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2.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 48(2): 157-161, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and predictability of cataract extraction with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) or mushroom penetrating keratoplasty (PK). SETTING: Villa Igea Hospital, Forlì, Italy. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Toric IOL implantation was offered to patients with cataract, corneal astigmatism >1.5 diopters (D) and regular central corneal topography after complete suture removal. Phacoemulsification was performed through a 2.4 mm scleral tunnel and an enVista monofocal toric MX60T or Eyecryl monofocal toric IOL was inserted in the capsular bag. Main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction, total prediction error, and IOL misalignment. RESULTS: 37 consecutive patients who had previously undergone either DALK (n = 27, 73%) or 2-piece mushroom PK (n = 10, 27%) were included. All patients completed the 6-month follow-up. The mean toric IOL power was 5.3 ± 1.1 D. Both UDVA and CDVA significantly improved (from 1.02 ± 0.27 to 0.46 ± 0.31 logMAR and from 0.65 ± 0.27 to 0.11 ± 0.12 logMAR, respectively; P < .001). 20 eyes (54%) reached UDVA ≥20/40, whereas 35 eyes (95%) reached a CDVA ≥20/40. Final refractive astigmatism was 0.93 ± 0.87 D, with 35 eyes (95%) within 2 D. Prediction error was ≤1 D in 18 eyes (49%). Absolute IOL misalignment was 3.3 ± 3.5 degrees. CONCLUSIONS: Toric IOL implantation in postkeratoplasty eyes allowed reduction of refractive astigmatism to predictably low levels with concomitant improved visual outcomes.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Lenses, Intraocular , Phacoemulsification , Astigmatism/surgery , Humans , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Refraction, Ocular
4.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 11(5): 470-480, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051584

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related lifestyle on myopia outcomes in children to young adults. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases (with manual searching of reference lists of reviews). Studies included assessed changes in myopia-related outcomes (cycloplegic refraction) during COVID and pre-COVID. Of 367 articles identified, 7 (6 prospective cohorts; 1 repeated cross-sectional study) comprising 6327 participants aged 6 to 17 were included. Quality appraisals were performed with Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists. Pooled differences in annualized myopic shifts or mean spherical equivalent (SE) during COVID and pre-COVID were obtained from random-effects models. RESULTS: In all 7 studies, SE moved toward a myopic direction during COVID (vs pre-COVID), where 5 reported significantly faster myopic shifts [difference in means of changes: -1.20 to -0.35 diopters per year, [D/y]; pooled estimate: -0.73 D/y; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.96, -0.50; P<0.001], and 2 reported significantly more myopic SE (difference in means: -0.72 to -0.44 D/y; pooled estimate: -0.54 D/y; 95% CI: -0.80, -0.28; P<0.001). Three studies reported higher myopia (SE ≤-0.50 D) incidence (2.0- to 2.6-fold increase) during COVID versus pre-COVID. Of studies assessing lifestyle changes, all 4 reported lower time outdoors (pre-COVID vs during COVID: 1.1-1.8 vs 0.4-1.0 hours per day, [h/d]), and 3 reported higher screen time (pre-COVID vs during COVID: 0.7-2.8 vs 2.4-6.9 h/d). CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests more myopic SE shifts during COVID (vs pre-COVID) in participants aged 6 to 17. COVID-19 restrictions may have worsened SE shifts, and lifting of restrictions may lessen this effect. Evaluations of the long-term effects of the pandemic lifestyle on myopia onset and progression in large studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Humans , Life Style , Mydriatics , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Refraction, Ocular , Young Adult
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(9): 3272-3277, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024718

