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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261773, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated risk-mitigation strategies have altered the social contexts in which adolescents in low- and middle-income countries live. Little is known, however, about the impacts of the pandemic on displaced populations, and how those impacts differ by gender and life stage. We investigate the extent to which the pandemic has compounded pre-existing social inequalities among adolescents in Jordan, and the role support structures play in promoting resilience. METHODS: Our analysis leverages longitudinal quantitative survey data and in-depth qualitative interviews, collected before and after the onset of COVID-19, with over 3,000 Syrian refugees, stateless Palestinians and vulnerable Jordanians, living in camps, host communities and informal tented settlements. We utilize mixed-methods analysis combining multivariate regression with deductive qualitative tools to evaluate pandemic impacts and associated policy responses on adolescent wellbeing and mental health, at three and nine months after the pandemic onset. We also explore the role of support systems at individual, household, community, and policy levels. FINDINGS: We find the pandemic has resulted in severe economic and service disruptions with far-reaching and heterogenous effects on adolescent wellbeing. Nine months into the pandemic, 19.3% of adolescents in the sample presented with symptoms of moderate-to severe depression, with small signs of improvement (3.2 percentage points [pp], p<0.001). Two thirds of adolescents reported household stress had increased during the pandemic, especially for Syrian adolescents in host communities (10.7pp higher than any other group, p<0.001). Social connectedness was particularly low for girls, who were 13.4 percentage points (p<0.001) more likely than boys to have had no interaction with friends in the past 7 days. Adolescent programming shows signs of being protective, particularly for girls, who were 8.8 percentage points (p<0.01) more likely to have a trusted friend than their peers who were not participating in programming. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing social inequalities among refugee adolescents affected by forced displacement have been compounded during the COVID-19 pandemic, with related disruptions to services and social networks. To achieve Sustainable Development Goal targets to support healthy and empowered development in adolescence and early adulthood requires interventions that target the urgent needs of the most vulnerable adolescents while addressing population-level root causes and determinants of psychosocial wellbeing and resilience for all adolescent girls and boys.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health/trends , COVID-19/psychology , Refugees/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Environment , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 854490, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785451

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Global Mental Health research group at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health worked with three local partner organizations in Myanmar to develop a psychosocial support (PSS) program that could be delivered by community-based focal points in internally displaced persons camps. This PSS program was designed to be delivered in communities with limited access to regional mental health services due to pandemic travel restrictions. The content of the PSS program was based on materials from an ongoing Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) mental health program; CETA counselors based in the three partner organizations were available to provide telephone-based CETA counseling. In April 2020, the partners organizations recruited and trained PSS focal points in 25 IDP camps to establish a multi-tiered system of MHPSS supports. Implementation: The PSS program including psychoeducation handouts focused on stress and coping during COVID-19 and skills for cognitive restructuring (i.e., changing unhelpful thoughts) in simplified terms, audio recordings of the content of these handouts and referral opportunities for telephone-based services by CETA counselors located outside of the camps. PSS focal points distributed the handouts, had the recordings played via radio and loudspeaker, and were available to answer questions and provide access to a PSS program phones to connect with the CETA counselors. After 6 months of implementation, program monitoring logs were reviewed and a cross-sectional evaluation was conducted to assess the PSS program's reach, understanding, and perceived utility. Evaluation: Forty-one focal points implemented the PSS program in 25 IDP camps in Kachin and northern Shan States. From May to September 2020, the focal points distributed handouts to 5,725 households and reported 679 visits by IDPs, including facilitating 332 calls to a CETA counselor. Data from the program evaluation (n = 793 participants) found high levels of handout readership and perceived utility of the information, and good comprehension of the content and application of skills. Discussion: Findings suggest that provision of a multi-tiered MHPSS program, with PSS focal points providing direct information and linkages to further mental health services via telephone, was feasible despite the constraints of the pandemic. Utilizing camp-based focal points was acceptable and successful in delivering basic psychosocial supports to a broad population while serving as points of contact for individuals who wanted and needed telephone-based counseling services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inosine Diphosphate , Refugees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Myanmar , Pandemics , Psychosocial Support Systems
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 48, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has shed new light on inequities in healthcare access faced by immigrant and refugee communities. To address ongoing disparities, there is an urgent need for ecological approaches to better understand the barriers that hinder and resources that facilitate access to healthcare. This study investigates barriers to healthcare system access faced by Yazidi refugees in the Midwestern United States. METHODS: Informed by the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach, three focus group meetings with a community advisory board were conducted between September 2019 and January 2020. The nine-member focus group included social workers, healthcare providers, and members of the Yazidi community. Meeting recordings were transcribed into English, coded for themes, and validated. RESULTS: We describe themes related to specific barriers to healthcare access; analyze the influence of relational dynamics in the focus group; explore experiential themes related to healthcare access in the Yazidi community, and finally interpret our findings through a social-ecological lens. CONCLUSION: Community agencies, healthcare organizations, policymakers, and other stakeholders must work together to develop strategies to reduce systemic barriers to equitable care. Community representation in priority-setting and decision-making is essential to ensure relevance, acceptability, and utilization of developed strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Midwestern United States , Pandemics , Qualitative Research
4.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(4): E275-282, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782529

