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1.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 268: 135-142, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selection, outcome and publication biases are well described in case reports and case series but may be less of a problem early in the appearance of a new disease when all cases might appear to be worth publishing. OBJECTIVE: To use a prospectively collected database of primary sources to compare the reporting of COVID-19 in pregnancy in case reports, case series and in registries over the first 8 months of the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: MEDLINE, Embase and Maternity and Infant Care databases were searched from 22 March to 5 November 2020, to create a curated list of primary sources. Duplicate reports were excluded. Case reports, case series and registry studies of pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19, where neonatal outcomes were reported, were selected and data extracted on neonatal infection status, neonatal death, neonatal intensive care unit admission, preterm birth, stillbirth, maternal critical care unit admission and maternal death. RESULTS: 149 studies comprising 41,658 mothers and 8,854 neonates were included. All complications were more common in case reports, and in retrospective series compared with presumably prospective registry studies. Extensive overlap is likely in registry studies, with cases from seven countries reported by multiple registries. The UK Obstetric Surveillance System was the only registry to explicitly report identification and removal of duplicate cases, although five other registries reported collection of patient identifiable data which would facilitate identification of duplicates. CONCLUSIONS: Since it is likely that registries provide the least biased estimates, the higher rates seen in the other two study designs are probably due to selection or publication bias. However even some registry studies include self- or doctor-reported cases, so might be biased, and we could not completely exclude overlap of cases in some registries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
2.
J Urol ; 207(1): 183-189, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612716

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a disproportionately severe effect on men, suggesting that the androgen pathway plays a role in the disease. Studies on the effect of castration and androgen receptor blockade have been mixed, while 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) use in men with COVID-19 (2019 novel coronavirus) have shown potential benefits. We assessed the association of 5ARI use on risk of community acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60,474 males in a prospective registry of people tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March 8, 2020 and February 15, 2021 were included. Using a matched cohort design, men using 5ARIs were matched 1:1 to non5ARI users. Independent analysis using unconditional multivariable logistic regression on the entire unmatched data set was completed for validation. Primary outcome measures were the association of 5ARI use on rates of SARS-Cov-2 positivity and disease severity. RESULTS: Of the men 1,079 (1.8%) reported 5ARI use and 55,100 were available for matching. The final matched cohorts included 944 men each. Mean duration of use was 60.4 months (IQR 17-84 months). Absolute risk for infection was significantly lower in 5ARI users compared to nonusers, 42.3% (399/944) vs 47.2% (446/944), respectively (absolute risk reduction [ARR] 4.9%, OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.97, p=0.026). Unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study cohort of 55,100 men confirmed the protective association of 5ARI use (ARR 5.3%, OR=0.877, 95% CI 0.774-0.995, p=0.042). Use of 5ARIs was not associated with disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Use of 5ARIs in men without prostate cancer was associated with a reduction in community acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3339-3347, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of neurological complications observed in a hospital-based cohort of COVID-19 patients who required a neurological assessment. METHODS: We conducted an observational, monocentric, prospective study of patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis hospitalized during the 3-month period of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain). We describe the neurological diagnoses that arose after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. These diagnoses could be divided into different groups. RESULTS: Only 71 (2.6%) of 2750 hospitalized patients suffered at least one neurological complication (77 different neurological diagnoses in total) during the timeframe of the study. The most common diagnoses were neuromuscular disorders (33.7%), cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) (27.3%), acute encephalopathy (19.4%), seizures (7.8%), and miscellanea (11.6%) comprising hiccups, myoclonic tremor, Horner syndrome and transverse myelitis. CVDs and encephalopathy were common in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to neuromuscular disorders, which usually appeared later on (p = 0.005). Cerebrospinal fluid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction was negative in 15/15 samples. The mortality was higher in the CVD group (38.1% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neurological complications is low in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Different mechanisms appear to be involved in these complications, and there was no evidence of direct invasion of the nervous system in our cohort. Some of the neurological complications can be classified into early and late neurological complications of COVID-19, as they occurred at different times following the onset of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3303-3323, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603795

