Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 67
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 8019-8022, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605687

ABSTRACT

Recently a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 was reported from South Africa. World Health Organization (WHO) named this mutant as a variant of concern - Omicron (B.1.1.529) on 26th November 2021. This variant exhibited more than thirty amino acid mutations in the spike protein. This mutation rate is exceeding the other variants by approximately 5-11 times in the receptor-binding motif of the spike protein. Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant might have enhanced transmissibility and immune evasion. This new variant can reinfect individuals previously infected with other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Scientists expressed their concern about the efficacy of already existing COVID-19 vaccines against Omicron (B.1.1.529) infections. Some of the crucial mutations that are detected in the receptor-binding domain of the Omicron variant have been shared by previously evolved SARS-CoV-2 variants. Based on the Omicron mutation profile in the receptor-binding domain and motif, it might have collectively enhanced or intermediary infectivity relative to its previous variants. Due to extensive mutations in the spike protein, the Omicron variant might evade the immunity in the vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mutation , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccine Potency
3.
AIDS Rev ; 23(3): 153-163, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579385

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious RNA coronavirus responsible for the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent advances in virology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of COVID-19 have contributed to the control and prevention of this disease, but re-positivity of SARS-CoV-2 in recovered COVID-19 patients has brought a new challenge for this worldwide anti-viral battle. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests of the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen is widely used in clinical diagnosis, but a positive RT-PCR result may be multifactorial, including false positive, SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragment shedding, reinfection of SARS-CoV-2, or re-activation of COVID-19. Re-infection of SARS-CoV-2 or re-activation of COVID-19 is an indicator of live viral carriers and isolation/treatment is needed, but SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragment shedding is not. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is recently reported to integrate into the host genome, but the far-reaching outcome is currently unclear. Therefore, it is critical for appropriate manipulation and prevention of COVID-19 to distinguish these causal factors of SARS-CoV-2 re-positivity. In this review article, we updated the current knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 re-positivity in discharged COVID-19 patients with a focus on re-infection and re-activation. We proposed a hypothetical flowchart for handling of the SARS-CoV-2 re-positive cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Activation/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-12, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574832

ABSTRACT

With a large number of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients being discharged from hospital with negative test results for SARS-CoV-2, it has been reported that several recovered cases tested positive after discharge (re-positive, RP). This finding has raised several important questions for this novel coronavirus and Covid-19 disease. In this review, we have discussed several important questions, including: (1) Can the virus re-infect recovered individuals? (2) What are the possible causes of the re-positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in recovered patients? (3) What are the implications of these re-positive cases concerning the spread of the virus? Understanding how recovery from Covid-19 confers immunity to decrease the risk of re-infection is needed to inform current efforts to safely scale back population-based interventions, such as physical distancing. We have also described what is currently known about the immune response to Covid-19, highlighted key gaps in knowledge, and identified opportunities for future research. Overall, the quality of the evidence is poor and we describe the features that should be described for future cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
5.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003879, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (or Alpha) variant is insufficiently understood. This study's objective was to describe the introduction and expansion of this variant in Qatar and to estimate the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection with this variant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Reinfections with the B.1.1.7 variant and variants of unknown status were investigated in a national cohort of 158,608 individuals with prior PCR-confirmed infections and a national cohort of 42,848 antibody-positive individuals. Infections with B.1.1.7 and variants of unknown status were also investigated in a national comparator cohort of 132,701 antibody-negative individuals. B.1.1.7 was first identified in Qatar on 25 December 2020. Sudden, large B.1.1.7 epidemic expansion was observed starting on 18 January 2021, triggering the onset of epidemic's second wave, 7 months after the first wave. B.1.1.7 was about 60% more infectious than the original (wild-type) circulating variants. Among persons with a prior PCR-confirmed infection, the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection was estimated to be 97.5% (95% CI: 95.7% to 98.6%) for B.1.1.7 and 92.2% (95% CI: 90.6% to 93.5%) for variants of unknown status. Among antibody-positive persons, the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection was estimated to be 97.0% (95% CI: 92.5% to 98.7%) for B.1.1.7 and 94.2% (95% CI: 91.8% to 96.0%) for variants of unknown status. A main limitation of this study is assessment of reinfections based on documented PCR-confirmed reinfections, but other reinfections could have occurred and gone undocumented. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that introduction of B.1.1.7 into a naïve population can create a major epidemic wave, but natural immunity in those previously infected was strongly associated with limited incidence of reinfection by B.1.1.7 or other variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Basic Reproduction Number , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 281-283, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501231