ABSTRACT

Migrants along the US-Mexico border have been subjected to transnational violence created by international policy, militaristic intervention, and multinational organizational administration of border operations. The COVID-19 pandemic compounded migrants' vulnerabilities and provoked several logistical and ethical problems for US-based clinicians and organizations. This commentary examines how the concept of transnational solidarity facilitates analysis of clinicians' and migrants' shared historical and structural vulnerabilities. This commentary also suggests how actions implemented by one organization in Tijuana, Mexico, could be scaled more broadly for care of migrants and asylum seekers in other transnational health care settings.


Los migrantes en la frontera entre EE. UU. y México han sufrido violencia transnacional por parte de la policía internacional, la intervención militar y la administración organizativa multinacional de las operaciones fronterizas. La pandemia de la COVID-19 agravó las vulnerabilidades de los migrantes y provocó varios problemas logísticos y éticos para los médicos y las organizaciones estadounidenses. Este comentario examina de qué manera el concepto de solidaridad transnacional facilita el análisis de los médicos y las vulnerabilidades históricas y estructurales compartidas de los migrantes. También, sugiere cómo las acciones implementadas por una organización en Tijuana, México, podrían aplicarse a mayor escala para la atención de los migrantes y solicitantes de asilo en otros entornos de atención médica transnacional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics
7.
Health Expect ; 25(2): 639-647, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Refugees and asylum seekers arrive in the Australian community with complex health needs and expectations of healthcare systems formed from elsewhere. Navigating the primary healthcare system can be challenging with communication and language barriers. In multicultural societies, this obstacle may be removed by accessing language-concordant care. Emerging evidence suggests language-concordance is associated with more positive reports of patient experience. Whether this is true for refugees and asylum seekers and their expectation of markers of quality patient-centred care (PCC) remains to be explored. This study aimed to explore the expectations around the markers of PCC and the impacts of having language-concordant care in Australian primary healthcare. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured individual in-language (Arabic, Dari, and Tamil) remote interviews with 22 refugee and asylum seekers and 9 general practitioners (GPs). Interview transcripts were coded inductively and deductively, based on the research questions, using Thematic Analysis. Extensive debriefing and discussion took place within the research team throughout data collection and analysis. RESULTS: Community member expectations of markers of PCC are constantly evolving and adapting based on invisible and visible actions during clinical encounters. Challenges can occur in the clinical encounter when expectations are 'unsaid' or unarticulated by both community members and GPs due to the assumption of shared understanding with language concordant care. Expectations of what constitutes satisfactory, quality PCC are dynamic outcomes, which are influenced by prior and current experiences of healthcare. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of understanding that language concordant care does not always support aligned expectations of the markers of quality PCC between community members and their GP. We recommend that GPs encourage community members to provide explicit descriptions about how their prior experiences have framed their expectations of what characterizes quality PCC. In addition, GPs could develop a collaborative approach, in which they explain their own decision-making processes in providing PCC to refugees and asylum seekers. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Bilingual researchers from multicultural backgrounds and experience working with people from refugee backgrounds were consulted on study design and analysis. This study included individuals with lived experiences as refugees and asylum seekers and clinicians as participants.


