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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(6): 1410-1412, 2021.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2207210

ABSTRACT

A 33-year-old woman developed palindromic rheumatism (PLR) several weeks following an infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Three months later, she developed full blown seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following COVID-19 reinfection. Although the occurrence of the joint diseases and the COVID-19 infections maybe fortuitous, knowing the enormous effects of COVID-19 infection on the human immune system, it is difficult to ignore the temporal relationship between the appearance of PLR after the first COVID-19 infection and the transition to full blown RA following her COVID-19 re-infection.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS Med ; 19(11): e1004037, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with a prior Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have a moderate to high degree of protection against reinfection, though seemingly less so when the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 started to circulate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related hospitalization, and COVID-19-related death, in individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to assess the effect of time since vaccination during periods with different dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study used a nationwide cohort design including all individuals with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were alive, and residing in Denmark between 1 January 2020 and 31 January 2022. Using Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on SARS-CoV-2 infections, COVID-19 vaccination, age, sex, comorbidity, staying at hospital, and country of origin. The study population included were individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estimates of VE against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a Poisson regression model and adjusted for age, sex, country of origin, comorbidity, staying at hospital, calendar time, and test incidence using a Cox regression model. The VE estimates were calculated separately for three periods with different dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants (Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617.2), or Omicron (B.1.1.529)) and by time since vaccination using unvaccinated as the reference. In total, 148,527 person-years and 44,192 SARS-CoV-2 infections were included for the analysis regarding reinfections. The study population comprised of 209,814 individuals infected before or during the Alpha period, 292,978 before or during the Delta period, and 245,530 before or during the Omicron period. Of these, 40,281 individuals had completed their primary vaccination series during the Alpha period (19.2%), 190,026 during the Delta period (64.9%), and 158,563 during the Omicron period (64.6%). VE against reinfection following any COVID-19 vaccine type administered in Denmark, peaked at 71% (95% CI: -Inf to 100%) at 104 days or more after vaccination during the Alpha period, 94% (95% CI: 92% to 96%) 14 to 43 days after vaccination during the Delta period, and 60% (95% CI: 58% to 62%) 14 to 43 days after vaccination during the Omicron period. Waning immunity following vaccination was observed and was most pronounced during the Omicron period. Due to too few events, it was not possible to estimate VE for hospitalization and death. Study limitations include potentially undetected reinfections, differences in health-seeking behavior, or risk behavior between the compared groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in previously infected individuals, completing a primary vaccination series was associated with a significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection compared with no vaccination. Even though vaccination seems to protect to a lesser degree against reinfection with the Omicron variant, these findings are of public health relevance as they show that previously infected individuals still benefit from COVID-19 vaccination in all three variant periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccine Efficacy , Denmark/epidemiology
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20098, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133574

ABSTRACT

The in-depth understanding of the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission among different age groups is of great interest for governments and health authorities so that strategies can be devised to reduce the pandemic's detrimental effects. We developed the SIRDV-Virulence (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Dead-Vaccinated-Virulence) epidemiological model based on a population balance equation to study the effects virus mutants, vaccination strategies, 'Anti/Non Vaxxer' proportions, and reinfection rates to provide methods to mitigate COVID-19 transmission among the United States population. Based on publicly available data, we obtain the key parameters governing the spread of the pandemic. The results show that a large fraction of infected cases comes from the adult and children populations in the presence of a highly infectious COVID-19 mutant. Given the situation at the end of July 2021, the results show that prioritizing children and adult vaccinations over that of seniors can contain the spread of the active cases, thereby preventing the healthcare system from being overwhelmed and minimizing subsequent deaths. The model suggests that the only option to curb the effects of this pandemic is to reduce the population of unvaccinated individuals. A higher fraction of 'Anti/Non-vaxxers' and a higher reinfection rate can both independently lead to the resurgence of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Adult , Child , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Mutation
4.
Nat Med ; 28(11): 2398-2405, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116490

ABSTRACT

First infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with increased risk of acute and postacute death and sequelae in various organ systems. Whether reinfection adds to risks incurred after first infection is unclear. Here we used the US Department of Veterans Affairs' national healthcare database to build a cohort of individuals with one SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 443,588), reinfection (two or more infections, n = 40,947) and a noninfected control (n = 5,334,729). We used inverse probability-weighted survival models to estimate risks and 6-month burdens of death, hospitalization and incident sequelae. Compared to no reinfection, reinfection contributed additional risks of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.17, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.93-2.45), hospitalization (HR = 3.32, 95% CI 3.13-3.51) and sequelae including pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematological, diabetes, gastrointestinal, kidney, mental health, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The risks were evident regardless of vaccination status. The risks were most pronounced in the acute phase but persisted in the postacute phase at 6 months. Compared to noninfected controls, cumulative risks and burdens of repeat infection increased according to the number of infections. Limitations included a cohort of mostly white males. The evidence shows that reinfection further increases risks of death, hospitalization and sequelae in multiple organ systems in the acute and postacute phase. Reducing overall burden of death and disease due to SARS-CoV-2 will require strategies for reinfection prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression
7.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(6): 355-357, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096190
8.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(10)2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087955