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are vulnerable to develop COVID-19 due to the immunosuppressive therapy. The objective of this study is to describe a known case of NMOSD on rituximab who experienced 2 episodes of COVID-19. CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old woman, a known case of NMOSD on rituximab was diagnosed with asymptomatic COVID-19. Eight months later, following her last infusion of rituximab, she developed moderate COVID-19. After a partial recovery, she exhibited exacerbation of respiratory symptoms leading to readmission and invasive oxygenation. She was eventually discharged home after 31 days. Her monthly neurological evaluation did not reveal evidence of disease activity. She later received intravenous immunoglobulin and the decision was made to start rituximab again. CONCLUSIONS: Our case raises the possibility of persistent virus shedding and reactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 in a patient with NMOSD and rituximab therapy. We aimed to emphasize a precise consideration of management of patients with NMOSD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromyelitis Optica , Reinfection/diagnosis , Rituximab , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Pandemics , Reinfection/virology , Rituximab/therapeutic use
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470999

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals who re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after recovering from their primary illness. We investigated 295 individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results and 836 of their close contacts. We attempted virus isolation in individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results using cell culture and confirmed the presence of neutralizing antibodies using serological tests. Viral culture was negative in all 108 individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results in whom viral culture was performed. Three new cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified among household contacts using PCR. Two of the three new cases had had contact with the index patient during their primary illness, and all three had antibody evidence of past infection. Thus, there was no laboratory evidence of viral shedding and no epidemiological evidence of transmission among individuals with re-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reinfection/immunology , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Eval Health Prof ; 44(4): 327-332, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443725

ABSTRACT

We systematically reviewed studies to estimate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection among those previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. For this systematic review, we searched scientific publications on PubMed and MedRxiv, a pre-print server, through August 18, 2021. Eligible studies were retrieved on August 18, 2021. The following search term was used on PubMed: ((("Cohort Studies"[Majr]) AND ("COVID-19"[Mesh] OR "SARS-CoV-2"[Mesh])) OR "Reinfection"[Majr]) OR "Reinfection"[Mesh]. The following search term was used on MedRxiv: "Cohort Studies" AND "COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" AND "Reinfection". The search terms were broad to encompass all applicable studies. There were no restrictions on the date of publication. Studies that did not describe cohorts with estimates of the risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection among those with previous infection were excluded. Studies that included vaccinated participants were either excluded or limited to sub-groups of non-vaccinated individuals. To identify relevant studies with appropriate control groups, we developed the following criteria for studies to be included in the systematic analysis: (1) baseline polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, (2) a uninfected comparison group, (3) longitudinal follow-up, (4) a cohort of human participants, i.e. not a case report or case series, and (5) outcome determined by PCR. The review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. We assessed for selection, information, and analysis bias, per PRISMA guidelines. We identified 1,392 reports. Of those, 10 studies were eligible for our systematic review. The weighted average risk reduction against reinfection was 90.4% with a standard deviation of 7.7% (p-value: <0.01). Protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was observed for up to 10 months. Studies had potential information, selection, and analysis biases. The protective effect of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on re-infection is high and similar to the protective effect of vaccination. More research is needed to characterize the duration of protection and the impact of different SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 137, 2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440955