Subject(s)
General Practice , General Practitioners , Refugees , Australia , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , India , Motivation , Quality of Health Care
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 576481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760272

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Forcibly displaced people are at particular risk of mental health problems and also face specific integration challenges upon resettlement. Existing literature suggests that there may be a bidirectional relationship between mental health and integration. The present study seeks to understand the relationship between integration processes and mental health problems or significant negative emotional experiences among adult refugees in Germany. Method: Applying a qualitative approach, we conducted 54 semi-structured interviews with refugees and asylum seekers who arrived in Germany between 2013 and 2018 currently residing in Berlin, Leipzig, or the Duisburg area in North Rhine-Westphalia. Data was collected between December 2018 and September 2019. We analyzed transcripts inductively using thematic analysis. Results: Five themes covering the various links between integration and mental health problems or significant negative emotional experiences were identified. First, we found that the mental health consequences of past adverse experiences, as well as ongoing worries about those left behind in the homeland, can seriously impede refugees' ability to pursue activities key to integration. Second, the process of applying for and securing asylum can result in uncertainty and fear, which, in turn, burden the individual and may impact motivation for integration. Third, many of our participants described mental health ramifications related to feeling stuck and thwarted in the pursuit of building a life, especially in securing employment. Fourth, some participants described feeling so overwhelmed by fundamental tasks throughout the integration process, namely, language learning and bureaucratic processes, that these take a psychological toll. Fifth, we identified several forms of social disconnection between refugees and members of the host community due to xenophobia, social and cultural differences, physical and emotional isolation in refugee camps, as well as with co-nationals and fellow refugees. Negative emotions, mistrust, and socio-cultural differences that emerge throughout the integration processes seem to erode social cohesion among refugee communities, potentially further threatening mental health. Conclusion: Mental health problems and integration processes appear to be closely related across different areas of integration. Innovative solutions to challenges identified by members of the refugee community in Germany stand to benefit mental health and integration outcomes simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Refugees , Adult , Germany , Humans , Refugee Camps , Refugees/psychology
10.
Lancet ; 399(10331): 1213-1214, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757964

Subject(s)
Refugees , Humans
11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 03007, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753910
12.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265508, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745307

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic diseases are projected to be a serious public threat in the coming decades. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that Jordan prioritize their list of zoonoses, partially in response to the influx of Syrian refugees. We write this paper to expand the One Health framework by situating zoonotic diseases in peacebuilding and development theories in order to prioritize zoonotic diseases in Jordan. We employ an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach to create a modified version of the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) tool. We use an integrative literature review to develop a list of zoonoses to be prioritized. We expand the One Health framework by arguing health inequity is a form of violence, and thus promotion of health equity is a form of peacebuilding. We undertake thematic and statistical analyses to assess the 12 previously published OHZDP tools to evaluate necessity for change to the process given COVID-19 and the refugee situation in Jordan. In these analyses we use drivers of health indicators as measurements for peacebuilding and development, given these drivers are related to health inequities, to guide weighting of the criteria in our tool for Jordan. We apply our modified OHZDP tool to prioritize our disease list. We find it necessary to give socioeconomic factors greater consideration and to distribute weighting more evenly among all criteria within the tool when prioritizing zoonotic diseases in better reflect the Jordanian context and incorporate the refugee population. We find the priority zoonoses within Jordan to be bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, and COVID-19, with most having a disproportionately negative impact on refugees. In Jordan's case, zoonotic diseases represent an area where promoting social equity for individuals is essential to the larger society. In this sense managing zoonoses is an area uniquely suited for peacebuilding.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Cost of Illness , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Patient Acuity , Refugees , Socioeconomic Factors , Zoonoses/prevention & control
13.
Health Educ Behav ; 49(2): 194-199, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741850

ABSTRACT

In this commentary, we briefly describe our methodology in conducting a remote qualitative investigation with essential workers from southwest Kansas, and then describe some key considerations, challenges, and lessons learned in recruiting and conducting interviews remotely. From August 4, 2020 through August 26, 2020, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff conducted five phone interviews with culturally and linguistically diverse employees in southwest Kansas to understand COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices and communication preferences. Our experience details the potential challenges of the federal government in recruiting individuals from these communities and highlights the possibilities for more effectively engaging health department and community partners to support investigation efforts. Optimizing recruitment strategies with additional participation from community partners, developing culturally and linguistically appropriate data collection tools, and providing supportive resources and services may augment participation from refugee, immigrant, and migrant (RIM) communities in similar remote investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Limited English Proficiency , Refugees , Humans , Kansas
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742480

