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1.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 42(8): 973-979, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240262

ABSTRACT

To determine the clinical characteristics of and risk factors for suspected reinfection with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). This was a retrospective cohort study using population-based notification records of residents in Kyoto City (1.4 M) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection between 1 March 2020 and 15 April 2022. Reinfection was defined by two or more positive COVID-19 test results ≧ 90 days apart. Demographic characteristics, the route and timing of infection and history of vaccination were analysed to identify risk factors for reinfection. Among the cohort of 107,475 patients, reinfection was identified in 0.66% (n = 709). The age group with the highest reinfection rate was 18-39 years (1.06%), followed by 40-59 years (0.58%). Compared to the medical and nursing professionals, individuals who worked in the construction and manufacturing industry (odds ratio [OR]: 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66-4.92) and hospitality industry (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.28-.31) were more likely to be reinfected. Symptomatic cases at initial infection, receiving more than 2 doses of vaccination and risk factors for severe infection at initial infection were protective factors against reinfection. Of the reinfected individuals, the reinfection route was unknown in 65%. Reinfection with COVID-19 is uncommon, with suspected reinfections more likely in adults, those with high exposure and unvaccinated individuals; the reinfection route was unknown in the majority of cases. This study confirmed the need to continue with self-protection efforts and to implement vaccination programs in high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8416, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238068

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in early childhood and adults has not been well analyzed in longitudinal serological studies. Here we analyzed the changes in HCoV (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2) spike-specific antibody levels in follow-up serum specimens of 140 children at the age of 1, 2, and 3 years, and of 113 healthcare workers vaccinated for Covid-19 with BNT162b2-vaccine. IgG antibody levels against six recombinant HCoV spike subunit 1 (S1) proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We show that by the age of three years the cumulative seropositivity for seasonal HCoVs increased to 38-81% depending on virus type. BNT162b2 vaccinations increased anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies, but no increase in seasonal coronavirus antibodies associated with vaccinations. In healthcare workers (HCWs), during a 1-year follow-up, diagnostic antibody rises were seen in 5, 4 and 14% of the cases against 229E, NL63 and OC43 viruses, respectively, correlating well with the circulating HCoVs. In 6% of the HCWs, a diagnostic antibody rise was seen against S1 of HKU1, however, these rises coincided with anti-OC43 S1 antibody rises. Rabbit and guinea pig immune sera against HCoV S1 proteins indicated immunological cross-reactivity within alpha-CoV (229E and NL63) and beta-CoV (HKU1 and OC43) genera.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Adult , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Rabbits , Reinfection , BNT162 Vaccine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel
3.
J Infect ; 87(2): 163-165, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233288
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1167087, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231746