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The possibility of reinfection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a widely proven fact and may have clinical implications.Hypothesis /Gap Statement. It is not known whether there have been cases of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 in La Ribera Health Department.Aim. To determine whether there have been cases of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 in La Ribera Health Department and to identify their characteristics.Methodology. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study of cases of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 in the population of La Ribera Department between March 2020 and February 2021. The positive baseline cohort includes all cases positive by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, with reinfection cases being those that, after resolution of the first episode according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, presented a new positive RT-PCR result.Results. Out of a total of 15 687 cases with positive RT-PCR, 40 were considered to be reinfections, which meant a cumulative incidence of 0.255 % and an incidence density of 5.05 cases per 100 000 person-days. Most of the cases occurred during the highest incidence peaks of the pandemic in the department. Seventy-five per cent of the patients in these cases were older than 40 years, 42.5 % were healthcare professionals or nursing home residents and 12.5 % had an immunosuppressive comorbidity. There were no severe, critical or death cases. In the reinfection episodes, with respect to the first episode, there was a tendency to be milder, they required fewer days of hospitalization, their RT-PCR became negative earlier, they developed a greater humoral response and the sick leave period was shorter. The median period between the RT-PCR in the first episode and the RT-PCR in the second episode was 127.5 days (range: 48-301; IQR: 89.5-256.25)Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 reinfection cases are rare, tend to be mild and can occur within a median period of 127.5 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reinfection , Spain/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology
9.
N Engl J Med ; 387(19): 1770-1782, 2022 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the protection conferred by vaccination and previous infection against infection with the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is limited. METHODS: We evaluated the protection conferred by mRNA vaccines and previous infection against infection with the omicron variant in two high-risk populations: residents and staff in the California state prison system. We used a retrospective cohort design to analyze the risk of infection during the omicron wave using data collected from December 24, 2021, through April 14, 2022. Weighted Cox models were used to compare the effectiveness (measured as 1 minus the hazard ratio) of vaccination and previous infection across combinations of vaccination history (stratified according to the number of mRNA doses received) and infection history (none or infection before or during the period of B.1.617.2 [delta]-variant predominance). A secondary analysis used a rolling matched-cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of three vaccine doses as compared with two doses. RESULTS: Among 59,794 residents and 16,572 staff, the estimated effectiveness of previous infection against omicron infection among unvaccinated persons who had been infected before or during the period of delta predominance ranged from 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1 to 23.7) to 48.9% (95% CI, 41.6 to 55.3). Depending on previous infection status, the estimated effectiveness of vaccination (relative to being unvaccinated and without previous documented infection) ranged from 18.6% (95% CI, 7.7 to 28.1) to 83.2% (95% CI, 77.7 to 87.4) with two vaccine doses and from 40.9% (95% CI, 31.9 to 48.7) to 87.9% (95% CI, 76.0 to 93.9) with three vaccine doses. Incremental effectiveness estimates of a third (booster) dose (relative to two doses) ranged from 25.0% (95% CI, 16.6 to 32.5) to 57.9% (95% CI, 48.4 to 65.7) among persons who either had not had previous documented infection or had been infected before the period of delta predominance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in two high-risk populations suggest that mRNA vaccination and previous infection were effective against omicron infection, with lower estimates among those infected before the period of delta predominance. Three vaccine doses offered significantly more protection than two doses, including among previously infected persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Prisons , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , California/epidemiology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Police/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The actual frequency and the risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is still a matter of intense scientific discussion. In this case series, we report three elite athletes who underwent COVID-19 reinfection with a short time frame. CASE PRESENTATIONS: As a part of contact tracing, three speed skaters (22-, 24-, and 29-year-old males) were found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Later on, only one of the athletes experienced mild symptoms, such as fatigue, loss of smell and taste and subfebrility, while the other two athletes were asymptomatic. Following the quarantine period, detailed return-to-play examinations, including laboratory testing, ECG, 24-h Holter monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, revealed no apparent abnormality; therefore, the athletes restarted training. After a median of 74 days, all three athletes presented with typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever, marked fatigue and headache. SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were performed again, showing recurrent positivity. Repeated return-to-play assessments were initiated, finding no relevant abnormality. Athletes were also tested for SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleoprotein antibody titers, showing only modest increases following the second infection. CONCLUSIONS: We report a small cluster of elite athletes who underwent a PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. According to these findings, athletes may be considered as a high-risk group in terms of recurrent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Athletes , Fatigue/etiology
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236670, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074855

