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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776229

ABSTRACT

Recreational fishing and other outdoor recreational activities have been proven to have positive effects on mental health, including neutralizing pandemic stress. This study aims to identify the perceptions and behavior of recreational anglers during the COVID-19 pandemic along with identifying the factors that determine attitudes. This study is essential for understanding the complex economic, social, and environmental implications associated with a pandemic. Perceptions of pandemic stress reduction were confirmed by 63.8% of anglers, and nearly 98% felt there was no risk of infection from fishing. These feelings were most strongly positively associated and explained by a preference for fishing with friends and family and the frequency of fishing. Over 26% of respondents fished more frequently during the pandemic. Additional free time and the need to escape the pandemic media hype were the main factors for the increase in angler activity. The balance of benefits from changes in angler pandemic behavior was ambiguous. This was determined by considering the potential increase in pressure on the environmental resources that anglers use. Given the positive effects of angling on stress reduction, it is not advisable for policymakers to restrict recreational fishing access. Instead, best management practices should reduce sanitary bottlenecks to increase safety on fishing grounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fisheries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Recreation , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0261056, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770728

ABSTRACT

The relationship between nature contact and mental well-being has received increasing attention in recent years. While a body of evidence has accumulated demonstrating a positive relationship between time in nature and mental well-being, there have been few studies comparing this relationship in different locations over long periods of time. In this study, we analyze over 1.5 million tweets to estimate a happiness benefit, the difference in expressed happiness between in- and out-of-park tweets, for the 25 largest cities in the US by population. People write happier words during park visits when compared with non-park user tweets collected around the same time. While the words people write are happier in parks on average and in most cities, we find considerable variation across cities. Tweets are happier in parks at all times of the day, week, and year, not just during the weekend or summer vacation. Across all cities, we find that the happiness benefit is highest in parks larger than 100 acres. Overall, our study suggests the happiness benefit associated with park visitation is on par with US holidays such as Thanksgiving and New Year's Day.


Subject(s)
Parks, Recreational , Social Media , Cities , Happiness , Humans , Recreation , Urban Population
3.
JAMA ; 327(7): 625, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718167
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 99-104, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the secondary traumatic stress (STS), anxiety, and depression levels of the emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) and to identify the factors associated with the mental health of the emergency HCWs. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was performed between April 1 and May 1, 2021. Emergency nurses and auxiliary staff who gave informed consent were included in the study. Participants who answered the questions incompletely were excluded from the study. Demographic information, working and living conditions, STS, anxiety, depression scores, and coping strategies were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 363 HCWs were included in the study. STS was detected in 261 (71.9%) of the participants, anxiety in 148 (40.8%), and depression in 203 (55.9%) participants. Vaccination against COVID-19 was not associated with STS, anxiety, and depression among emergency HCWs (p > 0.05). Having financial difficulties was the most important factor in the development of anxiety, depression, and STS (OR: 3.68 (95% CI 1.96-6.90), p < 0.001; OR: 4.36 (95% CI 2.52-7.53), p < 0.001; OR: 5.35 (95% CI 3.06-9.37), p < 0.001, respectively). We found significantly reduced levels of STS, anxiety, and depression among participants reporting coping strategies that engaging in hobbies, healthy nutrition, and reading books. CONCLUSION: High levels of STS, anxiety, and depression were determined among emergency nurses and auxiliary staff during the pandemic. Poor job satisfaction and financial difficulties were associated with the mental health of emergency HCWs. The mental health of the emergency HCWs should be evaluated regularly. In addition to professional psychological support, social and financial support should be provided as well.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Compassion Fatigue/etiology , Depression/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Psychosocial Support Systems , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Sci Med Sport ; 25(3): 235-241, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of COVID-19 related 'lockdown restrictions' on Australian's (5-75 years) physical activity recommendation achievement and active recreation participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey with self and proxy-report items (where the participant was a parent). METHODS: Adults (n = 1360) and adolescents (n = 1292) reported the frequency they performed 30- or 60-min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), muscle-strengthening exercises, and participation in 11 active recreation behaviours in February 2020 (pre-COVID-19) and in April/May (during lockdown restrictions). Parents also proxy-reported activity for their child (n = 147, 5-12 years). Mixed effects logistic regressions or a logistic regression (with robust sandwich estimation for variance) assessed recall differences pre- and during lockdown, and interaction by sex. RESULTS: Compared to February, in April/May children were less likely to meet MVPA recommendations (OR = 0.27, 95%CI = 0.12-0.64); adolescents males, but not females, were less likely to meet MVPA (OR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.43, 1.17) and both recommendations (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.79); and adults were more likely to meet MVPA (OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.57) but less likely to meet muscle-strengthening exercise recommendations (OR = 0.76, 9%CI = 0.65, 0.89). Across age groups more participants reported walking, muscle strengthening exercises at home, and yoga/Pilates/stretching at home, and fewer performed informal sport practice and play, and recreational activities. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown restrictions had different effects on physical activity and active recreation among age groups and by sex. Physical activity promotion strategies that target children and adolescents, at home physical activity options, active neighbourhoods, and (re)engagement in informal sport and recreational activities post-COVID-19 are critical for (re)engaging Australians in health-enhancing behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Male , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470857