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most frequent comorbidities in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a higher rate of severe course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, data about post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) in patients with DM are limited. Methods: This multicenter, propensity score-matched study compared long-term follow-up data about cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other symptoms in 8,719 patients with DM to those without DM. The 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) according to age and sex resulted in 1,548 matched pairs. Results: Diabetics and nondiabetics had a mean age of 72.6 ± 12.7 years old. At follow-up, cardiovascular symptoms such as dyspnea and increased resting heart rate occurred less in patients with DM (13.2% vs. 16.4%; p = 0.01) than those without DM (2.8% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.05), respectively. The incidence of newly diagnosed arterial hypertension was slightly lower in DM patients as compared to non-DM patients (0.5% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.18). Abnormal spirometry was observed more in patients with DM than those without DM (18.8% vs. 13; p = 0.24). Paranoia was diagnosed more frequently in patients with DM than in non-DM patients at follow-up time (4% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.009). The incidence of newly diagnosed renal insufficiency was higher in patients suffering from DM as compared to patients without DM (4.8% vs. 2.6%; p = 0.09). The rate of readmission was comparable in patients with and without DM (19.7% vs. 18.3%; p = 0.61). The reinfection rate with COVID-19 was comparable in both groups (2.9% in diabetics vs. 2.3% in nondiabetics; p = 0.55). Long-term mortality was higher in DM patients than in non-DM patients (33.9% vs. 29.1%; p = 0.005). Conclusions: The mortality rate was higher in patients with DM type II as compared to those without DM. Readmission and reinfection rates with COVID-19 were comparable in both groups. The incidence of cardiovascular symptoms was higher in patients without DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Registries , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(8): 1262-1268, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing SARS-CoV-2 reinfection outcomes among individuals with previous infection (natural immunity) and previous infection plus vaccination (hybrid immunity) are limited. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study comparing SARS-CoV-2 reinfection among patients with hybrid immunity (cases) and natural immunity (controls) from March 2020 to February 2022. Reinfection was defined as positive PCR> 90 days after initial laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Outcomes included time to reinfection, symptom severity, COVID-19-related hospitalization, critical COVID-19 illness (need for intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death), length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 773 (42%) vaccinated and 1073 (58%) unvaccinated patients with reinfection were included. Most patients (62.7%) were asymptomatic. Median time to reinfection was longer with hybrid immunity (391 [311-440] vs 294 [229-406] days, p < 0.001). Cases were less likely to be symptomatic (34.1% vs 39.6%, p = 0.001) or develop critical COVID-19 (2.3% vs 4.3%, p = 0.023). However, there was no significant difference in rates of COVID-19-related hospitalization (2.6% vs 3.8%, p = 0.142) or LOS (5 [2-9] vs 5 [3-10] days, p = 0.446). Boosted patients had longer time to reinfection (439 [IQR 372-467] vs 324 [IQR 256-414] days, p < 0.001) and were less likely to be symptomatic (26.8% vs 38%, p = 0.002) compared to unboosted patients. Rates of hospitalization, progression to critical illness and LOS were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Natural and hybrid immunity provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and hospitalization. However, hybrid immunity conferred stronger protection against symptomatic disease and progression to critical illness and was associated with longer time to reinfection. The stronger protection conferred by hybrid immunity against severe outcomes due to COVID-19 should be emphasized with the public to further the vaccination effort, especially in high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Reinfection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Adaptive Immunity
6.
Anal Biochem ; 673: 115199, 2023 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327730

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has seriously affected the lives of people worldwide. Clarifying the attenuation rule of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) in vivo is the key to prevent reinfection and recurrence of virus. Currently, the commonly used methods for detecting NAb include virus neutralization tests, pseudovirus neutralization assays, lateral flow immunochromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The detection of NAb not only can be used to evaluate the level of immunity after vaccination or infection but also can provide important theoretical support for virus reinfection, recurrence and vaccine iteration. In this research, the related technologies of SARS-CoV-2 NAb detection were reviewed, aiming to provide better research ideas for SARS-CoV-2 epidemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2799, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327022

ABSTRACT

Following primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, whether boosters or breakthrough infections provide greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection is incompletely understood. Here we investigated SARS-CoV-2 antibody correlates of protection against new Omicron BA.4/5 (re-)infections and anti-spike IgG antibody trajectories after a third/booster vaccination or breakthrough infection following second vaccination in 154,149 adults ≥18 y from the United Kingdom general population. Higher antibody levels were associated with increased protection against Omicron BA.4/5 infection and breakthrough infections were associated with higher levels of protection at any given antibody level than boosters. Breakthrough infections generated similar antibody levels to boosters, and the subsequent antibody declines were slightly slower than after boosters. Together our findings show breakthrough infection provides longer-lasting protection against further infections than booster vaccinations. Our findings, considered alongside the risks of severe infection and long-term consequences of infection, have important implications for vaccine policy.


Subject(s)
Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Reinfection , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 103(18): 1429-1434, 2023 May 16.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324586

