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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 8019-8022, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605687

ABSTRACT

Recently a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 was reported from South Africa. World Health Organization (WHO) named this mutant as a variant of concern - Omicron (B.1.1.529) on 26th November 2021. This variant exhibited more than thirty amino acid mutations in the spike protein. This mutation rate is exceeding the other variants by approximately 5-11 times in the receptor-binding motif of the spike protein. Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant might have enhanced transmissibility and immune evasion. This new variant can reinfect individuals previously infected with other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Scientists expressed their concern about the efficacy of already existing COVID-19 vaccines against Omicron (B.1.1.529) infections. Some of the crucial mutations that are detected in the receptor-binding domain of the Omicron variant have been shared by previously evolved SARS-CoV-2 variants. Based on the Omicron mutation profile in the receptor-binding domain and motif, it might have collectively enhanced or intermediary infectivity relative to its previous variants. Due to extensive mutations in the spike protein, the Omicron variant might evade the immunity in the vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mutation , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccine Potency
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607493

ABSTRACT

Given the overwhelming worldwide rate of infection and the disappointing pace of vaccination, addressing reinfection is critical. Understanding reinfection, including longevity after natural infection, will allow us to better know the prospect of herd immunity, which hinges on the assumption that natural infection generates sufficient, protective immunity. The primary objective of this observational cohort study is to establish the incidence of reinfection of COVID-19 among healthcare employees who experienced a prior COVID-19 infection over a 10-month period. Of 2,625 participants who experienced at least one COVID-19 infection during the 10-month study period, 156 (5.94%) experienced reinfection and 540 (20.57%) experienced recurrence after prior infection. Median days were 126.50 (105.50-171.00) to reinfection and 31.50 (10.00-72.00) to recurrence. Incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.35 cases per 1,000 person-days, with participants working in COVID-clinical and clinical units experiencing 3.77 and 3.57 times, respectively, greater risk of reinfection relative to those working in non-clinical units. Incidence rate of COVID-19 recurrence was 1.47 cases per 1,000 person-days. This study supports the consensus that COVID-19 reinfection, defined as subsequent infection ≥ 90 days after prior infection, is rare, even among a sample of healthcare workers with frequent exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Personnel , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003879, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (or Alpha) variant is insufficiently understood. This study's objective was to describe the introduction and expansion of this variant in Qatar and to estimate the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection with this variant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Reinfections with the B.1.1.7 variant and variants of unknown status were investigated in a national cohort of 158,608 individuals with prior PCR-confirmed infections and a national cohort of 42,848 antibody-positive individuals. Infections with B.1.1.7 and variants of unknown status were also investigated in a national comparator cohort of 132,701 antibody-negative individuals. B.1.1.7 was first identified in Qatar on 25 December 2020. Sudden, large B.1.1.7 epidemic expansion was observed starting on 18 January 2021, triggering the onset of epidemic's second wave, 7 months after the first wave. B.1.1.7 was about 60% more infectious than the original (wild-type) circulating variants. Among persons with a prior PCR-confirmed infection, the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection was estimated to be 97.5% (95% CI: 95.7% to 98.6%) for B.1.1.7 and 92.2% (95% CI: 90.6% to 93.5%) for variants of unknown status. Among antibody-positive persons, the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection was estimated to be 97.0% (95% CI: 92.5% to 98.7%) for B.1.1.7 and 94.2% (95% CI: 91.8% to 96.0%) for variants of unknown status. A main limitation of this study is assessment of reinfections based on documented PCR-confirmed reinfections, but other reinfections could have occurred and gone undocumented. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that introduction of B.1.1.7 into a naïve population can create a major epidemic wave, but natural immunity in those previously infected was strongly associated with limited incidence of reinfection by B.1.1.7 or other variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Basic Reproduction Number , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 44-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544334