ABSTRACT

In the context of increasing urbanization and associated economic, social and environmental challenges, cities have increasingly acknowledged the importance of urban parks in delivering social, economic and environmental benefits to the population. The importance has been demonstrated also during the COVID-19 pandemic that generated lockdowns and reduced the capacity of urban inhabitants in accessing such benefits. The present study aims to determine how the presence in urban parks was reflected on social media during the pandemic period of 2020. We examined Instagram posts associated with a sample of eight urban parks in Bucharest, Romania and also the entire history of Google reviews between January and August 2020. The selection of parks was made according to their size, location in Bucharest, previous reported number of visitors and profile of attractiveness. Results revealed that the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the first initiation of the lockdowns strongly affected the recreation and leisure activities that people performed almost daily in the parks of Bucharest. Reviews and comments of the population were not that focused on the pandemic even after the restrictions were lifted, but they evidenced the positive and negative aspects of each park. Our results can represent a useful instrument for local administrations in determining both the flow of visitors but also their perceptions towards the endowments, landscape and most important management of urban parks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463634

ABSTRACT

Outdoor adventure parks are highly important for contemporary society, having positive social, economic, and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, to fulfill their positive role in society, and to be economically sustainable, such parks need to nurture visitor loyalty. Drawing on previous fundamental research results that ascertain that customer satisfaction has a positive influence on customer loyalty, the objective of the current research is to explore the specific elements of outdoor adventure park visitors' satisfaction, within an applied research framework, in order to emphasize those attributes that have a significant impact on visitors' loyalty. For that, an online survey was conducted among the visitors of Arsenal Park, Romania, one of the largest adventure parks in south-eastern Europe. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Our results show that visitors' satisfaction with respect to the safety and equipment involved in amusement services, the ambience of the park's food and beverage facilities, and the quality of the food are the most important satisfaction constituents for enhancing visitor loyalty in the context of outdoor adventure parks. By formatively specifying the exogeneous variables of our model (in contrast with the omnipresent reflective measurements used in previous studies), and by employing the importance-performance map analysis (IPMA), we clearly emphasize those particular aspects that are under the control of outdoor adventure parks' managers, which significantly impact their visitors' loyalty, as well as the way in which managers can clearly identify those attributes that need improvements.