ABSTRACT

Objective: To predict the protection probability of different clinical outcomes after reinfection with Omicron variant in symptomatic and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients who infected with prototype strain. Methods: The data used in this study were derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis which systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Europe PMC databases, included published and uploaded studies of dynamic changes of neutralizing antibodies in symptomatic COVID-19 patients from 1 January 2020 to 2 October 2022 and extracted the literature information, study design, serological experiment information and antibody results. According to the scatter distribution characteristics of antibody titer data, a generalized additive model based on Gaussian distribution was used to fit the titer value of neutralizing antibody based on logarithmic conversion and the dynamic change pattern of neutralizing antibody in symptomatic and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients infected with prototype strain over time was obtained. In this study, the fitted antibody titers of patients on the 28th, 51st, and 261st day after symptom onset was selected to predict the protection probability. Results: Neutralizing antibodies produced in symptomatic and unvaccinated patients infected with prototype strain could provide protection against Omicron reinfection, and the probability of protection gradually decreased with time. Neutralizing antibody level on day 28 after symptom onset provided protection probability of 30.3% (95%CI: 20.0%-45.5%) against reinfection, 51.5% (95%CI: 33.4%-75.9%) against symptomatic reinfection, and 91.2% (95%CI: 77.1%-97.7%) against severe reinfection caused by Omicron BA.5. The protection probability against Omicron BA.1, BA.4 and BA.5 reinfections decreased significantly 261 days after symptom onset, showing 9.6%-12.9%, 18.4%-23.9% and 63.1%-70.3% against three clinical outcomes, respectively. At the same time point and against the same clinical outcome, the protection probability of BA.1 was the highest, followed by BA.4 and BA.5. Conclusions: Neutralizing antibodies induced in symptomatic and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients previously infected with the prototype strain have limited protection probability against Omicron BA.5 reinfections and symptomatic reinfections. The protection probability against Omicron BA.5 reinfections is 30.3% 28 days after symptom onset and decreases to about 10% after 261 days. However, the protection probability against severe reinfections is considerable, with over 90% 28 days after symptom onset and still exceeding 60% after 261 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Probability , Antibodies, Viral
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(6): 1154-1161, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318660

ABSTRACT

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines consider SARS-CoV-2 reinfection when sequential COVID-19 episodes occur >90 days apart. However, genomic diversity acquired over recent COVID-19 waves could mean previous infection provides insufficient cross-protection. We used genomic analysis to assess the percentage of early reinfections in a sample of 26 patients with 2 COVID-19 episodes separated by 20-45 days. Among sampled patients, 11 (42%) had reinfections involving different SARS-CoV-2 variants or subvariants. Another 4 cases were probable reinfections; 3 involved different strains from the same lineage or sublineage. Host genomic analysis confirmed the 2 sequential specimens belonged to the same patient. Among all reinfections, 36.4% involved non-Omicron, then Omicron lineages. Early reinfections showed no specific clinical patterns; 45% were among unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated persons, 27% were among persons <18 years of age, and 64% of patients had no risk factors. Time between sequential positive SARS-CoV-2 PCRs to consider reinfection should be re-evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , United States , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spain/epidemiology , Genomics , Risk Factors
10.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1149795, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318102

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been classified into variants of interest (VOIs) or concern (VOCs) to prioritize global monitoring and research on variants with potential risks to public health. The SARS-CoV-2 high-rate mutation can directly impact the clinical disease progression, epidemiological behavior, immune evasion, vaccine efficacy, and transmission rates. Therefore, epidemiological surveillance is crucial for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. In the present study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and Delta and Omicron variants in Jalisco State, Mexico, from 2021 to 2022, and evaluate the possible association of these variants with clinical manifestations of COVID-19. Methods: Four thousand and ninety-eight patients diagnosed with COVID-19 by real-time PCR (COVIFLU, Genes2Life, Mexico) from nasopharyngeal samples from January 2021 to January 2022 were included. Variant identification was performed by the RT-qPCR Master Mut Kit (Genes2Life, Mexico). A study population follow-up was performed to identify patients who had experienced reinfection after being vaccinated. Results and Discussion: Samples were grouped into variants according to the identified mutations: 46.3% were Omicron, 27.9% were Delta, and 25.8% were WT. The proportions of dry cough, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, conjunctivitis, fast breathing, diarrhea, anosmia, and dysgeusia were significantly different among the abovementioned groups (p < 0.001). Anosmia and dysgeusia were mainly found in WT-infected patients, while rhinorrhea and sore throat were more prevalent in patients infected with the Omicron variant. For the reinfection follow-up, 836 patients answered, from which 85 cases of reinfection were identified (9.6%); Omicron was the VOC that caused all reported reinfection cases. In this study, we demonstrate that the Omicron variant caused the biggest outbreak in Jalisco during the pandemic from late December 2021 to mid-February 2022 but with a less severe form than the one demonstrated by Delta and WT. The co-analysis of mutations and clinical outcomes is a public health strategy with the potential to infer mutations or variants that could increase disease severity and even be an indicator of long-term sequelae of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Anosmia , Dysgeusia , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Reinfection , Disease Progression
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7306, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317602

