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1.
Z Gastroenterol ; 60(1): 77-80, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is a promising strategy to protect immunocompromised IBD patients from a severe course of COVID-19. As these patients were excluded from initial clinical vaccination trials, patients frequently express concerns regarding the safety of these vaccines, especially whether vaccination might trigger IBD flares ("hit-and-run-hypothesis"). METHODS: In order to assess the risk of an IBD flare after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, an anonymous survey was performed at five German IBD centers and one patient organization (Deutsche Morbus Crohn/Colitis ulcerosa Vereinigung (DCCV) e.V.) in August and October 2021. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 914 patients, 781 of whom reported a previous vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (85.4%). Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with an increased risk of IBD flares (p=0.319) or unscheduled visits to the IBD physician (p=0.848). Furthermore, typical symptoms of an IBD flare including abdominal pain, increases in stool frequency, or rectal bleeding were not influenced by the vaccination. CONCLUSION: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is safe in IBD patients. These results may help to reduce fears regarding the vaccination in IBD patients. Our results can help to reduce fears in IBD patients regarding the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. A close communication between patients and physicians before and after the vaccination may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(52): e28470, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592821

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is the most important current health problem. The number of patients is increasing worldwide. Pneumonia is the most life-threatening complication of the disease. Prolonged viral shedding in hematological patients with COVID-19 has been demonstrated; however, data on COVID-19 patients receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy are limited. Accordingly, focusing on humoral immunity, herein, we present 4 COVID-19 patients who were on anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment and had prolonged pneumonia. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two of 4 patients were on rituximab and the other 2 were on obinutuzumab therapy. DIAGNOSIS: The polymerase chain reaction test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were positive for all 4 patients and their COVID pneumonia lasted for >50 days. INTERVENTIONS: Although all patients were treated with an adequate amount of convalescent plasma, prolonged polymerase chain reaction positivity and prolonged pneumonia were possibly due to the lack of ability of the immune system to initiate its antibody response. OUTCOMES: Despite the administration of standard therapies, recurrent pneumonia observed in the present case series of non-neutropenic patients, in whom primary malignancies were under control. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that further investigations should be performed to understand the underlying pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 44-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544334

ABSTRACT

Recent studies reported that some recovered COVID-19 patients have tested positive for virus nucleic acid again. A systematic search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar up to March 6, 2021. The pooled estimation of reinfection, recurrence, and hospital readmission among recovered COVID-19 patients was 3, 133, and 75 per 1000 patients, respectively. The overall estimation of reinfection among males compared to females was greater. The prevalence of recurrence in females compared to males was more common. Also, hospital readmission between sex groups was the same. There is uncertainty about long-term immunity after SARS-Cov-2 infection. Thus, the possibility of reinfection and recurrence after recovery is not unexpected. In addition, there is a probability of hospital readmission due to adverse events of COVID-19 after discharge. However, with mass vaccination of people and using the principles of prevention and appropriate management of the disease, frequent occurrence of the disease can be controlled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Factors , Sex Ratio , Vaccination
8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 1946-1950, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Preschool wheezers are at high risk of recurrent attacks triggered by respiratory viruses, sometimes exacerbated by exposure to allergens and pollution. Because of the COVID-19 infection, the lockdown was introduced, but the effects on preschool wheezers are unknown. We hypothesized that there would be an improvement in outcomes during the lockdown, and these would be lost when the lockdown was eased. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent medical visits before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. We recorded the childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT) and a clinical questionnaire. Data on symptoms, the need for medications and the use of healthcare resources were recorded. We compared these data with retrospective reports from the preceding year and prospectively acquired questionnaires after lockdown. RESULTS: We studied 85 preschool wheezers, mean age 4.9 years. During the lockdown, cACT score was significantly higher (median 25 vs. 23); families reported a dramatic drop in wheezing episodes (51 vs. none), significant reductions in the day and nighttime symptoms, including episodes of shortness of breath (p < .0001); the use of salbutamol and oral corticosteroids (OCS) dropped significantly (p < .0001) and 79 (95%) patients needed no OCS bursts during the lockdown. Finally, patients had significantly fewer extra medical examinations, as well as fewer Emergency Room visits (p < .0001). All were improved compared with the same time period from the previous year, but outcomes worsened significantly again after lockdown (cACT median: 22). CONCLUSIONS: During the national lockdown, children with persistent preschool wheeze showed a significant clinical improvement with reduction of respiratory symptoms, medication use for exacerbations, and use of healthcare resources. This trend reversed when lockdown restrictions were eased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Sounds , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Allergens , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Eur J Haematol ; 108(1): 61-72, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476174