Subject(s)
Environment , Recreation , Parks, Recreational , Personal Satisfaction , Romania , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 27(1): 277-285, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Responsibility of general practitioners (GPs) in delivering safe and effective care is always high but during the COVID-19 pandemic they face even growing pressure that might result in unbearable stress load (allostatic overload, AO) leading to disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to measure AO of Hungarian GPs during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore their recreational resources to identify potential protective factors against stress load. METHODS: In a mixed-method design, Fava's clinimetric approach to AO was applied alongside the Psychosocial Index (PSI); Kellner's symptom questionnaire (SQ) to measure depression, anxiety, hostility and somatisation and the Public Health Surveillance Well-being Scale (PHS-WB) to determine mental, social, and physical well-being. Recreational resources were mapped. Besides Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests, regression analysis was applied to identify explanatory variables of AO. RESULTS: Data of 228 GPs (68% females) were analysed. Work-related changes caused the biggest challenges leading to AO in 60% of the sample. While female sex (OR: 1.99; CI: 1.06; 3.74, p = 0.032) and other life stresses (OR: 1.4; CI: 1.2; 1.6, p < 0.001) associated with increased odds of AO, each additional day with 30 min for recreation purposes associated with 20% decreased odds (OR: 0.838; CI: 0.72; 0.97, p = 0.020). 3-4 days a week when time was ensured for recreation associated with elevated mental and physical well-being, while 5-7 days associated with lower depressive and anxiety symptoms, somatisation, and hostility. CONCLUSION: Under changing circumstances, resilience improvement through increasing time spent on recreation should be emphasised to prevent GPs from the adverse health consequences of stress load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , General Practitioners/psychology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hungary , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Recreation , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(10): e676-e683, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community mobility data have been used to assess adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions and its impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We assessed the association between location-specific community mobility and the reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2 across UK local authorities. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on community mobility from Google with data on R from 330 UK local authorities, for the period June 1, 2020, to Feb 13, 2021. Six mobility metrics are available in the Google community mobility dataset: visits to retail and recreation places, visits to grocery and pharmacy stores, visits to transit stations, visits to parks, visits to workplaces, and length of stay in residential places. For each local authority, we modelled the weekly change in R (the R ratio) per a rescaled weekly percentage change in each location-specific mobility metric relative to a pre-pandemic baseline period (Jan 3-Feb 6, 2020), with results synthesised across local authorities using a random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: On a weekly basis, increased visits to retail and recreation places were associated with a substantial increase in R (R ratio 1·053 [99·2% CI 1·041-1·065] per 15% weekly increase compared with baseline visits) as were increased visits to workplaces (R ratio 1·060 [1·046-1·074] per 10% increase compared with baseline visits). By comparison, increased visits to grocery and pharmacy stores were associated with a small but still statistically significant increase in R (R ratio 1·011 [1·005-1·017] per 5% weekly increase compared with baseline visits). Increased visits to parks were associated with a decreased R (R ratio 0·972 [0·965-0·980]), as were longer stays at residential areas (R ratio 0·952 [0·928-0·976]). Increased visits to transit stations were not associated with R nationally, but were associated with a substantial increase in R in cities. An increasing trend was observed for the first 6 weeks of 2021 in the effect of visits to retail and recreation places and workplaces on R. INTERPRETATION: Increased visits to retail and recreation places, workplaces, and transit stations in cities are important drivers of increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission; the increasing trend in the effects of these drivers in the first 6 weeks of 2021 was possibly associated with the emerging alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. These findings provide important evidence for the management of current and future mobility restrictions. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Transportation , Travel , Workplace , Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Biological , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(10): 1115-1121, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412624