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health issue. Neurological complications have been reported in up to one-third of affected cases, but their distribution varies significantly in terms of prevalence, incidence and phenotypical characteristics. Variability can be mostly explained by the differing sources of cases (hospital vs. community-based), the accuracy of the diagnostic approach and the interpretation of the patients' complaints. Moreover, after recovering, patients can still experience neurological symptoms. To obtain a more precise picture of the neurological manifestations and outcome of the COVID-19 infection, an international registry (ENERGY) has been created by the European Academy of Neurology in collaboration with European national neurological societies and the Neurocritical Care Society and Research Network. ENERGY can be implemented as a stand-alone instrument for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and neurological findings or as an addendum to an existing registry not targeting neurological symptoms. Data are also collected to study the impact of neurological symptoms and neurological complications on outcomes. The variables included in the registry have been selected in the interests of most countries, to favour pooling with data from other sources and to facilitate data collection even in resource-poor countries. Included are adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection, ascertained through neurological consultation, and providing informed consent. Key demographic and clinical findings are collected at registration. Patients are followed up to 12 months in search of incident neurological manifestations. As of 19 August, 254 centres from 69 countries and four continents have made requests to join the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurology , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142046, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605268

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a distinct spatiotemporal pattern in the United States. Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, but it is not well known whether COVID-19 outcomes in this patient population were associated with geography. Objective: To quantify spatiotemporal variation in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients with a historical diagnosis of invasive malignant neoplasm and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and November 2020. Data were collected from cancer care delivery centers in the United States. Exposures: Patient residence was categorized into 9 US census divisions. Cancer center characteristics included academic or community classification, rural-urban continuum code (RUCC), and social vulnerability index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary composite outcome consisted of receipt of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause death. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated associations of center-level and census division-level exposures with outcomes after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and quantified variation in adjusted outcomes across centers, census divisions, and calendar time. Results: Data for 4749 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-76] years; 2439 [51.4%] female individuals, 1079 [22.7%] non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 690 [14.5%] Hispanic individuals) were reported from 83 centers in the Northeast (1564 patients [32.9%]), Midwest (1638 [34.5%]), South (894 [18.8%]), and West (653 [13.8%]). After adjustment for patient characteristics, including month of COVID-19 diagnosis, estimated 30-day mortality rates ranged from 5.2% to 26.6% across centers. Patients from centers located in metropolitan areas with population less than 250 000 (RUCC 3) had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared with patients from centers in metropolitan areas with population at least 1 million (RUCC 1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.84). The type of center was not significantly associated with primary or secondary outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome rates across the 9 census divisions, but adjusted mortality rates significantly improved over time (eg, September to November vs March to May: aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study, significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes across US census divisions were not observed. However, substantial heterogeneity in COVID-19 outcomes across cancer care delivery centers was found. Attention to implementing standardized guidelines for the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 could improve outcomes for these vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rural Population , Social Vulnerability , Urban Population , Aged , Cause of Death , Censuses , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spatial Analysis , United States/epidemiology
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 287: 73-77, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594908