ABSTRACT

Importance: The Omicron variant is phylogenetically and antigenically distinct from earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants and the original vaccine strain. Protection conferred by prior SARS-CoV-2 infection against Omicron reinfection, with and without vaccination, requires quantification. Objective: To estimate the protection against Omicron reinfection and hospitalization conferred by prior heterologous non-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or up to 3 doses of an ancestral, Wuhan-like messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. Design, Setting, and Participants: This test-negative, population-based case-control study was conducted between December 26, 2021, and March 12, 2022, and included community-dwelling individuals aged 12 years or older who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the province of Quebec, Canada. Exposures: Prior laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with or without mRNA vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and associated hospitalization, presumed to be associated with the Omicron variant according to genomic surveillance. The odds of prior infection with or without vaccination were compared for case participants with Omicron infection and associated hospitalizations vs test-negative control participants. Estimated protection was derived as 1 - the odds ratio, adjusted for age, sex, testing indication, and epidemiologic week. Analyses were stratified by severity and time since last non-Omicron infection or vaccine dose. Results: This study included 696 439 individuals (224 007 case participants and 472 432 control participants); 62.2% and 63.9% were female and 87.4% and 75.5% were aged 18 to 69 years, respectively. Prior non-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected for 9505 case participants (4.2%) and 29 712 control participants (6.3%). Among nonvaccinated individuals, prior non-Omicron infection was associated with a 44% reduction (95% CI, 38%-48%) in Omicron reinfection risk, which decreased from 66% (95% CI, 57%-73%) at 3 to 5 months to 35% (95% CI, 21%-47%) at 9 to 11 months postinfection and was below 30% thereafter. The more severe the prior infection, the greater the risk reduction. Estimated protection (95% CI) against Omicron infection was consistently significantly higher among vaccinated individuals with prior infection compared with vaccinated infection-naive individuals, with 65% (63%-67%) vs 20% (16%-24%) for 1 dose, 68% (67%-70%) vs 42% (41%-44%) for 2 doses, and 83% (81%-84%) vs 73% (72%-73%) for 3 doses. For individuals with prior infection, estimated protection (95% CI) against Omicron-associated hospitalization was 81% (66%-89%) and increased to 86% (77%-99%) with 1, 94% (91%-96%) with 2, and 97% (94%-99%) with 3 mRNA vaccine doses, without signs of waning. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that vaccination with 2 or 3 mRNA vaccine doses among individuals with prior heterologous SARS-CoV-2 infection provided the greatest protection against Omicron-associated hospitalization. In the context of program goals to prevent severe outcomes and preserve health care system capacity, a third mRNA vaccine dose may add limited protection in twice-vaccinated individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Quebec/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 994253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065521

ABSTRACT

The risk of severe adult respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the course of the infection among individuals with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) relative to the general population have been a matter of debate. We conducted a Danish nationwide study comparing the timing of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the risk of first confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, re-infection, and the outcome of infection among individuals with CVID relative to an age- and gender matched control group. Cox regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios. The CVID patients received SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations earlier than those included in the population control group. Even so, the risks of both first infection and re-infection were increased among the individuals with CVID. The CVID group also had increased risk for hospital contacts due to SARS-CoV-2 infection relative to the general population. However, reassuringly, the risk of mechanical ventilation and death did not differ between the groups, but the numbers were low in both groups, making the estimates uncertain. Though this is the largest study to investigate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections and outcomes hereof among individuals with CVID relative to the general population, we cannot rule out minor differences in severity, which might only be detectable with an even larger sample size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 379, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064796