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the role of remote teleconsultation (TC) follow-up care following a successful and uneventful laser vision correction. Methods: The study is a retrospective, comparative analysis of patients undergoing laser vision correction at tertiary care eye hospital in Southern India. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group included patients operated on before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and were followed up with physical consultations during their follow-up visit (Group 1). The second group comprised patients operated on during the pandemic and had at least one remote TC during their post-operative follow-up (Group 2). Results: A total of 1088 eyes of 564 patients and 717 eyes of 372 patients were included in Group 1 and 2, respectively. The mean number of visits for the patients from Group 2 during the COVID period (2.56 +/- 0.74 days) was significantly lesser (P < 0.0001) than that of Group 1 in the pre-COVID period (3.53 +/- 1.07 days). Close to 90% of the eyes achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 20/20 in both groups (P = 0.925). 96.50% of the eyes in Group 1 and 98.18% of the eyes in Group 2 achieved UCVA 20/25 or better (P = 0.049). Eight eyes (0.73%) in Group 1 and one eye (0.14%) in Group 2 reported a loss of 2 or more lines. However, the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.156). None of the groups had any patients who had a sight-threatening complication. Conclusion: Remote TC following refractive surgery is safe and can be effectively integrated into routine refractive practice to reduce travel to the hospital for a physical consult.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Myopia , Photorefractive Keratectomy , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Remote Consultation , Humans , Lasers, Excimer , Refraction, Ocular , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1605028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023044

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the changes of vision, including the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, poor vision, and the spherical equivalent refraction (SER), in school-aged children before and after the pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A school-based vision screening study was performed on children in 133 primary schools in Wuhan. This study was conducted in 4 consecutive years (2018-2021). Results: A total of 468,094 children (936,188 eyes) were recruited, 255,863 (54.7%) were boys. The SER decreased in 2020 compared to other years after the age of 10. A positive myopia shift was found in younger children aged 6 (0.1 D), 7 (0.05D), and 8 (0.03 D) in 2020 compared to 2019. The progression of vision has improved slightly in 2021. Among the students included in the study, 33.7% were myopia. Conclusion: The vision of older children decreased significantly during the COVID-19. After the pandemic, there is still a high risk for them. In the future, the focus on vision prevention and control should move forward to preschool children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Refraction, Ocular , Schools
7.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 140(10): 964-965, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013256
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 835449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987559

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has made many countries adopt restrictive measures like home quarantine. Children were required to study at home, which made parents worried about the rapid myopic progression of their children. To compare myopia progression during the COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine with the time before it and risk factors of myopia progression, we conducted this study. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to find literature from December 2019 to March 2022 related to COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine and children's myopia progression. Outcomes of myopia progression included axial length and spherical equivalent refraction. Factors of digital screen device time and outdoor activity time were analyzed. Results: Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, spherical equivalent refraction decreased (OR = -0.27; 95% CI = [-0.33, -0.21]; Z = 8.42; P < 0.00001). However, the subgroup analysis showed that there were no significant differences in spherical equivalent refraction between the two groups in higher-grade school-aged children (grades 4 and above, 11 to 18 years old) (OR = 0.01; 95% CI = [-0.05, 0.07]; Z =0.4; P = 0.69). The outcome of axial length showed no significant difference (OR = 0.06; 95% CI = [-0.31, 0.44]; Z = 0.34; P = 0.74). As for risk factors, the forest plots showed that digital screen device time (OR = 4.56; 95% CI = [4.45, 4.66]; Z = 85.57; P < 0.00001) and outdoor activity time (OR = -1.82; 95% CI = [-2.87, -0.76]; Z = 3.37; P = 0.0008) were risk factors of myopia progression. Conclusion: Compared with the time before the COVID-19 pandemic, myopia progression in children during COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine was accelerated, especially in younger children. Increased digital screen device and decreased outdoor activity times were risk factors. When home quarantine eases, more time on outdoor activities and less time on digital screen devices are needed for children. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/logout.php.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Refraction, Ocular
9.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 42(6): 1227-1231, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study compared refractive and axial length (AL) changes in children wearing dual-focus soft contact lenses for myopia control (MiSight®) with myopic children wearing spectacles one year from the start of lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive, parallel-group, observational study reviewed the charts of 11 children who began treatment for myopia control with dual-focus soft contact lenses for myopia control (MiSight®) in March 2020 and 11 matched spectacle-wearing controls. The mean increase in spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and AL from the beginning of the lockdown and up to 1 year later were compared. The parents of the children were asked about the average time spent on near work, contact lens wearing time both during and after the strict confinement and whether they had discontinued contact lens wear during lockdown. RESULTS: During this first year of preventive COVID-19 measures (March 2020-March 2021), for the contact lens group the average SER and AL increased -0.14 ± 0.09D and 0.13 ± 0.05 mm, respectively. For the spectacle wearers, the corresponding increases were -0.54 ± 0.16D and 0.25 ± 0.08 mm, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups for both SER (p < 0.001) and AL (p < 0.05). The average time spent outdoors was restricted for both groups during lockdown and increased after. However, statistically significant changes in the time spent outdoors during and after lockdown were only found for the spectacle group (p < 0.05; t-test), whereas this change was not significant for the contact lens group (p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Over the observed time period, dual-focus soft contact lenses for myopia control were effective despite the decreased time spent outdoors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic , Myopia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Myopia/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Refraction, Ocular , Retrospective Studies
10.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 37(6): 756-766, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886298