ABSTRACT

Adopting international standards within health research communities can elevate data FAIRness and widen analysis possibilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mapping feasibility against HL7® Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources® (FHIR)® of a generic metadata schema (MDS) created for a central search hub gathering COVID-19 health research (studies, questionnaires, documents = MDS resource types). Mapping results were rated by calculating the percentage of FHIR coverage. Among 86 items to map, total mapping coverage was 94%: 50 (58%) of the items were available as standard resources in FHIR and 31 (36%) could be mapped using extensions. Five items (6%) could not be mapped to FHIR. Analyzing each MDS resource type, there was a total mapping coverage of 93% for studies and 95% for questionnaires and documents, with 61% of the MDS items available as standard resources in FHIR for studies, 57% for questionnaires and 52% for documents. Extensions in studies, questionnaires and documents were used in 32%, 38% and 43% of items, respectively. This work shows that FHIR can be used as a standardized format in registries for clinical, epidemiological and public health research. However, further adjustments to the initial MDS are recommended - and two additional items even needed when implementing FHIR. Developing a MDS based on the FHIR standard could be a future approach to reduce data ambiguity and foster interoperability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metadata , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Health Level Seven , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1695-1703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound effect on transplantation activity in the United States and globally. Several single-center reports suggest higher morbidity and mortality among candidates waitlisted for a kidney transplant and recipients of a kidney transplant. We aim to describe 2020 mortality patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States among kidney transplant candidates and recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using national registry data for waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients collected through April 23, 2021, we report demographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related mortality in 2020, other deaths in 2020, and deaths in 2019 among waitlisted candidates and transplant recipients. We quantify excess all-cause deaths among candidate and recipient populations in 2020 and deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 in relation to prepandemic mortality patterns in 2019 and 2018. RESULTS: Among deaths of patients who were waitlisted in 2020, 11% were attributed to COVID-19, and these candidates were more likely to be male, obese, and belong to a racial/ethnic minority group. Nearly one in six deaths (16%) among active transplant recipients in the United States in 2020 was attributed to COVID-19. Recipients who died of COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be obese, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to belong to racial/ethnic minority groups than those who died of other causes in 2020 or 2019. We found higher overall mortality in 2020 among waitlisted candidates (24%) than among kidney transplant recipients (20%) compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates higher rates of mortality associated with COVID-19 among waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients in the United States in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
8.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 140, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and a severe inflammatory syndrome in children. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data about myocardial injury in children are limited to small cohorts. The aim of this multicenter, international registry is to describe clinical and cardiac characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 using CMR so as to better understand the real extent of myocardial damage in this vulnerable cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred-eleven patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), having clinical cardiac involvement and having received CMR imaging scan were included from 17 centers. Median age at disease onset was 10.0 years (IQR 7.0-13.8). The majority of children had COVID-19 serology positive (98%) with 27% of children still having both, positive serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMR was performed at a median of 28 days (19-47) after onset of symptoms. Twenty out of 111 (18%) patients had CMR criteria for acute myocarditis (as defined by the Lake Louise Criteria) with 18/20 showing subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR myocarditis was significantly associated with New York Heart Association class IV (p = 0.005, OR 6.56 (95%-CI 1.87-23.00)) and the need for mechanical support (p = 0.039, OR 4.98 (95%-CI 1.18-21.02)). At discharge, 11/111 (10%) patients still had left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: No CMR evidence of myocardial damage was found in most of our MIS-C cohort. Nevertheless, acute myocarditis is a possible manifestation of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 with CMR evidence of myocardial necrosis in 18% of our cohort. CMR may be an important diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients at risk for cardiac sequelae and more prone to myocardial damage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT04455347, registered on 01/07/2020, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
In Vivo ; 36(1): 361-370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Evidence suggests a beneficial effect of prone positioning (PP) in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Meta-analysis of individual (7 investigators' groups) and aggregate data (PubMed/EMBASE) regarding the impact of PP on the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PO2/FiO2) in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 121 patients (mean age±SD 59.1±10.7 years, 55% males, 57% intubated) the mean post-versus pre- PP PO2/FiO2 difference was: (i) 50.4±64.3 mmHg, p<0.01, (ii) similar in awake (58.7±72.1 mmHg) versus intubated patients (44.1±57.5 mmHg, p=NS), (iii) inversely correlated with body mass index (r=-0.43, p<0.01). Meta-analysis of 23 studies (n=547, weighted age 58.3±4.1, 73% males, 59% intubated) showed a pooled PO2/FiO2 difference of 61.8 [95% confidence intervals=49.9-73.6] mmHg. Meta-regression analysis revealed no associations with baseline demographics, the time in PP before assessment, and the risk of bias of the studies. CONCLUSION: PP seems to improve oxygenation of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxygen , Prone Position , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24439, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585782