ABSTRACT

During 2020, the concurrent novel COVID-19 pandemic lead to widespread cryopreservation of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant grafts based on National Marrow Donor Program and European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation recommendations, in order to secure grafts before the start of conditioning chemotherapy. We sought to examine the impact of this change in practice on patient outcomes. We analyzed the outcomes of 483 patients who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between August 2017 and August 2020, at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Canada, in the retrospective study, comparing the outcomes between those who received cryopreserved or fresh peripheral blood stem cell grafts. Overall compared with those who received fresh grafts (n = 348), patients who received cryopreserved grafts (n = 135) had reduced survival and GRFS, reduced incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), delay in neutrophil engraftment, and higher graft failure (GF), with no significant difference in relapse incidence or acute GvHD. However, recipients of cryopreserved matched-related donor HSCT showed significantly worse OS, NRM, GRFS compared with fresh grafts. Multivariable analysis of the entire cohort showed significant impact of cryopreservation on OS, relapse, cGvHD, GF, and GRFS. We conclude that cryopreservation was associated with inferior outcomes post-HSCT, possibly due to the combination of ATG and post-transplant cyclophosphamide impacting differential tolerance to cryopreservation on components of the stem cell graft; further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms for this observation.


Subject(s)
Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Cryopreservation/methods , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Graft vs Host Disease , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation Conditioning , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(6)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical features and disease outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: The Neuroimmunology Brazilian Study Group has set up the report of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV2) cases in patients with NMOSD (pwNMOSD) using a designed web-based case report form. All neuroimmunology outpatient centers and individual neurologists were invited to register their patients across the country. Data collected between March 19 and July 25, 2020, were uploaded at the REDONE.br platform. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) NMOSD diagnosis according to the 2015 International Panel Criteria and (2) confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or serology) or clinical suspicion of COVID-19, diagnosed according to Center for Disease Control / Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CDC/CSTE) case definition. Demographic and NMOSD-related clinical data, comorbidities, disease-modifying therapy (DMT), COVID-19 clinical features, and severity were described. RESULTS: Among the 2,061 pwNMOSD followed up by Brazilian neurologists involved on the registry of COVID-19 in pwNMOSD at the REDONE.br platform, 34 patients (29 women) aged 37 years (range 8-77), with disease onset at 31 years (range 4-69) and disease duration of 6 years (range 0.2-20.5), developed COVID-19 (18 confirmed and 16 probable cases). Most patients exhibited mild disease, being treated at home (77%); 4 patients required admission at intensive care units (severe cases); and 1 patient died. Five of 34 (15%) presented neurologic manifestations (relapse or pseudoexacerbation) during or after SARS-CoV2 infection. DISCUSSION: Most NMOSD patients with COVID-19 presented mild disease forms. However, pwNMOSD had much higher odds of hospitalization and intensive care unit admission comparing with the general Brazilian population. The frequency of death was not clearly different. NMOSD disability, DMT type, and comorbidities were not associated with COVID-19 outcome. SARS-CoV2 infection was demonstrated as a risk factor for NMOSD relapses. Collaborative studies using shared NMOSD data are needed to suitably define factors related to COVID-19 severity and neurologic manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Neuromyelitis Optica/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
15.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 676-682.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Iliac vein compression (IVC) is a common condition in patients with varicose veins (VVs) of the legs. IVC has been classified into three grades in previous studies. Grade II IVC is defined by >50% stenosis without the development of collateral circulation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for patients with VVs combined with grade II IVC. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 339 patients who had undergone RFA for VVs of the left leg from March 2017 to January 2019. Duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography venography, and venography were performed to evaluate for grade II IVC. All the patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with VVs only, and group 2, patients with VVs combined with grade II IVC. Propensity score matching was used to ensure an even distribution of confounding factors between groups. The venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and chronic venous insufficiency questionnaire (CIVIQ) score were recorded during the 12-month follow-up. Occlusion of the truncal veins was evaluated using duplex ultrasound scans. RESULTS: Using 1:1 propensity score matching, 50 pairs of patients were enrolled in the present analysis. The average age of groups 1 and 2 was 58.7 ± 13.1 and 60.1 ± 7.1 years, respectively. The VCSS had decreased significantly from baseline to 12 months postoperatively (group 1, from 5 to 1; group 2, from 4 to 1; P < .01). A significant increase in the CIVIQ score was found between the baseline and 12-month evaluations for both groups (group 1, from 62.5 to 69; group 2, from 63 to 70; P < .01). The truncal occlusion rate was 98% in both groups at 12 months. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the VCSS, CIVIQ score, procedure complications, or occlusion rate during the 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: RFA is effective for patients with VVs combined with grade II IVC.