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of myopia and the risk factors associated with its progression in elementary school students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanxi Province, China. METHODS: The investigation included 960 students spanning first to sixth grade from six elementary schools in Shanxi Province, China. All participants received non-cycloplegic refraction and vision tests in December of 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and in June of 2020 (after classes resumed). Information concerning the students' eye-use behaviors, physical activities, diet and sleep during the pandemic was collected using a questionnaire survey. A total of 913 students (457 males) completed all tests and the questionnaire. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of myopia was 16.6% in December of 2019, and it increased with age. There was no gender difference in the prevalence of myopia (χ2 = 3.210, P = .073), but females exhibited a lower average spherical equivalent (SE) (P = .026). When the classes were resumed 6 months later, the overall prevalence rate of myopia was found to be 39.4%, which was significantly higher than it before the pandemic (χ2 = 117.425, P < .001). The average SE of the participants was -0.95D, which was significantly lower than the average SE (-0.43D) before the pandemic (P < .001). SE variation (ΔSE) in grade 6 was significantly higher than that in grade 1. No significant difference in ΔSE was found between males and females. Analyses of ordinary least squares (OLS)-estimated linear, natural logarithmic and quadratic functions revealed that the progression of myopia during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly correlated with screen time, types of electronic devices, the amount of sleep, age, and the number of parents with myopia. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate and progression of myopia among elementary school students in Shanxi Province increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was likely related to China's home-based online learning programs. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the educational programs for elementary school students when they study at home. We recommend increased time for outdoor activities and limiting screen time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Refraction, Ocular , Students
11.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(3): 1370-1374, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868965

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To report the posterior corneal changes after Bowman Layer Transplant for keratoconus in a tertiary hospital in the UK. METHODS: 5 eyes of 5 patients receiving Bowman Layer Transplant for advanced keratoconus in Royal Gwent Hospital (Newport, UK) were included. Pre and postoperative posterior corneal astigmatism, posterior Kmean, and back surface elevation were analysed. RESULTS: No significant changes were seen in the posterior corneal astigmatism, posterior Kmean, or back surface elevation between the pre- and postoperative period. CONCLUSION: This results would support the idea that the corneal changes seen after Bowman Layer Transplant are mainly in the anterior corneal surface.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Keratoconus , Cornea , Corneal Topography/methods , Humans , Keratoconus/surgery , Refraction, Ocular , Visual Acuity
12.
Curr Eye Res ; 47(2): 225-232, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868127

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Long-term results of arcuate incisions are rarely reported. This is unfortunate as long-term stability of astigmatic correction is of great interest to surgeons performing astigmatic correction. This study investigates the 7 year stability of results after application of femtosecond laser-assisted arcuate incisions with the Castrop nomogram. METHODS: Prospective interventional case series at the Augen- und Laserklinik, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany. Single site, single surgeon study. Seven year results of cataract patients with low to moderate corneal astigmatism receiving femtosecond laser-assisted arcuate incisions using a TechnolasVictus SW 2.7 (Bausch & Lomb Inc, Dornach, Germany) were assessed and compared to 1 year results. Outcome evaluation was based on astigmatic vector analysis, manifest refraction, and visual acuity. RESULTS: The study analyzed 19 eyes of 19 patients 7 years after surgery. Ocular residual astigmatism changed from -0.26 to -0.39 D. Preoperative corneal astigmatism was -1.51 D. Correction Index changed from 1.0 to 1.16. The magnitude of difference vector changed from 0.26 to 0.39 D. The index of success changed from 0.20 to 0.29. Spherical equivalent remained stable. A slight tendency to change toward astigmatic overcorrection was mainly observed for patients with preoperative with the rule astigmatism, but not with patients with against the rule astigmatism. CONCLUSIONS: The Castrop nomogram showed stable results 7 years after surgery. Similar to toric IOL surgery, it is advisable to be less aggressive when correcting with the rule astigmatism, to avoid overcorrection over a long period.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Corneal Diseases , Astigmatism/surgery , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Corneal Topography , Humans , Lasers , Nomograms , Prospective Studies , Refraction, Ocular , Retrospective Studies
14.
Ophthalmology ; 129(8): 880-889, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763922