ABSTRACT

Recent studies reported that some recovered COVID-19 patients have tested positive for virus nucleic acid again. A systematic search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar up to March 6, 2021. The pooled estimation of reinfection, recurrence, and hospital readmission among recovered COVID-19 patients was 3, 133, and 75 per 1000 patients, respectively. The overall estimation of reinfection among males compared to females was greater. The prevalence of recurrence in females compared to males was more common. Also, hospital readmission between sex groups was the same. There is uncertainty about long-term immunity after SARS-Cov-2 infection. Thus, the possibility of reinfection and recurrence after recovery is not unexpected. In addition, there is a probability of hospital readmission due to adverse events of COVID-19 after discharge. However, with mass vaccination of people and using the principles of prevention and appropriate management of the disease, frequent occurrence of the disease can be controlled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Factors , Sex Ratio , Vaccination
6.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 5384481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476872

ABSTRACT

In this study we propose a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) mathematical model that stratifies infectious subpopulations into: infectious asymptomatic individuals, symptomatic infectious individuals who manifest mild symptoms and symptomatic individuals with severe symptoms. In light of the recent revelation that reinfection by COVID-19 is possible, the proposed model attempt to investigate how reinfection with COVID-19 will alter the future dynamics of the recent unfolding pandemic. Fitting the mathematical model on the Kenya COVID-19 dataset, model parameter values were obtained and used to conduct numerical simulations. Numerical results suggest that reinfection of recovered individuals who have lost their protective immunity will create a large pool of asymptomatic infectious individuals which will ultimately increase symptomatic individuals with mild symptoms and symptomatic individuals with severe symptoms (critically ill) needing urgent medical attention. The model suggests that reinfection with COVID-19 will lead to an increase in cumulative reported deaths. Comparison of the impact of non pharmaceutical interventions on curbing COVID19 proliferation suggests that wearing face masks profoundly reduce COVID-19 prevalence than maintaining social/physical distance. Further, numerical findings reveal that increasing detection rate of asymptomatic cases via contact tracing, testing and isolating them can drastically reduce COVID-19 surge, in particular individuals who are critically ill and require admission into intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Contact Tracing , Databases, Factual , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 137, 2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440955

ABSTRACT

We describe the lessons learned during a SARS-CoV-2 variant-of-concern Alpha outbreak investigation at a normal care unit in a university hospital in Amsterdam in December 2020. The outbreak consisted of nine nurses and two roomed-in patient family members. (attack rate 18%). One nurse tested positive with a phylogenetically distinct variant, after a documented infection 83 days prior. Three key points were taken from this investigation. First, it was controlled by adherence to existing guidelines, despite increased transmissibility of the variant. Second, viral sequencing can inform transmission cluster inference, but the epidemiological context is essential to draw appropriate conclusions. Third, reinfections with Alpha variants can occur rapidly after primary infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Inpatients , Netherlands , Nurses , Phylogeny , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(4): 1881-1885, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437359

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic that started in late 2019 and still affects people's lives all over the world. Lack of protective immunity after primary infection has been involved with reported reinfection cases by SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we described two cases of reinfection caused by non-VOC (Variants of Concern) strains in southern Brazil, being one patient a healthcare worker. The four samples previously positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were sequenced by a high-performance platform and the genomic analysis confirmed that lineages responsible for infections were B.1.91 and B.1.1.33 (patient 1), and B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28 (patient 2). The interval between the two positive RT-qPCR for patients 1 and 2 was 45 and 61 days, respectively. This data shows that patients may be reinfected even by very closely related SARS-CoV-2 lineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Reinfection/epidemiology
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5942-5946, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432429

ABSTRACT

With the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients increasing all over the world, a large number of survivors have reported changes in their quality of life or experienced re-infection. So, we aimed to detect the percentage, type, and risk factors of persistent symptoms after improvement from acute COVID-19 infection and to detect the percentage of COVID-19 re-infection and degree of severity of the second infection. One hundred seventy-two (59 male, 113 female) patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were followed up via mobile phone every 2 months for 8 to 10 months. After recovery, 105 patients (61%) (30 male, 75 female) reported one or more COVID-19 persistent symptoms. Fatigue, dyspnea, and depression were the most common persistent symptoms representing 37.3%, 22%, 22%, respectively. We found that age was independently related to the persistence of symptoms. During the follow-up, six females (3.5%) had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 re-infection. Their mean age was 35.7 ± 11 years. The mean interval from the complete recovery of the first infection to the onset of the second one was 53 ± 22.2 days and ranged from 30 to 90 days. The second infection was milder in severity than the first infection in 83.33% of cases. There was a high percentage of patients who complained of persistent symptoms after recovery from COVID-19. Fatigue and headache were the most common persistent symptoms. Age was considered a risk factor for persistent symptoms. Re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 can occur after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection/diagnosis , Reinfection/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0059621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398579