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Iliac Vein/physiopathology , May-Thurner Syndrome/physiopathology , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Varicose Veins/surgery , Vascular Patency , Venous Insufficiency/surgery , Adult , Aged , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Humans , Iliac Vein/diagnostic imaging , Ligation , Male , May-Thurner Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Saphenous Vein/diagnostic imaging , Saphenous Vein/physiopathology , Sclerotherapy , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Varicose Veins/diagnostic imaging , Varicose Veins/physiopathology , Venous Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Venous Insufficiency/physiopathology
16.
Surg Endosc ; 35(5): 2126-2133, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insufficient coverage of the area of a possible groin hernia is an important risk factor in hernia recurrence. To prevent recurrence, it is important to use the appropriate mesh size based on the size of the myopectineal orifice (MPO), which is the weak area of the abdominal wall where inguinal hernias occur. We aimed to estimate the appropriate mesh size for groin hernias by investigating MPO size. METHODS: Four hundred and six patients underwent groin hernia repair using a totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach at the Zeze Hospital between July 2009 and December 2017. We investigated patients' backgrounds, MPO components dimensions, and hernia recurrence, and evaluated the appropriate mesh size. RESULTS: The 359 male and 47 female patients had an average age of 63 ± 15 years. In 171, 147, and 88 cases, hernias were localized to the right, left, and bilaterally, respectively. The number of lateral, medial, femoral, and combined hernias was 317, 124, 11, and 42, respectively. The 95th percentile for the horizontal and vertical lengths in cases of hernia orifice ≥ 3 cm were 9.6 cm and 7.0 cm, respectively, while it was 9.2 cm and 6.4 cm in cases of hernia orifice < 3 cm. We added 2 cm and 3 cm to the 95th percentile for the length and width of the MPO, resulting in 13.2 × 10.4 cm and 15.6 × 13.0 cm in cases with hernia orifice < 3 cm and ≥ 3 cm, respectively. Relapse after TEP occurred in 1 patient (0.2%). CONCLUSION: The appropriate mesh size for TEP repair, derived from intraoperative MPO measurements, was estimated as 13.2 × 10.4 cm and 15.6 × 13.0 cm when the hernia orifice was < 3 cm and ≥ 3 cm, respectively. Using appropriate mesh sizes based on MPO measurement may reduce groin hernia recurrence after TEP.


Subject(s)
Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Herniorrhaphy/instrumentation , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Surgical Mesh , Aged , Female , Groin/surgery , Hernia, Inguinal/etiology , Humans , Intraoperative Care , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD000479, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicoceles are associated with male subfertility; however, the mechanisms by which varicoceles affect fertility have yet to be satisfactorily explained. Several treatment options exist, including surgical or radiological treatment, however the safest and most efficient treatment remains unclear.  OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical and radiological treatment of varicoceles on live birth rate, adverse events, pregnancy rate, varicocele recurrence, and quality of life amongst couples where the adult male has a varicocele, and the female partner of childbearing age has no fertility problems. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 4 April 2020: the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. We also searched the trial registries and reference lists of articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) if they were relevant to the clinical question posed and compared different forms of surgical ligation, different forms of radiological treatments, surgical treatment compared to radiological treatment, or one of these aforementioned treatment forms compared to non-surgical methods, delayed treatment, or no treatment. We extracted data if the studies reported on live birth, adverse events, pregnancy, varicocele recurrence, and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Screening of abstracts and full-text publications, alongside data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment, were done dually using the Covidence software. When we had sufficient data, we calculated random-effects (Mantel-Haenszel) meta-analyses; otherwise, we reported results narratively. We used the I2 statistic to analyse statistical heterogeneity. We planned to use funnel plots to assess publication bias in meta-analyses with at least 10 included studies. We dually rated the risk of bias of studies using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and the certainty of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 1897 citations after de-duplicating the search results. We excluded 1773 during title and abstract screening. From the 113 new full texts assessed in addition to the 10 studies (11 references) included in the previous version of this review, we included 38 new studies, resulting in a total of 48 studies (59 references) in the review providing data for 5384 participants. Two studies (three references) are ongoing studies and two studies are awaiting classification. Treatment versus non-surgical, non-radiological, delayed, or no treatment Two studies comparing surgical or radiological treatment versus no treatment reported on live birth with differing directions of effect. As a result, we are uncertain whether surgical or radiological treatment improves live birth rates when compared to no treatment (risk ratio (RR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 26.93; 2 RCTs, N = 204; I2 = 74%, very low-certainty evidence). Treatment may improve pregnancy rates compared to delayed or no treatment (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.26; 13 RCTs, N = 1193; I2 = 65%, low-certainty evidence). This suggests that couples with no or delayed treatment have a 21% chance of pregnancy, whilst the pregnancy rate after surgical or radiological treatment is between 22% and 48%. We identified no evidence on adverse events, varicocele recurrence, or quality of life for this comparison. Surgical versus radiological treatment We are uncertain about the effect of surgical versus radiological treatment on live birth and on the following adverse events: hydrocele formation, pain, epididymitis, haematoma, and suture granuloma. We are uncertain about the effect of surgical versus radiological treatment on pregnancy rate (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.70; 5 RCTs, N = 456, low-certainty evidence) and varicocele recurrence (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.08; 3 RCTs, N = 380, low-certainty evidence). We identified no evidence on quality of life for this comparison. Surgery versus other surgical treatment We identified 19 studies comparing microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment to any other surgical treatment. Microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment probably improves pregnancy rates slightly compared to other surgical treatments (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.36; 12 RCTs, N = 1473, moderate-certainty evidence). This suggests that couples with microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment have a 10% to 14% chance of pregnancy after treatment, whilst the pregnancy rate in couples after other surgical treatments is 10%. This procedure also probably reduces the risk of varicocele recurrence (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29, 0.79; 14 RCTs, N = 1565, moderate-certainty evidence). This suggests that 0.4% to 1.1% of men undergoing microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment experience recurrent varicocele, whilst 1.4% of men undergoing other surgical treatments do. Results for the following adverse events were inconclusive: hydrocele formation, haematoma, abdominal distension, testicular atrophy, wound infection, scrotal pain, and oedema. We identified no evidence on live birth or quality of life for this comparison. Nine studies compared open inguinal surgical treatment to retroperitoneal surgical treatment. Due to small sample sizes and methodological limitations, we identified neither treatment type as superior or inferior to the other regarding adverse events, pregnancy rates, or varicocele recurrence. We identified no evidence on live birth or quality of life for this comparison. Radiological versus other radiological treatment One study compared two types of radiological treatment (sclerotherapy versus embolisation) and reported 13% varicocele recurrence in both groups. Due to the broad confidence interval, no valid conclusion could be drawn (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.16 to 6.20; 1 RCT, N = 30, very low-certainty evidence). We identified no evidence on live birth, adverse events, pregnancy, or quality of life for this comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the limited evidence, it remains uncertain whether any treatment (surgical or radiological) compared to no treatment in subfertile men may be of benefit on live birth rates; however, treatment may improve the chances for pregnancy. The evidence was also insufficient to determine whether surgical treatment was superior to radiological treatment. However, microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment probably improves pregnancy rates and reduces the risk of varicocele recurrence compared to other surgical treatments. High-quality, head-to-head comparative RCTs focusing on live birth rate and also assessing adverse events and quality of life are warranted.