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC) Gamma in Amazonas during early 2021 fueled a second large COVID-19 epidemic wave and raised concern about the potential role of reinfections. Very few cases of reinfection associated with the VOC Gamma have been reported to date, and their potential impact on clinical, immunological, and virological parameters remains largely unexplored. Here we describe 25 cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in Brazil. SARS-CoV-2 genomic analysis confirmed that individuals were primo-infected with distinct viral lineages between March and December 2020 (B.1.1, B.1.1.28, B.1.1.33, B.1.195, and P.2) and reinfected with the VOC Gamma between 3 to 12 months after primo-infection. We found a similar mean cycle threshold (Ct) value and limited intra-host viral diversity in both primo-infection and reinfection samples. Sera of 14 patients tested 10-75 days after reinfection displayed detectable neutralizing antibodies (NAb) titers against SARS-CoV-2 variants that circulated before (B.1.*), during (Gamma), and after (Delta and Omicron) the second epidemic wave in Brazil. All individuals had milder or no symptoms after reinfection, and none required hospitalization. These findings demonstrate that individuals reinfected with the VOC Gamma may display relatively high RNA viral loads at the upper respiratory tract after reinfection, thus contributing to onward viral transmissions. Despite this, our study points to a low overall risk of severe Gamma reinfections, supporting that the abrupt increase in hospital admissions and deaths observed in Amazonas and other Brazilian states during the Gamma wave was mostly driven by primary infections. Our findings also indicate that most individuals analyzed developed a high anti-SARS-CoV-2 NAb response after reinfection that may provide some protection against reinfection or disease by different SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antibody Diversity , Gamma Rays , Reinfection , Patient Acuity
12.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605777, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317058

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights questions regarding reinfections and immunity resulting from vaccination and/or previous illness. Studies addressing related questions for historical pandemics are limited. Methods: We revisit an unnoticed archival source on the 1918/19 influenza pandemic. We analysed individual responses to a medical survey completed by an entire factory workforce in Western Switzerland in 1919. Results: Among the total of n = 820 factory workers, 50.2% reported influenza-related illness during the pandemic, the majority of whom reported severe illness. Among male workers 47.4% reported an illness vs. 58.5% of female workers, although this might be explained by varied age distribution for each sex (median age was 31 years old for men, vs. 22 years old for females). Among those who reported illness, 15.3% reported reinfections. Reinfection rates increased across the three pandemic waves. The majority of subsequent infections were reported to be as severe as the first infection, if not more. Illness during the first wave, in the summer of 1918, was associated with a 35.9% (95%CI, 15.7-51.1) protective effect against reinfections during later waves. Conclusion: Our study draws attention to a forgotten constant between multi-wave pandemics triggered by respiratory viruses: Reinfection and cross-protection have been and continue to be a key topic for health authorities and physicians in pandemics, becoming increasingly important as the number of waves increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Reinfection , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7343, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320514

ABSTRACT

Although the dynamic zero-COVID policy has effectively controlled virus spread in China, China has to face challenges in balancing social-economic burdens, vaccine protection, and the management of long COVID symptoms. This study proposed a fine-grained agent-based model to simulate various strategies for transitioning from a dynamic zero-COVID policy with a case study in Shenzhen. The results indicate that a gradual transition, maintaining some restrictions, can mitigate infection outbreaks. However, the severity and duration of epidemics vary based on the strictness of the measures. In contrast, a more direct transition to reopening may lead to rapid herd immunity but necessitate preparedness for potential sequelae and reinfections. Policymakers should assess healthcare capacity for severe cases and potential long-COVID symptoms and determine the most suitable approach tailored to local conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Reinfection , China/epidemiology
14.
Viral Immunol ; 36(5): 343-350, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314395