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the outbreak of COVID-19, outdoor activities were limited and digital learning increased. Concerns have arisen regarding the impact of these environmental changes on the development of myopia. Objective: To investigate changes in the development of myopia in young Chinese schoolchildren during the outbreak of COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 2 groups of students from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou, China, were prospectively enrolled and monitored from grade 2 to grade 3. Comparisons between the exposure and nonexposure groups were made to evaluate any association between environmental changes during the COVID-19 outbreak period and development of myopia. The exposure group received complete eye examinations in November and December 2019 and November and December 2020. The nonexposure group received examinations in November and December 2018 and November and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL) elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3. Results: Among the 2679 eligible students in grade 2 (mean [SD] age, 7.76 [0.32] years; 1422 [53.1%] male), 2114 (1060 in the nonexposure group and 1054 in the exposure group) were reexamined in grade 3. Compared with the period from November and December 2018 to November and December 2019, the shift of SER, AL elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3 from November and December 2019 to November and December 2020 was 0.36 D greater (95% CI, 0.32-0.41; P < .001), 0.08 mm faster (95% CI, 0.06-0.10; P < .001), and 7.9% higher (95% CI, 5.1%-10.6%; P < .001), respectively. In grade 3 students, the prevalence of myopia increased from 13.3% (141 of 1060 students) in November and December 2019 to 20.8% (219 of 1054 students) in November and December 2020 (difference [95% CI], 7.5% [4.3-10.7]; P < .001); the proportion of children without myopia and with SER greater than -0.50 D and less than or equal to +0.50 D increased from 31.1% (286 of 919 students) to 49.0% (409 of 835 students) (difference [95% CI], 17.9% [13.3-22.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, development of myopia increased during the COVID-19 outbreak period in young schoolchildren in China. Consequently, myopia prevalence and the proportion of children without myopia who were at risk of developing myopia increased. Future studies are needed to investigate long-term changes in myopia development after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Myopia/epidemiology , Vision, Ocular , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recreation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Time Factors
13.
Psychosomatics ; 61(6): 662-671, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with psychiatric illnesses are particularly vulnerable to highly contagious, droplet-spread organisms such as SARS-CoV-2. Patients with mental illnesses may not be able to consistently follow up behavioral prescriptions to avoid contagion, and they are frequently found in settings with close contact and inadequate infection control, such as group homes, homeless shelters, residential rehabilitation centers, and correctional facilities. Furthermore, inpatient psychiatry settings are generally designed as communal spaces, with heavy emphasis on group and milieu therapies. As such, inpatient psychiatry services are vulnerable to rampant spread of contagion. OBJECTIVE: With this in mind, the authors outline the decision process and ultimate design and implementation of a regional inpatient psychiatry unit for patients infected with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 and share key points for consideration in implementing future units elsewhere. CONCLUSION: A major takeaway point of the analysis is the particular expertise of trained experts in psychosomatic medicine for treating patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hospital Design and Construction/methods , Hospital Units , Hospitalization , Infection Control/methods , Mental Disorders/therapy , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Involuntary Commitment , Mental Disorders/complications , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Psychotherapy, Group/methods , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation/methods , Visitors to Patients
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 423, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gaining insight into the risk perceptions and the knowledge evolution of the public about emerging or changing health risks is vital for the improvement of health promotion activities. Currently, scientific evidence regarding the attitudes of the Romanian public towards ticks is scanty. This study aimed to identify how the lockdown enforced by the COVID-19 pandemic in Romania impacted the recreational behaviour, risk perceptions, and protective practices of the Romanian population regarding ticks. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide web-based questionnaire was designed and distributed via social media to evaluate if, and how, the COVID-19 lockdown impacted the behaviour of the Romanian public concerning ticks. The survey was available online from 6 May until 15 May 2020, which marked the last day of the travel ban in Romania. The collected data were processed by applying both uni- and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Respondents reported a higher frequency of finding ticks on themselves and their dogs during the lockdown. Bathing/showering and checking the body for ticks were the two most used protective behaviours both before and during the lockdown. Nevertheless, an overall lower usage rate of protective measures was registered during the lockdown. Almost all dog owners used a form of ectoparasite control for their dogs, and only three stopped due to lockdown-associated reasons. Respondent characteristics that were found to be positively associated with risk perceptions were being female and living in peri-urban/suburban/rural environments. CONCLUSIONS: Despite spending less time outdoors during the lockdown, more respondents reported finding ticks on themselves or their dogs. Changes in the preferences for recreational locations, rates of protective practices usage, amount of time spent in specific areas, or tick seasonal activity might have contributed to this outcome. Concerning risk groups, men of all ages, senior citizens, and rural inhabitants should be targeted by the relevant Romanian authorities when promoting local or nationwide tick awareness campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Recreation , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tick Bites/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Time Factors , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254652, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362083

ABSTRACT

Recreational angling in the United States (US) is largely a personal hobby that scales up to a multibillion-dollar economic activity. Given dramatic changes to personal decisions and behaviors resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed recreational anglers across the US to understand how the pandemic may have affected their fishing motivations and subsequent activities. Nearly a quarter million anglers from 10 US states were invited to participate in the survey, and almost 18,000 responded. Anglers reported numerous effects of the pandemic, including fishing access restrictions. Despite these barriers, we found that the amount of fishing in the spring of 2020 was significantly greater-by about 0.2 trips per angler-than in non-pandemic springs. Increased fishing is likely associated with our result that most respondents considered recreational angling to be a COVID-19 safe activity. Nearly a third of anglers reported changing their motivation for fishing during the pandemic, with stress relief being more popular during the pandemic than before. Driven partly by the perceived safety of social fishtancing, recreational angling remained a popular activity for many US anglers during spring 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Recreation/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344348