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the persistence of IgM, IgA, and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens up to 616 days since the onset of symptoms in a longitudinal cohort of 247 primary health care workers from Barcelona, Spain, followed up since the start of the pandemic. The study also assesses factors affecting antibody levels, including comorbidities and the responses to variants of concern as well as the frequency of reinfections. Despite a gradual and significant decline in antibody levels with time, seropositivity to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens combined was always higher than 90% over the whole study period. In a subset of 23 participants who had not yet been vaccinated by November 2021, seropositivity remained at 95.65% (47.83% IgM, 95.65% IgA, 95.65% IgG). IgG seropositivity against Alpha and Delta predominant variants was comparable to that against the Wuhan variant, while it was lower for Gamma and Beta (minority) variants and for IgA and IgM. Antibody levels at the time point closest to infection were associated with age, smoking, obesity, hospitalization, fever, anosmia/hypogeusia, chest pain, and hypertension in multivariable regression models. Up to 1 year later, just before the massive roll out of vaccination, antibody levels were associated with age, occupation, hospitalization, duration of symptoms, anosmia/hypogeusia, fever, and headache. In addition, tachycardia and cutaneous symptoms associated with slower antibody decay, and oxygen supply with faster antibody decay. Eight reinfections (3.23%) were detected in low responders, which is consistent with a sustained protective role for anti-spike naturally acquired antibodies. Stable persistence of IgG and IgA responses and cross-recognition of the predominant variants circulating in the 2020-2021 period indicate long-lasting and largely variant-transcending humoral immunity in the initial 20.5 months of the pandemic, in the absence of vaccination.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Anosmia , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Oxygen , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 379, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted this study to compare the risk of reinfection between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and a control group without MS. METHOD: In this retrospective study, data of all SARS-CoV-2 tests (n = 793,301) and almost all MS patients (n = 10,639) in Isfahan province were collected from January 01, 2020 to August 22, 2021. Of the 2196 MS patients and 793,301 persons from the general population who had been tested at least once, 3 control for each MS patient were identified, leaving 1560 MS patients and 4680 controls without MS. We compared the risk of reinfection after 90 days of a primary infection between those with and without a previous positive COVID-19 test. RESULTS: 736 (47.2%) MS patients and 2013 (43.0%) control individuals had at least one positive test. A total of 17 (2.3%) and 22 (1.1%) possible reinfections in MS and control groups were observed. The estimated protection against reinfection in all MS patients, MS patients on rituximab, MS patients on DMTs rather than rituximab, and controls were 68.2% (46.2, 81.2%), 57.4% (- 0.1, 83.1%), 71.5% (45.5, 85.2%), and 82.1% (72.1, 88.5%), respectively. We found no statistically significant difference in estimated protection (p = 0.123) and odd of reinfection (adjusted OR: 2.01 [0.98, 4.08]) between all MS patients and control group. Two patients were hospitalized at first infection but none required hospitalization at reinfection event. CONCLUSIONS: MS patients on rituximab may be at a greater risk of reinfection. Further studies are required to assess the risk of the second reinfection among the MS population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2341-2343, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054905

ABSTRACT

We describe 188 patients in France who were successively infected with different SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants, including BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5. Time between 2 infections was <90 days for 50 (26.6%) patients and <60 days for 28 (14.9%) patients. This finding suggests that definitions for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection require revision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , France/epidemiology
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010337, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first case of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, was diagnosed on March 12, 2020; thereafter, multiple surges of infection occurred, similar to what was seen elsewhere. These surges were mostly due to SARS-CoV-2 mutations leading to emergence of variants of concern (VoC). The introduction of new VoCs in a population previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 or after vaccination has been a challenge to understanding the kinetics of the protective immune response against this virus. The aim of this study was to investigate the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections observed in mid-January 2022 in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. It describes the clinical and genomic characteristics of nine cases of reinfection that occurred coincident with the introduction of the omicron variant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of a total of 172,965 individuals with upper respiratory symptoms tested for SARS-CoV-2, between March 2020 through mid-February 2022, 58,097 tested positive. Of those, 444 had documented a second SARS-CoV-2 infection and nine reinfection cases were selected for sequencing. Genomic analysis revealed that virus lineages diverged between primary infections and the reinfections, with the latter caused by the Omicron (BA.1) variant among individuals fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the Omicron variant is able to evade both natural and vaccine-induced immunity, since all nine cases had prior natural infection and, in addition, were fully vaccinated, emphasizing the need to develop effective blocking vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S236-S242, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data currently exist on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among fully vaccinated persons or reinfections in college-aged populations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions to analyze retrospective data and present characteristics of positive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases among student athletes 18 years of age and older. METHODS: De-identified, individual-level data contributed by 21 universities on 1378 student athletes who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from January through November 2021 (pre-Omicron) were examined to determine percentages of infection among unvaccinated, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated individuals (breakthrough infections) as well as reinfections. Comparisons by demographic characteristics and regions were also made to further characterize these infections. RESULTS: Among the 1378 student athletes positive for SARS-CoV-2, 1070 (77.6%) were infected when unvaccinated and 22.4% (n = 308) were infected after full vaccination. There was a significant difference between Black (14.7%, n = 40) and White (23.9%, n = 168) student athletes who experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection after being fully vaccinated (P < .01). Proportions of infections among fully vaccinated individuals did not differ statistically by sex (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: This article adds to the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infections among fully vaccinated individuals in college-aged populations. The level of infections among fully vaccinated student athletes indicates the need for maintaining precautions to prevent infection. Further study of COVID-19 vaccination, infection, and reinfection among the well-resourced and diverse population of student athletes might contribute further understanding of factors that play a role in health equity among young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Adolescent , Adult , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Young Adult
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