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1.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580395

ABSTRACT

In recent months, several SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged that enhance transmissibility and escape host humoral immunity. Hence, the tracking of viral evolutionary trajectories is clearly of great importance. Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 evolution in nonhuman primate models used to test vaccines and therapies and to model human disease. Viral RNA was sequenced from rectal swabs from Chlorocebus aethiops (African green monkeys) after experimental respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two distinct patterns of viral evolution were identified that were shared between all collected samples. First, mutations in the furin cleavage site that were initially present in the virus as a consequence of VeroE6 cell culture adaptation were not detected in viral RNA recovered in rectal swabs, confirming the necessity of this motif for viral infection in vivo. Three amino acid changes were also identified; ORF 1a S2103F, and spike D215G and H655Y, which were detected in rectal swabs from all sampled animals. These findings are demonstrative of intra-host SARS-CoV-2 evolution and may identify a host-adapted variant of SARS-CoV-2 that would be useful in future primate models involving SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rectum/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e301, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526760

ABSTRACT

We used serial rectal swabs to investigate the amount and duration of virus secretion through the gastrointestinal tract and assessed the association between fecal shedding and gastrointestinal symptoms and to clarify the clinical usefulness testing rectal swabs. We enrolled ten adult patients hospitalized with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory and stool specimens were collected by physicians. The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was confirmed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. All ten patients had respiratory symptoms, six had diarrhea, and seven were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on rectal swabs. The viral loads in the respiratory specimens was higher than those in the rectal specimens, and no rectal specimens were positive after the respiratory specimens became negative. There was no association between gastrointestinal symptoms, pneumonia, severity, and rectal viral load. Rectal swabs may play a role in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with suspected COVID-19, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Viral Load
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680

ABSTRACT

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2173-2182, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493581

ABSTRACT

The continuing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for regular assessment to identify differences in viral replication, shedding and associated disease. In this study, we compared African green monkeys infected intranasally with either the UK B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant or its contemporary D614G progenitor. Both variants caused mild respiratory disease with no significant differences in clinical presentation. Significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus were found in upper and lower respiratory tract samples and tissues from B.1.1.7 infected animals. Interestingly, D614G infected animals showed significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus in rectal swabs and gastrointestinal tissues. Our results indicate that B.1.1.7 infection in African green monkeys is associated with increased respiratory replication and shedding but no disease enhancement similar to human B.1.1.7 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Host Specificity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/virology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5328-5332, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363671

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is one of the recently identified zoonotic coronaviruses. The one-hump camels are believed to play important roles in the evolution and transmission of the virus. The animal-to-animal, as well as the animal-to-human transmission in the context of MERS-CoV infection, were reported. The camels shed the virus in some of their secretions, especially the nasal tract. However, there are many aspects of the transmission cycle of the virus from animals to humans that are still not fully understood. Rodents played important roles in the transmission of many pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. They have been implicated in the evolution of many human coronaviruses, especially HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. However, the role of rodents in the transmission of MERS-CoV still requires more exploration. To achieve this goal, we identified MERS-CoV that naturally infected dromedary camel by molecular surveillance. We captured 15 of the common rodents (rats, mice, and jerboa) sharing the habitat with these animals. We collected both oral and rectal swabs from these animals and then tested them by the commercial MERS-CoV real-time-PCR kits using two targets. Despite the detection of the viral shedding in the nasal swabs of some of the dromedary camels, none of the rodents tested positive for the virus during the tenure of this study. We concluded that these species of rodents did not harbor the virus and are most unlikely to contribute to the transmission of the MERS-CoV. However, further large-scale studies are required to confirm the potential roles of rodents in the context of the MERS-CoV transmission cycle, if any.


Subject(s)
Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nasal Cavity/virology , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum/virology , Rodentia/virology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
6.
Reprod Sci ; 28(10): 2939-2941, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321928

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women display a higher risk of progression to disease and higher viral loads during infections due to their more permissive, tolerogenic immune system. However, only few studies have focused on SARS-CoV-2 intrapartum vertical transmission via vaginal secretions or faeces. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the virus in vaginal, rectal and blood specimens from pregnant women characterized by different COVID-19 disease severity. We enrolled 56 SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women, of which 46 (82%) were in the third trimester of pregnancy, 6 (10%) in the second and 4 (7%) in the first. QPCR was performed to detect the virus in vaginal and rectal swabs and in plasma samples. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 27% of rectal swabs of pregnant women in the third trimester, while no virus particles were detected in vaginal swabs of the same patients. Furthermore, only 4% plasma samples tested positive to SARS-CoV-2. No virus was detected in newborn's nasopharyngeal swabs. Despite the low number of subjects enrolled, our data suggest that, while theoretically possible, intrapartum vaginal or orofecal SARS-CoV-2 transmission seems to be unlikely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Nasopharynx/virology , Parturition , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vagina/virology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Young Adult
7.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(8): 638-641, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291190

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have been reported recently that were linked to increased transmission. In our earlier study using VOC 202012/01 (U.K. variant) and D614G variant in the hamster model, we observed higher viral RNA shedding through nasal wash in the case of U.K. variant with lower pathogenicity in lung. In this study, we have studied transmission of these two variants by direct contact, aerosol, and fomite routes in Syrian hamsters and compared the viral load and body weight changes in hamsters exposed by both variants to understand the transmission efficiency. Methods: Nasal, throat, and rectal swabs were collected sequentially to assess viral load till 14 days. Results: Transmission could be established by direct, aerosol, and fomite contact in Syrian hamsters. Body weight loss or viral load in the contact animals exposed did not show any statistical significance. Conclusion: The study demonstrated comparable transmission of both U.K. and D614G variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters in the given conditions. Provided these data, it seems that all the routes of exposure are effective leading to higher transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Aerosols , Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Fomites/virology , HIV Antibodies/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Lung , Male , Mesocricetus , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United Kingdom , Viral Load , Weight Loss
8.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 350-353, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231641