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently associated with COVID-19 and it is considered an indicator of disease severity. This study aimed to develop a prognostic score for predicting in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with AKI (AKI-COV score). This was a cross-sectional multicentre prospective cohort study in the Latin America AKI COVID-19 Registry. A total of 870 COVID-19 patients with AKI defined according to the KDIGO were included between 1 May 2020 and 31 December 2020. We evaluated four categories of predictor variables that were available at the time of the diagnosis of AKI: (1) demographic data; (2) comorbidities and conditions at admission; (3) laboratory exams within 24 h; and (4) characteristics and causes of AKI. We used a machine learning approach to fit models in the training set using tenfold cross-validation and validated the accuracy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). The coefficients of the best model (Elastic Net) were used to build the predictive AKI-COV score. The AKI-COV score had an AUC-ROC of 0.823 (95% CI 0.761-0.885) in the validation cohort. The use of the AKI-COV score may assist healthcare workers in identifying hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI that may require more intensive monitoring and can be used for resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Hospital Mortality , Machine Learning , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26081, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound and differential impacts on metropolitan areas across the United States and around the world. Within the United States, metropolitan areas that were hit earliest with the pandemic and reacted with scientifically based health policy were able to contain the virus by late spring. For other areas that kept businesses open, the first wave in the United States hit in mid-summer. As the weather turns colder, universities resume classes, and people tire of lockdowns, a second wave is ascending in both metropolitan and rural areas. It becomes more obvious that additional SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is needed at the local level to track recent shifts in the pandemic, rates of increase, and persistence. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for speed, acceleration, jerk and persistence, and weekly shifts, to better understand and manage risk in metropolitan areas. Existing surveillance measures coupled with our dynamic metrics of transmission will inform health policy to control the COVID-19 pandemic until, and after, an effective vaccine is developed. Here, we provide values for novel indicators to measure COVID-19 transmission at the metropolitan area level. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 260 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in the 25 largest US metropolitan areas as a function of the prior number of cases and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel data model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: Minneapolis and Chicago have the greatest average number of daily new positive results per standardized 100,000 population (which we refer to as speed). Extreme behavior in Minneapolis showed an increase in speed from 17 to 30 (67%) in 1 week. The jerk and acceleration calculated for these areas also showed extreme behavior. The dynamic panel data model shows that Minneapolis, Chicago, and Detroit have the largest persistence effects, meaning that new cases pertaining to a specific week are statistically attributable to new cases from the prior week. CONCLUSIONS: Three of the metropolitan areas with historically early and harsh winters have the highest persistence effects out of the top 25 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States at the beginning of their cold weather season. With these persistence effects, and with indoor activities becoming more popular as the weather gets colder, stringent COVID-19 regulations will be more important than ever to flatten the second wave of the pandemic. As colder weather grips more of the nation, southern metropolitan areas may also see large spikes in the number of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Policy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248438, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Accurate and reliable criteria to rapidly estimate the probability of infection with the novel coronavirus-2 that causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) and associated disease (COVID-19) remain an urgent unmet need, especially in emergency care. The objective was to derive and validate a clinical prediction score for SARS-CoV-2 infection that uses simple criteria widely available at the point of care. METHODS: Data came from the registry data from the national REgistry of suspected COVID-19 in EmeRgency care (RECOVER network) comprising 116 hospitals from 25 states in the US. Clinical variables and 30-day outcomes were abstracted from medical records of 19,850 emergency department (ED) patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. The criterion standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 required a positive molecular test from a swabbed sample or positive antibody testing within 30 days. The prediction score was derived from a 50% random sample (n = 9,925) using unadjusted analysis of 107 candidate variables as a screening step, followed by stepwise forward logistic regression on 72 variables. RESULTS: Multivariable regression yielded a 13-variable score, which was simplified to a 13-point score: +1 point each for age>50 years, measured temperature>37.5°C, oxygen saturation<95%, Black race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, household contact with known or suspected COVID-19, patient reported history of dry cough, anosmia/dysgeusia, myalgias or fever; and -1 point each for White race, no direct contact with infected person, or smoking. In the validation sample (n = 9,975), the probability from logistic regression score produced an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.79-0.81), and this level of accuracy was retained across patients enrolled from the early spring to summer of 2020. In the simplified score, a score of zero produced a sensitivity of 95.6% (94.8-96.3%), specificity of 20.0% (19.0-21.0%), negative likelihood ratio of 0.22 (0.19-0.26). Increasing points on the simplified score predicted higher probability of infection (e.g., >75% probability with +5 or more points). CONCLUSION: Criteria that are available at the point of care can accurately predict the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These criteria could assist with decisions about isolation and testing at high throughput checkpoints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Adult , Aged , Clinical Decision Rules , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough , Databases, Factual , Decision Trees , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(12): 1231-1236, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568382