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Premyopia at a young age carries a great risk of developing early-onset myopia, especially in regions with myopia epidemics, such as the developed areas in East Asia. This study aims to report the prevalence of premyopia and its risk factors in a Taiwan preschool population and lifestyle changes among premyopic preschoolers before and during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Repeated countywide population-based, cross-sectional study in Yilan County, northeastern Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: From 2014 to 2020, a total of 23 930 kindergarteners aged 5 to 6 years were identified in the Yilan Myopia Prevention and Vision Improvement Program (YMVIP). Of those, 21 761 (11 335 [52.1%] boys; mean age, 5.15 ± 0.37 years) were included for final analysis. METHODS: Annual kindergarten-based eye examinations and myopia prevention strategies have been conducted since the commencement of the YMVIP in 2014. Refractive error was determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. The data of potential risk factors for myopia were gathered by caregiver-administered questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of premyopia (spherical equivalent [SE] > -0.5 diopter [D] and ≤ +0.75 D in the eye with less SE value). RESULTS: The prevalence of myopia (SE ≤ -0.5 D), premyopia, and hyperopia (SE > +0.75) was 10.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.3-11.1), 52.0% (95% CI, 51.3-52.7), and 37.3% (95% CI, 36.7-37.9), respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that premyopia prevalence was significantly associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.32), caregiver myopia (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.37-1.56), screen time ≥ 1 hour per weekdays (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17), 2-year exposure to myopia prevention strategy (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.54-0.65), and college or higher education level of caregiver (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96). Even without large-scale school closure in Taiwan, there was a slight upward trend of increased time spent on screen-based devices during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that premyopia was the most common refractive error in a Taiwan preschool population. Premyopia was also associated with both parental and environmental myopiogenic factors. Longitudinal studies are warranted to examine the lifestyle change and myopic shift of premyopic preschoolers in the postpandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Refractive Errors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Refraction, Ocular , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
15.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 42(4): 744-752, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752722

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although studies have suggested that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak increased myopia progression, they had different settings and analysis methods. This study compared myopia progression before and during the COVID-19 outbreak using meta-analysis. METHODS: Relevant literature was searched on EMBASE, PubMed, ClinEpiDB and Web of Science and reviewed until 8 October 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the original studies. The mean difference of change in spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was used for evaluation before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included eight studies with 773, 797 individuals aged 5-18 years. Pooled analysis indicated that the mean difference of annual myopia progression during the pandemic was 0.41 D higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-0.48, p < 0.01) than before the pandemic. Subgroup analysis using cycloplegic (mean difference, 0.30 D; 95% CI, 0.22-0.38; p < 0.01) or noncycloplegic refraction (mean difference, 0.60 D; 95% CI, 0.27-0.93; p < 0.01) indicated that the mean difference of annual myopia progression during COVID-19 significantly increased in both refractive measurements. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated myopic progression compared to the past. Government policies are urgently required to prevent and control myopia progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Progression , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Refraction, Ocular
16.
J AAPOS ; 26(2): 65.e1-65.e4, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747871

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether the myopic shift at myopia onset was faster than usual during home confinement associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data on refractive error in consecutive children who presented for their first myopic spectacle prescription from September 2020 to May 2021 (new-onset myopia during the pandemic) were collected. Inclusion criteria were age 5-18 years and cycloplegic spherical equivalent in both eyes in the emmetropic range in the pre-pandemic years as recorded 1 year and 2 years before the actual visit. Annualized mean myopic shifts over the two previous periods were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 39 subjects (59% girls) were enrolled. Mean age at the visit after confinement was 10.79 ± 2.83 years. The mean refractive error for the right eyes in 2018 was +0.29 ± 0.56 D. The year after (2019), these children had a mean spherical equivalent of -0.12 ± 0.70 D. At the enrollment visit after myopia onset in the pandemic period, they had myopia of -1.33 ± 0.73 D. The mean annualized myopic shift for the right eyes was -0.37 ± 0.43 D before the pandemic and -1.12 ± 0.70 D during the pandemic period that included home confinement (P < 0·001 [Wilcoxon text]). CONCLUSIONS: Previous pre-pandemic prospective studies have reported myopic shift at onset of approximately -0.80 D. The period of strict pandemic home confinement saw higher rates of myopic shift.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Refractive Errors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Refraction, Ocular , Refractive Errors/epidemiology
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723593