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has become an unprecedented global health emergency. At present, SARS-CoV-2-infected nonhuman primates are considered the gold standard animal model for COVID-19 research. Here, we showed that northern pig-tailed macaques ( Macaca leonina, NPMs) supported SARS-CoV-2 replication. Furthermore, compared with rhesus macaques, NPMs showed rapid viral clearance in lung tissues, nose swabs, throat swabs, and rectal swabs, which may be due to higher expression of interferon (IFN)-α in lung tissue. However, the rapid viral clearance was not associated with good outcome. In the second week post infection, NPMs developed persistent or even more severe inflammation and body injury compared with rhesus macaques. These results suggest that viral clearance may have no relationship with COVID-19 progression and SARS-CoV-2-infected NPMs could be considered as a critically ill animal model in COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Macaca nemestrina , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Nose/virology , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150545

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel Betacoronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a public health emergency worldwide. Few reports indicate that owned pets from households with at least one human resident that was diagnosed with COVID-19 can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, the exposure to SARS-CoV-2 of pets from households with no COVID-19 cases or stray animals remains less assessed. Using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90), we investigated the infection and previous exposure of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From June to August 2020, 96 animals were sampled, including 49 cats (40 owned and 9 stray) and 47 dogs (42 owned and 5 stray). Regarding owned pets, 75.6% (62/82) belonged to households with no COVID-19 cases. Samples included serum, and rectal and oropharyngeal swabs. All swabs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, but serum samples of a stray cat and a stray dog presented neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2, with PRNT90 titer of 80 and 40, respectively. Serological data presented here suggest that not only owned pets from households with COVID19 cases, but also stray animals are being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/pathology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Male , Oropharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, virological characteristics and correlation with disease severity have not been extensively studied. The primary objective in this study is to determine the correlation between SARS-CoV-2 viral load (VL) in infected children with age, disease severity, and underlying comorbidities. METHODS: Children <21 years, screened for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of hospitalization, who tested positive by polymerase chain reaction were included in this study. VL at different sites was determined and compared between groups. RESULTS: Of the 102 children included in this study, 44% of the cohort had asymptomatic infection, and children with >1 comorbidity were the most at risk for severe disease. VL in children with symptomatic infection was significantly higher than in children with asymptomatic infection (3.0 × 105 vs 7.2 × 103 copies per mL; P = .001). VL in the respiratory tract was significantly higher in children <1 year, compared with older children (3.3 × 107 vs 1.3 × 104 copies per mL respectively; P < .0001), despite most infants presenting with milder illness. Besides the respiratory tract, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was also detectable in samples from the gastrointestinal tract (saliva and rectum) and blood. In 13 children for whom data on duration of polymerase chain reaction positivity was available, 12 of 13 tested positive 2 weeks after initial diagnosis, and 6 of 13 continued to test positive 4 weeks after initial diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2, those with >1 comorbid condition experienced severe disease. SARS-CoV-2 VL in the respiratory tract is significantly higher in children with symptomatic disease and children <1 year of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , Viral Load , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Nasopharynx/virology , Nose/virology , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Salvia/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 104-112, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993258

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent that causes coronavirus disease, has been shown to infect several species. The role of domestic livestock and associated risks for humans in close contact with food production animals remains unknown for many species. Determining the susceptibility of pigs to SARS-CoV-2 is critical to a One Health approach to manage potential risk for zoonotic transmission. We found that pigs are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 after oronasal inoculation. Among 16 animals, we detected viral RNA in group oral fluids and in nasal wash from 2 pigs, but live virus was isolated from only 1 pig. Antibodies also were detected in only 2 animals at 11 and 13 days postinoculation but were detected in oral fluid samples at 6 days postinoculation, indicating antibody secretion. These data highlight the need for additional livestock assessment to determine the potential role of domestic animals in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Female , Lymph Nodes/virology , Male , Mouth/virology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Swine , Virus Shedding
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3496, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640239

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus that emerged in late 2019, has spread rapidly worldwide, and information about the modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among humans is critical to apply appropriate infection control measures and to slow its spread. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and via the air (via respiratory droplets and/or aerosols) between ferrets, 1 to 3 days and 3 to 7 days after exposure respectively. The pattern of virus shedding in the direct contact and indirect recipient ferrets is similar to that of the inoculated ferrets and infectious virus is isolated from all positive animals, showing that ferrets are productively infected via either route. This study provides experimental evidence of robust transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via the air, supporting the implementation of community-level social distancing measures currently applied in many countries in the world and informing decisions on infection control measures in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virus Shedding
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2491-2494, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634885

ABSTRACT

We report the detection and decline over time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies in infants born to women with coronavirus disease. Among 11 infants tested at birth, all had detectable IgG and 5 had detectable IgM. IgG titers with positive IgM declined more slowly than those without.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pregnancy , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): e133-e134, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71918

ABSTRACT

Starting from 2 pediatric cases of COVID-19, with confirmation at nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs, we considered the lesson learnt from previous Coronavirus epidemics and reviewed evidence on the current outbreak. Surveillance with rectal swabs might be extended to infants and children, for the implications for household contacts and isolation timing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nat Med ; 26(4): 502-505, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10221

ABSTRACT

We report epidemiological and clinical investigations on ten pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection cases confirmed by real-time reverse transcription PCR assay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Symptoms in these cases were nonspecific and no children required respiratory support or intensive care. Chest X-rays lacked definite signs of pneumonia, a defining feature of the infection in adult cases. Notably, eight children persistently tested positive on rectal swabs even after nasopharyngeal testing was negative, raising the possibility of fecal-oral transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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