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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 780900, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662580

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have potent self-renewal capacity and differentiate into multiple cell types. For many reasons, these cells are a promising therapeutic alternative to treat patients with severe COVID-19 and pulmonary post-COVID sequelae. These cells are not only essential for tissue regeneration; they can also alter the pulmonary environment through the paracrine secretion of several mediators. They can control or promote inflammation, induce other stem cells differentiation, restrain the virus load, and much more. In this work, we performed single-cell RNA-seq data analysis of MSCs in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from control individuals and COVID-19 patients with mild and severe clinical conditions. When we compared samples from mild cases with control individuals, most genes transcriptionally upregulated in COVID-19 were involved in cell proliferation. However, a new set of genes with distinct biological functions was upregulated when we compared severely affected with mild COVID-19 patients. In this analysis, the cells upregulated genes related to cell dispersion/migration and induced the γ-activated sequence (GAS) genes, probably triggered by IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Then, IRF-1 was upregulated, one of the GAS target genes, leading to the interferon-stimulated response (ISR) and the overexpression of many signature target genes. The MSCs also upregulated genes involved in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, virus control, cell chemotaxis, and used the cytoplasmic RNA danger sensors RIG-1, MDA5, and PKR. In a non-comparative analysis, we observed that MSCs from severe cases do not express many NF-κB upstream receptors, such as Toll-like (TLRs) TLR-3, -7, and -8; tumor necrosis factor (TNFR1 or TNFR2), RANK, CD40, and IL-1R1. Indeed, many NF-κB inhibitors were upregulated, including PPP2CB, OPTN, NFKBIA, and FHL2, suggesting that MSCs do not play a role in the "cytokine storm" observed. Therefore, lung MSCs in COVID-19 sense immune danger and act protectively in concert with the pulmonary environment, confirming their therapeutic potential in cell-based therapy for COVID-19. The transcription of MSCs senescence markers is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Regeneration/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Cytoplasm/immunology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation/immunology , Young Adult
2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009742, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456098

ABSTRACT

Disease manifestations in COVID-19 range from mild to severe illness associated with a dysregulated innate immune response. Alterations in function and regeneration of dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes may contribute to immunopathology and influence adaptive immune responses in COVID-19 patients. We analyzed circulating DC and monocyte subsets in 65 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate or severe disease from acute illness to recovery and in healthy controls. Persisting reduction of all DC subpopulations was accompanied by an expansion of proliferating Lineage-HLADR+ cells lacking DC markers. Increased frequency of CD163+ CD14+ cells within the recently discovered DC3 subpopulation in patients with more severe disease was associated with systemic inflammation, activated T follicular helper cells, and antibody-secreting cells. Persistent downregulation of CD86 and upregulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in conventional DCs (cDC2 and DC3) and classical monocytes associated with a reduced capacity to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells correlated with disease severity. Long-lasting depletion and functional impairment of DCs and monocytes may have consequences for susceptibility to secondary infections and therapy of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Regeneration/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/pathology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology
4.
Pharmazie ; 75(8): 375-380, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435671

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for COVID-19 complications as it is one of the chronic immune-compromising conditions especially if patients have uncontrolled diabetes, poor HbA1c and/or irregular blood glucose levels. Diabetic patients' mortality rates with COVID-19 are higher than those of cardiovascular or cancer patients. Recently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has shown successful results in reversing diabetes in both rats and clinical trials based on different mechanisms from aerobic glycolysis to beta cells regeneration. BCG is a multi-face vaccine that has been used extensively in protection from tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy and has been repositioned for treatment of bladder cancer, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Recently, COVID-19 epidemiological studies confirmed that universal BCG vaccination reduced morbidity and mortality in certain geographical areas. Countries without universal policies of BCG vaccination (Italy, Nederland, USA) have been more severely affected compared to countries with universal and long-standing BCG policies that have shown low numbers of reported COVID-19 cases. Some countries have started clinical trials that included a single dose BCG vaccine as prophylaxis from COVID-19 or an attempt to minimize its side effects. This proposed research aims to use BCG vaccine as a double-edged weapon countering both COVID-19 and diabetes, not only as protection but also as therapeutic vaccination. The work includes a case study of regenerated pancreatic beta cells based on improved C-peptide and PCPRI laboratory findings after BCG vaccination for a 9 year old patient. The patient was re-vaccinated based on a negative tuberculin test and no scar at the site of injection of the 1st BCG vaccination at birth. The authors suggest and invite the scientific community to take into consideration the concept of direct BCG re-vaccination (after 4 weeks) because of the reported gene expressions and exaggerated innate immunity consequently. As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rats , Regeneration/immunology , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods
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