ABSTRACT

A man aged 26 years presented with complaints of diminution of vision in his right eye for 1 year following a fist injury. He had a history of laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis in both eyes 5 years earlier. On examination, his uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) in the right eye was 1.0 logMAR. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed a superotemporal dislocation of the flap with coexisting epithelial ingrowth encroaching the pupillary area. Due to the presence of long-standing fixed flap folds, a flap amputation was performed along with removal of the epithelial ingrowth using 0.02% mitomycin C as adjunct. Postoperatively, the UDVA was 0.3 logMAR on day 1, which improved to 0.2 logMAR at 1 week. At 1 year, the UDVA was 0.2 logMAR improving to 0.1 logMAR with refraction, with minimal paracentral corneal haze and no signs of corneal ectasia.


Subject(s)
Epithelium, Corneal , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Adult , Amputation , Epithelium, Corneal/surgery , Humans , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Male , Postoperative Complications , Refraction, Ocular , Surgical Flaps
18.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703055

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the development and progression of presbyopia and the status of dry eye-related symptoms from 2017 to 2020, to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Near add power at 30 cm was measured in 339 participants aged between 40 and 55 from 2017 to 2021 at Japanese eye clinics. Regression analysis of near add power and age was analyzed to compare 2017 with later years up to the pandemic. The prevalence of dry eye-related signs and six common symptoms were compared. RESULTS: The number and mean age (y) of participants were 183 (48.6±4.1) in 2017, 46 (51.3±7.5) in 2019, and 110 (49.2±3.7) in 2020-21, respectively. The mean progression rate of near add power (D/y) was 0.13 for 2017, 0.09 for 2019 (P = 0.028, vs 2017), and 0.08 for 2020-21 (P<0.001, vs 2017). The slope (rate of presbyopia progression) became flatter from 2017 to 2021 and the estimated near add power at the age of 40 increased from 2017 to 2020-2021, implicating presbyopia developed earlier and worsened during the study period. The 2017 values were comparable with previous studies described in 1922 and 2019. The standardized correlation coefficient between age and near add power was 0.816 for 2017, 0.671 for 2019 (P = 0.084, vs 2017), and 0.572 for 2020-21 (P<0.001, vs 2017). Multiple regression analysis revealed age and COVID-19 pandemic were significantly correlated with near add power. The prevalence of dryness irritation, and pain was greater in 2020-21 than in 2017 with no difference in the prevalence of eye fatigue, blurring, and photophobia. There was no difference in the prevalence of short tear break-up time and positive corneal staining among 2017, 2019 and 2020-21. CONCLUSION: Estimated presbyopia developed earlier and progressed slower from 2017 to 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic. Stress and rapid digitalization related to strict infection control and quarantine might be contributing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Pandemics , Presbyopia/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Dry Eye Syndromes/complications , Dry Eye Syndromes/virology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Presbyopia/complications , Presbyopia/virology , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Visual Acuity/physiology
19.
Ophthalmic Res ; 65(3): 321-327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691198