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly resulted in a pandemic constituting a global health emergency. As an indicator of long-term immune protection from reinfection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the presence of memory B cells (MBCs) should be evaluated. Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, several variants of concerns have been detected, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1/B.1.1.28.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (BA.1) variants with several different mutations, causing serious concern regarding the increased frequency of reinfection, and limiting the effectiveness of the vaccine response. At this regard, we investigated SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immune responses in four different cohorts: COVID-19, COVID-19 infected and vaccinated, vaccinated, and negative subjects. We found that MBC response to SARS-CoV-2 at more than 11 months postinfection was higher in the peripheral blood of all COVID-19 infected and vaccinated subjects respect to all the other groups. Moreover, to better characterize the differences of SARS-CoV-2 variants immune responses, we genotyped SARS-CoV-2-positive samples from the patients' cohort. We found a higher level of immunoglobulin M+ (IgM+) and IgG+ spike MBCs in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (5-8 months after symptoms onset) infected with the SARS-CoV-2-Delta variant compared with the SARS-CoV-2-Omicron variant implying a higher immune memory response. Our findings showed that MBCs persist more than 11 months after primary infection indicating a different involvement of the immune system according to the different SARS-CoV-2 variant that infected the host.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Memory B Cells , Pandemics , Reinfection , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Viral
15.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1146841, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314286

ABSTRACT

Background: Humoral and cellular immune responses are known to be crucial for patients to recover from COVID-19 and to protect them against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection once infected or vaccinated. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate humoral and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases after the second and third vaccine doses while on rituximab and their potential protective role against reinfection. Methods: Ten COVID-19-naïve patients were included. Three time points were used for monitoring cellular and humoral responses: pre-vaccine to exclude virus exposure (time point 1) and post-second and post-third vaccine (time points 2 and 3). Specific IgG antibodies were monitored by Luminex and T cells against SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein by ELISpot and CoVITEST. All episodes of symptomatic COVID-19 were recorded. Results: Nine patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis and one with an undifferentiated autoimmune disease were included. Nine patients received mRNA vaccines. The last rituximab infusion was administered for a mean (SD) of 15 (10) weeks before the first vaccine and six patients were CD19-B cell-depleted. After a mean (SD) of 19 (10) and 16 (2) days from the second and third vaccine dose, IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in six (60%) and eight (80%) patients, respectively. All patients developed specific T cell responses by ELISpot and CoVITEST in time points 2 and 3. Previous B cell depletion correlated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. Nine (90%) patients developed mild COVID-19 after a median of 7 months of the third dose. Conclusion: Rituximab in patients with autoimmune diseases reduces humoral responses but does not avoid the development of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which remain present after a booster dose. A steady cellular immunity appears to be protective against subsequent reinfections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Reinfection , Rituximab/therapeutic use , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 123: 9-16, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307227