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate leisure satisfaction among outdoor sports participants in golf and yachting. Influence was also measured of recreation specialization on leisure satisfaction, and the effect of the relationship between leisure facilitation and leisure satisfaction on golf and yacht participation was investigated as well. Frequency, reliability, confirmatory, and correlation analysis, as well as structural equation modeling results, indicate that leisure facilitation had no influence on outdoor sports participants' recreation specialization. Leisure facilitation had a positive influence on leisure satisfaction among the golf and yachting participants, and their recreation specialization had a positive influence on their leisure satisfaction. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are addressed, specifically the constraints that the disease has imposed on outdoor sports and leisure, and strategies are presented for addressing these constraints and promoting outdoor sports participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Golf , Humans , Leisure Activities , Pandemics , Recreation , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Thorac Imaging ; 37(3): 146-153, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337304

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a 3-dimensional (3D) printing method to create computed tomography (CT) realistic phantoms of lung cancer nodules and lung parenchymal disease from clinical CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Low-density paper was used as substrate material for inkjet printing with potassium iodide solution to reproduce phantoms that mimic the CT attenuation of lung parenchyma. The relationship between grayscale values and the corresponding CT numbers of prints was first established through the derivation of exponential fitted equation from scanning data. Next, chest CTs from patients with early-stage lung cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia were chosen for 3D printing. CT images of original lung nodule and the 3D-printed nodule phantom were compared based on pixel-to-pixel correlation and radiomic features. RESULTS: CT images of part-solid lung cancer and 3D-printed nodule phantom showed both high visual similarity and quantitative correlation. R2 values from linear regressions of pixel-to-pixel correlations between 5 sets of patient and 3D-printed image pairs were 0.92, 0.94, 0.86, 0.85, and 0.83, respectively. Comparison of radiomic measures between clinical CT and printed models demonstrated 6.1% median difference, with 25th and 75th percentile range at 2.4% and 15.2% absolute difference, respectively. The densities and parenchymal morphologies from COVID-19 pneumonia CT images were well reproduced in the 3D-printed phantom scans. CONCLUSION: The 3D printing method presented in this work facilitates creation of CT-realistic reproductions of lung cancer and parenchymal disease from individual patient scans with microbiological and pathology confirmation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Phantoms, Imaging , Potassium Iodide , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Recreation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282505

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly influenced society in the past few years. Park accessibility and social distancing are considered important under the threat of a long-term epidemic. However, measures that can maintain park accessibility and diminish virus spreading synchronously have been seldom studied before, which may threaten public health in all major urban parks globally. This paper proposed a methodology based on an agent-based model to analyze capacities for parks by simulating park visitor behaviors when they all are social distancing. The model was derived from historical visitor data and realistic visitor behaviors in three park settings. Then, park capacities of varied contact conditions, different park policies, and layout adjustments were analyzed. First, congestions caused by social distancing without proper visitor control are found inside all parks. Second, 85 to 3972 square meters per person is predicted as a safe space in different parks. Third, the current results can be easily adjusted according to various concerns regarding infection distance and rate. Finally, it can be inferred that information provisions are more effective than space design adjustments and mandatory measures. The results can guide park managers and those who plan and design park settings. They are also helpful in improving knowledge of the mechanisms behind visitor behaviors. Moreover, these findings can be tested and verified in a variety of public spaces with many other contact-based illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parks, Recreational , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , Systems Analysis
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3652, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275918

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing mass disruption to our daily lives. We integrate mobility data from mobile devices and area-level data to study the walking patterns of 1.62 million anonymous users in 10 metropolitan areas in the United States. The data covers the period from mid-February 2020 (pre-lockdown) to late June 2020 (easing of lockdown restrictions). We detect when users were walking, distance walked and time of the walk, and classify each walk as recreational or utilitarian. Our results reveal dramatic declines in walking, particularly utilitarian walking, while recreational walking has recovered and even surpassed pre-pandemic levels. Our findings also demonstrate important social patterns, widening existing inequalities in walking behavior. COVID-19 response measures have a larger impact on walking behavior for those from low-income areas and high use of public transportation. Provision of equal opportunities to support walking is key to opening up our society and economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Walking/statistics & numerical data , Accelerometry/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Phone , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Recreation , Socioeconomic Factors , Transportation , United States , Weather
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