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Uncorrected refractive error is one of the major causes of visual impairment in children and adolescents worldwide. During the COVID-19 epidemic, home isolation is considered a boost to the progression of children's myopia. Under geographical conditions of high altitude and strong sunshine, the Tibetan plateau is the main residence of the Tibetan population, where little information is available about the refractive status and developmental trajectory. Therefore, this article aimed to evaluate the distribution, progression, and associated factors of the refractive status in second-grade children in Lhasa after COVID-19 quarantine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Students from 7 elementary schools completed comprehensive ocular examinations in the Lhasa Childhood Eye Study. Data regarding cycloplegic refraction and corneal biometry parameters, including axial length (AL), corneal power, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and other demographic factors, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,819 students were included, with a mean age of 7.9 ± 0.5 years, of which 961 were boys (52.8%), and 95.1% were Tibetan. The prevalence of myopia, emmetropia, mild hyperopia, and hyperopia was 10.94%, 24.02%, 60.80%, and 4.24%, respectively. Besides, the average cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was +1.07 ± 0.92 diopter (D) before the COVID-19 quarantine and +0.59 ± 1.08D after the quarantine (p < 0.05), with a growth rate of 7%. Moreover, the prevalence of hyperopia in girls was significantly higher than that of boys (p < 0.001). Nonetheless, the proportion of myopia and emmetropia was similar (p = 0.75). Meanwhile, children in suburban schools had a significantly lower proportion of myopia (p < 0.001). The average AL, ACD, lens power (LP), and AL-to-corneal radius (AL/CR) ratio were 22.79 ± 0.78 mm, 3.54 ± 0.21 mm, 25.12 ± 1.48D, and 2.93 ± 0.08, respectively. The results of AL, ACD, and AL/CR for girls were significantly lower than for boys, while the result of LP is the opposite (p < 0.001). Finally, multivariate regression analysis revealed that SER was negatively correlated with AL, LP, and AL/CR ratio, while positively correlated with CR and ACD (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study found that after the COVID-19 confinement, myopia progressed faster in Lhasa children but was still significantly lower than that of plain cities in China. Compared to short-term confinement, this acceleration was more likely related to the growth and general trend of myopia in children. Collectively, these findings help to explore the differences in ocular growth and development among children of different ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperopia , Myopia , Refractive Errors , Adolescent , Biometry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cornea , Female , Humans , Male , Mydriatics , Myopia/epidemiology , Quarantine , Refraction, Ocular , Tibet/epidemiology
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143781, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625088

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myopia progression has been found to be worsening during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to control the rapid myopia progression in this period. Objective: To analyze the association of COVID-19-related lockdown measures with myopia progression in schoolchildren and to compare the performance of defocus incorporated multiple segments (DIMS) lens with that of single vision lens (SVL) treatment in reducing myopia progression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study involved an exploratory, prespecified, comparison of 2 independent longitudinal studies performed at the same institute beginning in 2019. Data from Hong Kong schoolchildren (aged 7-13 years) were gathered and analyzed. Data analysis was performed from June to July 2021. Exposure: Schoolchildren in study 1 wore a DIMS lens for 18 months, and those in study 2 wore a SVL for 24 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction and axial length were measured. Studies 1 and 2 started before the start of lockdown measures and continued throughout the lockdown. In both studies, periods of fewer and more COVID-19-related lockdown measures were identified. Because COVID-19 lockdown caused deviations from the visit schedule, myopia progression was normalized to 12-month change, which were compared between DIMS and SVL groups, also during the periods with less and more lockdown time. Results: There were 115 participants (58 girls [50.4%]; mean [SD] age, 10.3 [1.5] years) in the DIMS group; their mean (SD) baseline refraction was -4.02 (1.46) D. There were 56 participants (29 girls [51.8%]; mean [SD] age, 10.8 [1.5] years) in the SVL group; their mean (SD) baseline refraction was -2.99 (1.06) D. After controlling for the covariates, DIMS treatment was significantly associated with 34% less axial elongation (0.19 mm [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.22 mm] vs 0.30 mm [95% CI, 0.25 to 0.35 mm]; P < .001) and 46% less myopic progression after 12 months (-0.31 D [95% CI, -0.39 to -0.23 D] vs -0.57 D [95% CI, -0.69 to -0.45 D]; P = .001) compared with SVL treatment. In both the DIMS and SVL groups, more lockdown time was associated with significantly more spherical equivalent refraction (-0.54 D [95% CI, -0.64 to 0.44 D] vs -0.34 D [95% CI, -0.44 to -0.25 D]; P = .01) and axial length (0.29 mm [95% CI, 0.25 to 0.32 mm] vs 0.20 mm [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.24 mm]; P = .001) compared with less lockdown time. No significant interaction between treatment type and lockdown time was observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis, myopia progressed more rapidly in schoolchildren during the period when there were more COVID-19-related lockdown measures. However, optical treatment with DIMS was significantly associated with slower myopia progression compared with SVL treatment during the lockdown period.


Subject(s)
Eyeglasses , Myopia/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Myopia/physiopathology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Refraction, Ocular , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
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