infection and to provide a definition for this entity, termed 'long COVID'. METHODS: We performed a search of the literature on studies addressing epidemiology, symptoms, assessment, and treatment of long COVID. The recommendations were grouped by these headings and by organ systems for assessment and treatment. An expert opinion definition of long COVID is provided. Symptoms were reviewed by a search of the available literature. For assessment recommendations, we aimed to perform a diagnostic meta-analysis, but no studies provided relevant results. For treatment recommendations we performed a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the PRISMA statement. We aimed to evaluate patient-related outcomes, including quality of life, return to baseline physical activity, and return to work. Quality assessment of studies included in the systematic review is provided according to study design. RECOMMENDATIONS: Evidence was insufficient to provide any recommendation other than conditional guidance. The panel recommends considering routine blood tests, chest imaging, and pulmonary functions tests for patients with persistent respiratory symptoms at 3 months. Other tests should be performed mainly to exclude other conditions according to symptoms. For management, no evidence-based recommendations could be provided. Physical and respiratory rehabilitation should be considered. On the basis of limited evidence, the panel suggests designing high-quality prospective clinical studies/trials, including a control group, to further evaluate the assessment and management of individuals with persistent symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Return to Work , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
19.
Trials ; 23(1): 129, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Encouraging upper limb use and increasing intensity of practice in rehabilitation are two important goals for optimizing upper limb recovery post stroke. Feedback from novel wearable sensors may influence practice behaviour to promote achieving these goals. A wearable sensor can potentially be used in conjunction with a virtually monitored home program for greater patient convenience, or due to restrictions that preclude in-person visits, such as COVID-19. This trial aims to (1) determine the efficacy of a virtual behaviour change program that relies on feedback from a custom wearable sensor to increase use and function of the upper limb post stroke; and (2) explore the experiences and perceptions of using a program coupled with wearable sensors to increase arm use from the perspective of people with stroke. METHODS: This mixed-methods study will utilize a prospective controlled trial with random allocation to immediate or 3-week delayed entry to determine the efficacy of a 3-week behaviour change program with a nested qualitative description study. The intervention, the Virtual Arm Boot Camp (V-ABC) features feedback from a wearable device, which is intended to increase upper limb use post stroke, as well as 6 virtual sessions with a therapist. Sixty-four adults within 1-year post stroke onset will be recruited from seven rehabilitation centres. All outcomes will be collected virtually. The primary outcome measure is upper limb use measured by grasp counts over 3 days from the wearable sensor (TENZR) after the 3-week intervention. Secondary outcomes include upper limb function (Arm Capacity and Movement Test) and self-reported function (Hand Function and Strength subscale from the Stroke Impact Scale). Outcome data will be collected at baseline, post-intervention and at 2 months retention. The qualitative component will explore the experiences and acceptability of using a home program with a wearable sensor for increasing arm use from the point of view of individuals with stroke. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with participants after they have experienced the intervention. Qualitative data will be analysed using content analysis. DISCUSSION: This study will provide novel information regarding the efficacy and acceptability of virtually delivered programs to improve upper extremity recovery, and the use of wearable sensors to assist with behaviour change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04232163 . January 18, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke Rehabilitation , Adult , Arm , Hand Strength , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
20.
Neurol Sci ; 43(2): 791-798, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649119

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has affected most components of health systems including rehabilitation. The study aims to compare demographic and clinical data of patients admitted to an intensive rehabilitation unit (IRU) after severe acquired brain injuries (sABIs), before and during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational retrospective study, all patients admitted to the IRU between 2017 and 2020 were included. Demographics were collected, as well as data from the clinical and functional assessment at admission and discharge from the IRU. Patients were grouped in years starting from March 2017, and the 2020/21 cohort was compared to those admitted between March 2017/18, 2018/19, and 2019/20. Lastly, the pooled cohort March 2017 to March 2020 was compared with the COVID-19 year alone. RESULTS: This study included 251 patients (F: 96 (38%): median age 68 years [IQR = 19.25], median time post-onset at admission: 42 days, [IQR = 23]). In comparison with the pre-pandemic years, a significant increase of hemorrhagic strokes (p < 0.001) and a decrease of traumatic brain injuries (p = 0.048), a reduction of the number of patients with a prolonged disorder of consciousness admitted to the IRU (p < 0.001) and a lower length of stay (p < 0.001) were observed in 2020/21. CONCLUSIONS: These differences in the case mix of sABI patients admitted to IRU may be considered another side-effect of the pandemic. Facing this health emergency, rehabilitation specialists need to adapt readily to the changing clinical and functional needs of patients' addressing the IRUs.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Aged , Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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