ABSTRACT

The first descriptions of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 have been recently reported. However, these studies focus exclusively on the reinfected case, without considering the epidemiological context of the event. Our objectives were to perform a complete analysis of the sequential infections and community transmission events around a SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, including the infection events preceding it, the exposure, and subsequent transmissions. Our analysis was supported by host genetics, viral whole-genome sequencing, phylogenomic viral population analysis, and refined epidemiological data obtained from interviews with the involved subjects. The reinfection involved a 53-year-old woman with asthma (Case A), with a first COVID-19 episode in April 2020 and a much more severe second episode 4-1/2 months later, with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in August, that required hospital admission. An extended genomic analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the strain involved in Case A's reinfection was circulating in the epidemiological context of Case A and was also transmitted subsequently from Case A to her family context. The reinfection was also supported by a phylogenetic analysis, including 348 strains from Madrid, which revealed that the strain involved in the reinfection was circulating by the time Case A suffered the second episode, August-September 2020, but absent at the time range corresponding to Case A's first episode. IMPORTANCE We present the first complete analysis of the epidemiological scenario around a reinfection by SARS-CoV-2, more severe than the first episode, including three cases preceding the reinfection, the reinfected case per se, and the subsequent transmission to another seven cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Contact Tracing , Family , Female , Genomics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Reinfection/genetics , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
12.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1105-1133, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381356

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of the current pandemic worldwide and its associated disease COVID-19. In this review, we have analyzed SARS-CoV-2 characteristics and those ones of other well-known RNA viruses viz. HIV, HCV and Influenza viruses, collecting their historical data, clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms. The aim of the work is obtaining useful insights and lessons for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2. These pathogens present a distinct mode of transmission, as SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza viruses are airborne, whereas HIV and HCV are bloodborne. However, these viruses exhibit some potential similar clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms and their understanding may contribute to establishing preventive measures and new therapies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/history , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Climate , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mutation , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , RNA Viruses/physiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/history , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/history , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Virus Replication
13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(1): e52-e53, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357639

ABSTRACT

Protective immunity following COVID-19 infection is not yet fully understood. An understanding of COVID-19 reinfection will be key in guiding government and public health policy decisions in the coming months. This report describes two distinct infective episodes of COVID-19 occurring in the same individual, at the time of writing the first published case in the UK. In April 2020 a 25-year-old UK doctor exhibited classical COVID-19 symptoms, including fevers, headaches, and fatigue. A COVID-19 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) at the time returned negative. However, a follow-up antibody test in May 2020 returned positive. In October 2020 the same individual exhibited coryzal symptoms and headaches. He was COVID-19 NAAT tested and found to be positive. There was exposure to high viral load prior to reinfection. Overall the second infection was symptomatically milder, with a faster recovery. This evidence for reinfection poses challenges for public health and vaccination efforts to protect against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , Reinfection/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(32): 1081-1083, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355297