ABSTRACT

Refugees and asylum seekers often face delayed mental health diagnoses, treatment, and care. COVID-19 has exacerbated these issues. Delays in diagnosis and care can reduce the impact of resettlement services and may lead to poor long-term outcomes. This scoping review aims to characterize studies that report on mental health screening for resettling refugees and asylum seekers pre-departure and post-arrival to a resettlement state. We systematically searched six bibliographic databases for articles published between 1995 and 2020 and conducted a grey literature search. We included publications that evaluated early mental health screening approaches for refugees of all ages. Our search identified 25,862 citations and 70 met the full eligibility criteria. We included 45 publications that described mental health screening programs, 25 screening tool validation studies, and we characterized 85 mental health screening tools. Two grey literature reports described pre-departure mental health screening. Among the included publications, three reported on two programs for women, 11 reported on programs for children and adolescents, and four reported on approaches for survivors of torture. Programs most frequently screened for overall mental health, PTSD, and depression. Important considerations that emerged from the literature include cultural and psychological safety to prevent re-traumatization and digital tools to offer more private and accessible self-assessments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Torture , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Refugees/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Torture/psychology
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736059

ABSTRACT

The spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 presents many challenges to healthcare systems and infrastructures across the world, exacerbating inequalities and leaving the world's most vulnerable populations at risk. Epidemiological modelling is vital to guiding evidence-informed or data-driven decision making. In forced displacement contexts, and in particular refugee and internally displaced people (IDP) settlements, it meets several challenges including data availability and quality, the applicability of existing models to those contexts, the accurate modelling of cultural differences or specificities of those operational settings, the communication of results and uncertainties, as well as the alignment of strategic goals between diverse partners in complex situations. In this paper, we systematically review the limited epidemiological modelling work applied to refugee and IDP settlements so far, and discuss challenges and identify lessons learnt from the process. With the likelihood of disease outbreaks expected to increase in the future as more people are displaced due to conflict and climate change, we call for the development of more approaches and models specifically designed to include the unique features and populations of refugee and IDP settlements. To strengthen collaboration between the modelling and the humanitarian public health communities, we propose a roadmap to encourage the development of systems and frameworks to share needs, build tools and coordinate responses in an efficient and scalable manner, both for this pandemic and for future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Refugees , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1231-1237, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735030

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Refugees often face increased risk of exposure to COVID-19 due to their disproportionate representation in the essential workforce and crowded household conditions. There is a paucity of data about risk factors for under-immunization for COVID-19 among refugees. METHODS: Refugees were surveyed in two phases that corresponded to before and after wide availability of COVID-19 vaccines. Participants were asked about their attitudes, and perceptions about COVID-19, previous acceptance of vaccines, sources utilized to obtain trusted health information, and intent to get vaccinated. The overall participant vulnerability was assessed using the social vulnerability index. In-depth semi-structured interviews were completed with key stakeholders through snowball sampling. RESULTS: Of 247 refugees, 244 agreed to participate in the initial survey. Among those, 140 (57.4%) intended to get vaccinated, 43 (17.6%) were unsure, and 61 (25%) did not intend to get vaccinated. In the follow up survey, all 215 who were reached, agreed to provide information about their vaccination status. Among those respondents, 141 (65.6%) were either vaccinated or expressed intent to do so, and 74 (34.4%) remained hesitant. We did not observe any significant correlation between socio-demographic variables, country of origin, and vaccination status/intent. Among those who initially intended to get vaccinated, nearly 1 in 5 changed their mind and decided to forego vaccination, and among those who initially did not plan getting vaccinated, 1 in 3 changed their mind and got vaccinated. Fears related to the vaccine, concerns that the vaccine is religiously prohibited, "wait and see" how others did with the vaccine, communication and transportation barriers were commonly cited as reason not to get vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Over a third of refugees in our study were hesitant to get vaccinated. Refugees desired additional education about the benefits and safety of vaccines along with easier access to vaccination clinics in their communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Public Health ; 205: 139-149, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734902