ABSTRACT

We describe the lessons learned during a SARS-CoV-2 variant-of-concern Alpha outbreak investigation at a normal care unit in a university hospital in Amsterdam in December 2020. The outbreak consisted of nine nurses and two roomed-in patient family members. (attack rate 18%). One nurse tested positive with a phylogenetically distinct variant, after a documented infection 83 days prior. Three key points were taken from this investigation. First, it was controlled by adherence to existing guidelines, despite increased transmissibility of the variant. Second, viral sequencing can inform transmission cluster inference, but the epidemiological context is essential to draw appropriate conclusions. Third, reinfections with Alpha variants can occur rapidly after primary infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Inpatients , Netherlands , Nurses , Phylogeny , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(4): 1881-1885, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437359

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic that started in late 2019 and still affects people's lives all over the world. Lack of protective immunity after primary infection has been involved with reported reinfection cases by SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we described two cases of reinfection caused by non-VOC (Variants of Concern) strains in southern Brazil, being one patient a healthcare worker. The four samples previously positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were sequenced by a high-performance platform and the genomic analysis confirmed that lineages responsible for infections were B.1.91 and B.1.1.33 (patient 1), and B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28 (patient 2). The interval between the two positive RT-qPCR for patients 1 and 2 was 45 and 61 days, respectively. This data shows that patients may be reinfected even by very closely related SARS-CoV-2 lineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Reinfection/epidemiology
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108108, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401541

ABSTRACT

The possibility of human reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, has not previously been thoroughly investigated. Although it is generally believed that virus-specific antibodies protect against COVID-19 pathogenesis, their duration of function and temporal activity remain unknown. Contrary to media reports that people retain protective antibody responses for a few months, science does not exclude reinfection and disease relapse shortly after initiating all immune responses during the primary onset of COVID-19. Despite production of antiviral antibodies, activated CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes, and long-lived memory B cells, susceptibility to reinfection in humans for extended periods cannot be precluded due to repeated exposures to coronavirus or potential reactivation of the virus due to incomplete virus clearance. However, the mechanism of reinfection remains unknown. The biological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, such as emergence of multiple mutations in the virus RNA molecules, transmissibility, rates of infection, reactivation and reinfection, can all affect the trajectory of the virus spread. Innate and adaptive immune response variables, differences in underlying diseases, and comorbidities, particularly in high risk individuals, can influence the dynamics of the virus infection. In this article, immune parameters and viral mutations pertaining to reinfection and disease relapse are reviewed and scientific gaps are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mutation , Reinfection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Recurrence , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0059621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398579

ABSTRACT

The first descriptions of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 have been recently reported. However, these studies focus exclusively on the reinfected case, without considering the epidemiological context of the event. Our objectives were to perform a complete analysis of the sequential infections and community transmission events around a SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, including the infection events preceding it, the exposure, and subsequent transmissions. Our analysis was supported by host genetics, viral whole-genome sequencing, phylogenomic viral population analysis, and refined epidemiological data obtained from interviews with the involved subjects. The reinfection involved a 53-year-old woman with asthma (Case A), with a first COVID-19 episode in April 2020 and a much more severe second episode 4-1/2 months later, with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in August, that required hospital admission. An extended genomic analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the strain involved in Case A's reinfection was circulating in the epidemiological context of Case A and was also transmitted subsequently from Case A to her family context. The reinfection was also supported by a phylogenetic analysis, including 348 strains from Madrid, which revealed that the strain involved in the reinfection was circulating by the time Case A suffered the second episode, August-September 2020, but absent at the time range corresponding to Case A's first episode. IMPORTANCE We present the first complete analysis of the epidemiological scenario around a reinfection by SARS-CoV-2, more severe than the first episode, including three cases preceding the reinfection, the reinfected case per se, and the subsequent transmission to another seven cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Contact Tracing , Family , Female , Genomics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Reinfection/genetics , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
14.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389962