ABSTRACT

Although laboratory evidence suggests that antibody responses following COVID-19 vaccination provide better neutralization of some circulating variants than does natural infection (1,2), few real-world epidemiologic studies exist to support the benefit of vaccination for previously infected persons. This report details the findings of a case-control evaluation of the association between vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in Kentucky during May-June 2021 among persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Kentucky residents who were not vaccinated had 2.34 times the odds of reinfection compared with those who were fully vaccinated (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58-3.47). These findings suggest that among persons with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, full vaccination provides additional protection against reinfection. To reduce their risk of infection, all eligible persons should be offered vaccination, even if they have been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Reinfection/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kentucky/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Young Adult
16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(8): 1880-1886, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although reinfection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rare among individuals with few coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk factors, the ability of naturally acquired immunity to prevent reinfection among patients with ESKD is not known. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted among adults with ESKD treated with in-center hemodialysis (ICHD) in the United States. Exposure was ascribed on the basis of the presence or absence of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 at baseline, and separately, a history of documented COVID-19 before study entry. Outcomes were assessed after an infection-free period, and were any SARS-CoV-2 infection (i.e., detected by protocolized PCR tests or during routine clinical surveillance), and clinically manifest COVID-19 (consisting of only the latter). RESULTS: Of 2337 consented participants who met study inclusion criteria, 9.5% were anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive at baseline; 3.6% had a history of COVID-19. Over 6679 patient-months of follow-up, 263 participants had evidence of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 141 who had clinically manifest COVID-19. Presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (versus its absence) at baseline was associated with lower risk of any SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence rate ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.95) and clinically manifest COVID-19 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.67). CONCLUSION: Among patients with ESKD, naturally acquired anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity is associated with a 45% lower risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a 79% lower risk of clinically manifest COVID-19. Because natural immunity is incomplete, patients with ESKD should be prioritized for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, independent of their COVID-19 disease history.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Reinfection/complications , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/immunology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e159, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301131

ABSTRACT

Although many people became infected and recovered during the COVID-19 epidemic, the immunity duration and re-infection in recovered patients have recently attracted many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence of the infection in recovered individuals over a 9-month period after the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic. In this study, data related to COVID-19 patients in Shahroud city were collected using the electronic system for registering suspicious patients and also by checking patients' hospital records. In this study, from 20 March 2020 to 20 November 2020 (9 months), a total of 8734 suspected patients with respiratory symptoms were observed and followed up. RT-PCR was positive for 4039 patients. During this period, out of the total number of positive cases of COVID-19, 10 cases became re-infected after complete recovery. The risk of re-infection was 2.5 per thousand (0.95 CI 1.2-4.5). The mean time interval between the first infection and re-infection was 134.4 ± 64.5 days (range 41-234 days). The risk of re-infection between male and females was not statistically different (1.98 per 1000 women and 2.96 per 1000 men). Exposure to COVID-19 may not establish long-term protective immunity to all patients and may predispose them to re-infection. This fact can be reminded that the use of masks, social distancing and other preventive measures are very important in recovered patients and should be emphasised especially in health care personnel who are more exposed to the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 49-59, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated frequency of reinfection with seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and serum antibody response following infection over 8 years in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) cohort. METHODS: Households were followed annually for identification of acute respiratory illness with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HCoV infection. Serum collected before and at 2 time points postinfection were tested using a multiplex binding assay to quantify antibody to seasonal, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 spike subdomains and N protein. RESULTS: Of 3418 participants, 40% were followed for ≥3 years. A total of 1004 HCoV infections were documented; 303 (30%) were reinfections of any HCoV type. The number of HCoV infections ranged from 1 to 13 per individual. The mean time to reinfection with the same type was estimated at 983 days for 229E, 578 days for HKU1, 615 days for OC43, and 711 days for NL63. Binding antibody levels to seasonal HCoVs were high, with little increase postinfection, and were maintained over time. Homologous, preinfection antibody levels did not significantly correlate with odds of infection, and there was little cross-response to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Reinfection with seasonal HCoVs is frequent. Binding anti-spike protein antibodies do not correlate with protection from seasonal HCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Family Characteristics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/virology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Michigan/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Public Health Surveillance , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Load
19.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 155, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286823

ABSTRACT

We assessed the duration and baseline determinants of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and the occurrence of reinfections in a prospective cohort of 173 Spanish primary health care worker patients followed initially for 9 months and subsequently up to 12.5 months after COVID-19 symptoms onset. Seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2 spike and receptor-binding domain antigens up to 149-270 days was 92.49% (90.17% IgG, 76.3% IgA, 60.69% IgM). In a subset of 64 health care workers who had not yet been vaccinated by April 2021, seropositivity was 96.88% (95.31% IgG, 82.81% IgA) up to 322-379 days post symptoms onset. Four suspected reinfections were detected by passive case detection, two among seronegative individuals (5 and 7 months after the first episode), and one low antibody responder. Antibody levels significantly correlated with fever, hospitalization, anosmia/hypogeusia, allergies, smoking, and occupation. Stable sustainment of IgG responses raises hope for long-lasting COVID-19 vaccine immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reinfection/blood , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
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