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is among the measures implemented by authorities to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, real-world evidence of population-level effects of vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 are required to confirm that positive results from clinical trials translate into positive public health outcomes. Since the age group 80 + years is most at risk for severe COVID-19 disease progression, this group was prioritized during vaccine rollout in Germany. Based on comprehensive vaccination data from the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate for calendar week 1-20 in the year 2021, we calculated sex- and age-specific vaccination coverage. Furthermore, we calculated the proportion of weekly COVID-19 fatalities and reported SARS-CoV-2 infections formed by each age group. Vaccination coverage in the age group 80 + years increased to a level of 80% (men) and 75% (women). Increasing vaccination coverage coincided with a reduction in the age group's proportion of COVID-19 fatalities. In multivariable logistic regression, vaccination coverage was associated both with a reduction in an age-group's proportion of COVID-19 fatalities [odds ratio (OR) per 5 percentage points = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.96, p = 0.0013] and of reported SARS-CoV-2 infections (OR per 5 percentage points = 0.82, 95% CI 0.76-0.88, p < 0.0001). The results are consistent with a protective effect afforded by the vaccination campaign against severe COVID-19 disease in the oldest age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1914, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sick-leave due to COVID-19 vary in length and might lead to re-current episodes. The aim was to investigate recurrent sick leave due to COVID-19 during the first wave. METHODS: This is a registry-based cohort study. The study comprises all people with sickness benefit due to COVID-19 in Sweden in March 1-August 31, 2020. Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, and Statistics Sweden were merged. RESULTS: Within the follow-up period of 4 months, 11,955 people were subject to sickness benefit due to COVID-19, whereof 242 people (2.0%) took recurrent sick leave due to COVID-19, and of those 136 (56.2%) remained on sick leave at the end of follow-up. People with recurrent sick leave were older, more often women, and more likely to have been on sick leave prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: A group of people presented with recurrent sick leave due to COVID-19. For half of them, the second sick leave lasted throughout the follow-up. People with recurrent sick leave differ in several aspects from those with shorter sick leave. To capture long-term sick-leave patterns due to COVID-19, a longer period of follow-up is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave , Sweden/epidemiology
15.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the course of recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to determine its predictors, including patients' pre-COVID-19 physical and mental health status. METHODS: This prospective and longitudinal cohort study recruited patients with MS who reported COVID-19 from March 17, 2020, to March 19, 2021, as part of the United Kingdom MS Register (UKMSR) COVID-19 study. Participants used online questionnaires to regularly update their COVID-19 symptoms, recovery status, and duration of symptoms for those who fully recovered. Questionnaires were date stamped for estimation of COVID-19 symptom duration for those who had not recovered at their last follow-up. The UKMSR holds demographic and up-to-date clinical data on participants as well as their web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale (web-EDSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores. The association between these factors and recovery from COVID-19 was assessed using multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 7,977 patients with MS who participated in the UKMSR COVID-19 study, 599 reported COVID-19 and prospectively updated their recovery status. Twenty-eight hospitalized participants were excluded. At least 165 participants (29.7%) had long-standing COVID-19 symptoms for ≥4 weeks and 69 (12.4%) for ≥12 weeks. Participants with pre-COVID-19 web-EDSS scores ≥7, participants with probable anxiety and/or depression (HADS scores ≥11) before COVID-19 onset, and women were less likely to report recovery from COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Patients with MS are affected by postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Preexisting severe neurologic impairment or mental health problems appear to increase this risk. These findings can have implications in tailoring their post-COVID-19 rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Registries , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk , Time Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Kardiologiia ; 61(9): 20-32, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527055

ABSTRACT

Aim      To study the effect of regular drug therapy for cardiovascular and other diseases preceding the COVID-19 infection on severity and outcome of COVID-19 based on data of the ACTIVE (Analysis of dynamics of Comorbidities in paTIents who surVived SARS-CoV-2 infEction) registry.Material and methods  The ACTIVE registry was created at the initiative of the Eurasian Association of Therapists. The registry includes 5 808 male and female patients diagnosed with COVID-19 treated in a hospital or at home with a due protection of patients' privacy (data of nasal and throat smears; antibody titer; typical CT imaging features). The register territory included 7 countries: the Russian Federation, the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Moldova, and the Republic of Uzbekistan. The registry design: a closed, multicenter registry with two nonoverlapping arms (outpatient arm and in-patient arm). The registry scheduled 6 visits, 3 in-person visits during the acute period and 3 virtual visits (telephone calls) at 3, 6, and 12 mos. Patient enrollment started on June 29, 2020 and was completed on October 29, 2020. The registry completion is scheduled for October 29, 2022. The registry ID: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04492384. In this fragment of the study of registry data, the work group analyzed the effect of therapy for comorbidities at baseline on severity and outcomes of the novel coronavirus infection. The study population included only the patients who took their medicines on a regular basis while the comparison population consisted of noncompliant patients (irregular drug intake or not taking drugs at all despite indications for the treatment).Results The analysis of the ACTIVE registry database included 5808 patients. The vast majority of patients with COVID-19 had comorbidities with prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Medicines used for the treatment of COVID-19 comorbidities influenced the course of the infectious disease in different ways. A lower risk of fatal outcome was associated with the statin treatment in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD); with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor antagonists and with beta-blockers in patients with IHD, arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure (CHF), and atrial fibrillation; with oral anticoagulants (OAC), primarily direct OAC, clopidogrel/prasugrel/ticagrelor in patients with IHD; with oral antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); and with long-acting insulins in patients with type 1 DM. A higher risk of fatal outcome was associated with the spironolactone treatment in patients with CHF and with inhaled corticosteroids (iCS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Conclusion      In the epoch of COVID-19 pandemic, a lower risk of severe course of the coronavirus infection was observed for patients with chronic noninfectious comorbidities highly compliant with the base treatment of the comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3478-3486, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thrombotic events (VTE) are frequent in COVID-19, and elevated plasma D-dimer (pDd) and dyspnea are common in both entities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the admission pDd cut-off value associated with in-hospital VTE in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study analyzing the at-admission pDd cut-off value to predict VTE and anticoagulation intensity along hospitalization due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 9386 patients, 2.2% had VTE: 1.6% pulmonary embolism (PE), 0.4% deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and 0.2% both. Those with VTE had a higher prevalence of tachypnea (42.9% vs. 31.1%; p = 0.0005), basal O2 saturation <93% (45.4% vs. 33.1%; p = 0.0003), higher at admission pDd (median [IQR]: 1.4 [0.6-5.5] vs. 0.6 [0.4-1.2] µg/ml; p < 0.0001) and platelet count (median [IQR]: 208 [158-289] vs. 189 [148-245] platelets × 109/L; p = 0.0013). A pDd cut-off of 1.1 µg/ml showed specificity 72%, sensitivity 49%, positive predictive value (PPV) 4%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 99% for in-hospital VTE. A cut-off value of 4.7 µg/ml showed specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 27%, PPV of 9%, and NPV of 98%. Overall mortality was proportional to pDd value, with the lowest incidence for each pDd category depending on anticoagulation intensity: 26.3% for those with pDd >1.0 µg/ml treated with prophylactic dose (p < 0.0001), 28.8% for pDd for patients with pDd >2.0 µg/ml treated with intermediate dose (p = 0.0001), and 31.3% for those with pDd >3.0 µg/ml and full anticoagulation (p = 0.0183). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a pDd value greater than 3.0 µg/ml can be considered to screen VTE and to consider full-dose anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitalization , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
18.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524944