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Alarming rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been observed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where most refugees reside. There is concern Syrian refugees may experience significant NCD-related health needs, which have significant health implications, including in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and which must be addressed by health systems in neighbouring host countries. Although primary studies on this topic exist, there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the existing evidence base. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesise evidence on the prevalence of NCDs among Syrian refugees residing in neighbouring host countries. STUDY DESIGN: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The review was carried out in line with PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD420201970430). MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PubMed databases were searched from 1 January 2011 to 1 November 2021. Peer-reviewed studies reporting prevalence data on the five most common NCDs among adult Syrian refugees living in Turkey, Lebanon or Jordan were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for prevalence studies. Meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the pooled prevalence of these NCDs in community and primary care settings. RESULTS: A total of 466 citations were identified, 18 of which were included, representing 237,723 Syrian refugees. In community settings, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus type II, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and arthritis was 24% (95% confidence interval: 17-32), 12% (8-15), 5% (3-7), 4% (3-5) and 11% (7-14), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension 35% (33-36) and diabetes mellitus type II 48% (24-72) were significantly higher in primary care settings. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of NCDs among Syrian refugees. Evidence-based preventive and management interventions for NCDs are needed in this context to address acute health needs during the COVID-19 pandemic and the longer-term health burden of NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Refugees , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Syria/epidemiology
18.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 393-396, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703908

ABSTRACT

Refugee and immigrant populations are extremely vulnerable to the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination is a critical tool in mitigating these consequences, but these same communities often lack access to COVID-19 vaccines. We describe the efforts of a community-based primary care clinic in Clarkston, Georgia to provide access to COVID-19 vaccines in a culturally sensitive manner to address this health disparity and vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Refugees , COVID-19/ethnology , Cultural Competency , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686761

ABSTRACT

The current longitudinal study sought to identify predictors of professional help seeking for mental health problems amongst Afghan and Iraqi refugees five years post-settlement utilising the Building a New Life in Australia dataset (BNLA). Data were collected via face-to-face or phone interviews across five waves from October 2013 to March 2018. Afghan and Iraqi born refugees numbering 1180 and over 18 years of age with a permanent humanitarian visa were included in this study. The results suggest differences in help-seeking behaviors amongst the two ethnic groups. Amongst the Afghan sample, older adults with high psychological distress were more likely to seek help, while living in regional Australia, not requiring interpreters, and knowing how to find out information about government services were related to lower likelihood of help-seeking. Within the Iraqi sample, poor overall health and knowing how to find out about services were related to a greater likelihood of help-seeking, while fewer financial hardships decreased the likelihood of help-seeking. Amongst those with probable PTSD, disability was associated with an increased likelihood of help-seeking while experiencing fewer financial hardships and living in regional Australia resulted in a lower likelihood of help-seeking in this group. These results have implications for promotional material and mental health interventions, suggesting that more integrated services tailored to specific characteristics of ethnic groups are needed.


Subject(s)
Refugees , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Australia , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Refugees/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686747

ABSTRACT

In this paper we analyze the contemporary ambivalence to child migration identified by Jacqueline Bhabha and propose a developmental relational approach that repositions child refugees as active participants and rights-bearers in society. Ambivalence involves tensions between protection of refugee children and protection of national borders, public services and entrenched images. Unresolved ambivalence supports failures to honor the rights of refugee children according to international law and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. There is failure to protect and include them in national public services and in international coordination of public health and wellbeing. We identify misrepresentations of childhood and refugeeness that lie behind ambivalence and the equitable organization and delivery of public services for health and wellbeing. With illustrative studies, we propose a developmental relational framework for understanding refugee children's contributions in the sociocultural environment. Contrary to the image of passive victims, refugee children interact with other people and institutions in the co-construction of situated encounters. A developmental relational understanding of children's 'co-actions' in the social environment provides a foundation for addressing misrepresentations of childhood and refugeeness that deny refugee children protection and inclusion as rights-bearers. We point to directions in research and practice to recognize their rights to thrive and contribute to society.


Subject(s)
Refugees , Child , Family , Humans , Organizations
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