Subject(s)
Embolization, Therapeutic , Infertility, Male/therapy , Sclerotherapy/methods , Varicocele/therapy , Bias , Confidence Intervals , Embolization, Therapeutic/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infertility, Male/etiology , Infertility, Male/surgery , Live Birth , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Rate , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recurrence , Sclerotherapy/adverse effects , Sperm Count , Testicular Hydrocele/etiology , Varicocele/complications , Varicocele/surgery
19.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 855-857, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute otitis media is common in children. The preferred treatment measures for recurrent acute otitis media have a mixed evidence base. This study sought to assess baseline practice across ENT departments in England. METHODS: A national telephone survey of healthcare staff was conducted. Every ENT centre in England was contacted. A telephone script was used to ask about antibiotic and grommet use and duration in recurrent acute otitis media cases. RESULTS: Ninety-six centres (74 per cent) provided complete information. Recurrent acute otitis media treatment across England by ENT departments varied. The antibiotic first- and second-line prophylaxis offered varies, with trimethoprim used in 33 centres and 29 centres not offering any antibiotics. The timing or choice about when to use grommets also varies, but 87 centres (91 per cent) offer grommet surgery at one stage. CONCLUSION: The treatments received by children in England for recurrent acute otitis media vary by centre; collaborative research in this area is advised.


Subject(s)
Middle Ear Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Otolaryngology/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use , Child , Drug Resistance, Microbial , England/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Ear Ventilation/methods , Otitis Media/surgery , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Personal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , State Medicine/organization & administration , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trimethoprim/administration & dosage , Trimethoprim/therapeutic use
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6027-6029, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432410

ABSTRACT

In the setting of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic and increased disease burden, vaccination has become one of the major solutions. With the increase in vaccination numbers worldwide, it is important to stay vigilant to the potential side effects and life-threatening complications of such vaccines. We report the case of a 30-year-old male with a biphasic allergic reaction post messenger (mRNA) Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination. Several reports of allergic reactions have been cited in the literature after the administration of the mRNA Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. It is important to keep a high index of suspicion in severe anaphylactic cases as some patients may have a recurrence of symptoms after discharge. It is crucial to acknowledge the potential risk of anaphylaxis in select individuals and have the appropriate measures in place to deal with adverse events. In case of severe symptoms, the administration of epinephrine is advised to prevent the development of a delayed biphasic anaphylactic reaction.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adult , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
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