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been shown to reduce infection severity; however, the reinfection frequency among unvaccinated, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated individuals remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the rates of and factors associated with such occurrences. METHODS: This retrospective epidemiological report included 1362 COVID-19 reinfection cases in Bahrain between April 2020 and July 2021. We analyzed differences in disease severity and reinfection characteristics among various vaccination statuses: fully vaccinated, interrupted vaccination, one-dose vaccination, postreinfection vaccination, and unvaccinated. RESULTS: Reinfection cases increased from zero per month in April-June 2020 to a sharp peak of 579 in May 2021. A significantly larger proportion of reinfected individuals were male (60.3%, P <0.0001). Reinfection episodes were highest among those 30-39 years of age (29.7%). The fewest reinfection episodes occurred at 3-6 months after the first infection (20.6%) and most occurred ≥9 months after the initial infection (46.4%). Most individuals were asymptomatic during both episodes (35.7%). Reinfection disease severity was mild, with vaccinated patients less likely to have symptomatic reinfection (odds ratio 0.71, P = 0.004). Only 6.6% of reinfected patients required hospitalization. One death was recorded; the patient belonged to the unvaccinated group. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-induced immunity and previous infection with or without vaccination were effective in reducing reinfection disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Reinfection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 133: 18-26, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The correlate(s) of protection against SARS-CoV-2 remain incompletely defined. Additional information regarding the combinations of antibody and T cell-mediated immunity which can protect against (re)infection is needed. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study including 1044 individuals of varying SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and infection statuses. We assessed spike (S)- and nucleocapsid (N)-immunoglobulin(Ig)G and wildtype, Delta, and Omicron-neutralizing antibody (N-Ab) activity. In a subset of 328 individuals, we evaluated S, membrane (M), and N-specific T cells. Three months later, we reassessed Ab (n = 964) and T cell (n = 141) responses and evaluated factors associated with protection from (re)infection. RESULTS: At the study start, >98% of participants were S-IgG seropositive. N-IgG and M/N-T-cell responses increased over time, indicating viral (re)exposure, despite existing S-IgG. Compared to N-IgG, M/N-T cells were a more sensitive measure of viral exposure. High N-IgG titers, Omicron-N-Ab activity, and S-specific-T-cell responses were all associated with a reduced likelihood of (re)infection over time. CONCLUSION: Population-level SARS-CoV-2 immunity is S-IgG-dominated, but heterogeneous. M/N-T-cell responses can distinguish previous infection from vaccination, and monitoring a combination of N-IgG, Omicron-N-Ab, and S-T-cell responses may help estimate protection against SARS-CoV-2 (re)infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Switzerland/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Reinfection , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
18.
EBioMedicine ; 92: 104599, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of COVID-19 in children and adolescents has increased during the delta and omicron waves, necessitating studies of long-term symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnoea and cognitive problems. Furthermore, immune responses in relation to persisting symptoms in younger people have not been well characterised. In this cohort study, we investigated the role of antibodies, vaccination and omicron reinfection upon persisting and long-term symptoms up to 8 months post-delta infection. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive participants (n = 276, aged 10-20 years) were prospectively recruited in August 2021. We recorded the major symptoms of post COVID-19 condition and collected serum samples 3- and 8-months post delta infection. Binding antibodies were measured by spike IgG ELISA, and surrogate neutralising antibodies against Wuhan and delta variants by the hemagglutination test (HAT). FINDINGS: After delta infection, persisting symptoms at 3 months were significantly associated with higher delta antibody titres (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.57-6.04, p = 0.001). Asymptomatic acute infection compared to symptomatic infection lowered the risk of persisting (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.55, p = 0.013) and long-term (OR 0.28 95% CI 0.11-0.66, p = 0.005) symptoms at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Adolescents (16-20 years) were more likely to have long-term symptoms compared to children (10-15 years) (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.37-4.41, p = 0.003). INTERPRETATION: This clinical and serological study compares long-term symptoms after delta infection between children and adolescents. The association between high antibody titres and persisting symptoms suggest the involvement of an immune mechanism. Similarly to adults, the dominant long-term symptoms in children are fatigue, dyspnoea and cognitive problems. FUNDING: This work was funded by the Ministry of Health and Care Services, Norway, the University of Bergen, Norway and Helse Vest, Norway (F-12621).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Reinfection , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , Asymptomatic Infections , Dyspnea , Fatigue
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 44(3): 360-366, 2023 Mar 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289685

ABSTRACT

Continuous evolution of Omicron variant of 2019-nCoV has resulted in a rapid and simultaneous emergences of novel sub-variants with increased immune escape ability, higher reinfection risk and shorter time interval between infections. Compared with the first infection, the reinfection would still pose exceed risk to people's health although the clinical manifestations of the reinfection might be milder and the risk for severe illness or death is lower. The reinfection is highly associated with people's vaccination status, immunity level, age, working and residential factors. Those who have not received 2019-nCoV vaccination, the elderly and those with comorbidities, especially the previous 2019-nCoV patients with severe/critical illness, are at high risk for the reinfection. Booster doses of vaccine might play an additional role in the prevention of the reinfection and severe illness on the basis of natural immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Innate
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 23(7): 764-765, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289365
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