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Nationwide surveillance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other human prion diseases is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry (ANCJDR). National surveillance encompasses the period since 1 January 1970, with prospective surveillance occurring from 1 October 1993. Over this prospective surveillance period, considerable developments have occurred in pre-mortem diagnostics; in the delineation of new disease subtypes; and in a heightened awareness of prion diseases in healthcare settings. Surveillance practices of the ANCJDR have evolved and adapted accordingly. This report summarises the activities of the ANCJDR during 2020. Since the ANCJDR began offering diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein testing in Australia in September 1997, the annual number of referrals has steadily increased. In 2020, 510 domestic CSF specimens were referred for 14-3-3 protein testing and 85 persons with suspected human prion disease were formally added to the national register. As of 31 December 2020, just over half (44 cases) of the 85 suspect case notifications remain classified as 'incomplete'; 27 cases were excluded through either detailed clinical follow-up (9 cases) or neuropathological examination (18 cases); 18 cases were classified as 'definite' and eleven as 'probable' prion disease. For 2020, sixty percent of all suspected human-prion-disease-related deaths in Australia underwent neuropathological examination. No cases of variant or iatrogenic CJD were identified. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic did not affect prion disease surveillance outcomes in Australia.


Subject(s)
14-3-3 Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Prion Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/pathology , Disease Notification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropathology , Prion Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Prospective Studies , Registries
19.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 74(12): 1095-1105, 2021 Dec.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517450

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The Interventional Cardiology Association of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (ACI-SEC) presents its annual activity report for 2020, the year of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: All Spanish centers with catheterization laboratories were invited to participate. Data were collected online and were analyzed by an external company, together with the members of the ACI-SEC. RESULTS: A total of 123 centers participated (4 more than 2019), of which 83 were public and 40 were private. Diagnostic coronary angiograms decreased by 9.4%, percutaneous coronary interventions by 10.1%, primary percutaneous coronary interventions by 4.1%, transcatheter aortic valve replacements by 0.9%, and left atrial appendage closure by 8.3%. The only procedures that increased with respect to previous years were edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (13.8%) and patent foramen ovale closure (19.4%). The use of pressure wire (5.5%), intravascular imaging devices and plaque preparation devices decreased (with the exception of lithotripsy, which increased by 62%). CONCLUSIONS: In the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the registry showed a marked drop in activity in all procedures except for percutaneous mitral valve repair and patent foramen ovale closure. This decrease was less marked than previously described, suggesting a rebound in interventional activity after the first wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Cardiac Catheterization , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Stents
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