ABSTRACT

A critical question in understanding the immunity to SARS-COV-2 is whether recovered patients are protected against re-challenge and transmission upon second exposure. We developed a Syrian hamster model in which intranasal inoculation of just 100 TCID50 virus caused viral pneumonia. Aged hamsters developed more severe disease and even succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection, representing the first lethal model using genetically unmodified laboratory animals. After initial viral clearance, the hamsters were re-challenged with 105 TCID50 SARS-CoV-2 and displayed more than 4 log reduction in median viral loads in both nasal washes and lungs in comparison to primary infections. Most importantly, re-challenged hamsters were unable to transmit virus to naïve hamsters, and this was accompanied by the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Altogether, these results show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces protective immunity that not only prevents re-exposure but also limits transmission in hamsters. These findings may help guide public health policies and vaccine development and aid evaluation of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Immunity , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Viral Load
17.
Genomics ; 113(4): 1628-1638, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386752

ABSTRACT

Sequencing the SARS-CoV-2 genome from clinical samples can be challenging, especially in specimens with low viral titer. Here we report Accurate SARS-CoV-2 genome Reconstruction (ACoRE), an amplicon-based viral genome sequencing workflow for the complete and accurate reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 sequences from clinical samples, including suboptimal ones that would usually be excluded even if unique and irreplaceable. The protocol was optimized to improve flexibility and the combination of technical replicates was established as the central strategy to achieve accurate analysis of low-titer/suboptimal samples. We demonstrated the utility of the approach by achieving complete genome reconstruction and the identification of false-positive variants in >170 clinical samples, thus avoiding the generation of inaccurate and/or incomplete sequences. Most importantly, ACoRE was crucial to identify the correct viral strain responsible of a relapse case, that would be otherwise mis-classified as a re-infection due to missing or incorrect variant identification by a standard workflow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Reinfection/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Reinfection/pathology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Genome Sequencing
18.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1105-1133, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381356

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of the current pandemic worldwide and its associated disease COVID-19. In this review, we have analyzed SARS-CoV-2 characteristics and those ones of other well-known RNA viruses viz. HIV, HCV and Influenza viruses, collecting their historical data, clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms. The aim of the work is obtaining useful insights and lessons for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2. These pathogens present a distinct mode of transmission, as SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza viruses are airborne, whereas HIV and HCV are bloodborne. However, these viruses exhibit some potential similar clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms and their understanding may contribute to establishing preventive measures and new therapies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/history , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Climate , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mutation , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , RNA Viruses/physiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/history , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/history , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Virus Replication
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16543, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360208

ABSTRACT

Since COVID-19 risk of reinfection is of great concern, the safety and efficacy of the mRNA-based vaccines in previously infected populations should be assessed. We studied 78 individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-19, who received a single dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and 1:2 ratio matched infection-naïve cohort who received two injections. The evaluation procedure included symptom monitoring, and serological tests. Among the post-infected population, the median IgG-S response after the first vaccine dose was 3.35 AU, compared to 2.38 AU after the second vaccine injection in the infection naive group. A strong correlation was demonstrated between IgG-S level before vaccination, and the corresponding responses after a single vaccine dose (r = 0.8, p < 0.001) in the post infected population. Short-term severe symptoms that required medical attention were found in 6.8% among the post-infected individuals, while none were found in the infection naïve population. Our data suggest that a single vaccine dose is sufficient to induce an intense immune response in post-infected population regardless of seropositivity. Although some short-term safety issues were observed compared to the infection naïve population, a single dose regimen can be considered safe in post-infected populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/methods
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690653, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359187

ABSTRACT

Although vaccine resources are being distributed worldwide, insufficient vaccine production remains a major obstacle to herd immunity. In such an environment, the cases of re-positive occurred frequently, and there is a big controversy regarding the cause of re-positive episodes and the infectivity of re-positive cases. In this case-control study, we tracked 39 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from the Jiaodong Peninsula area of China, of which 7 patients tested re-positive. We compared the sex distribution, age, comorbidities, and clinical laboratory results between normal patients and re-positive patients, and analysed the correlation between the significantly different indicators and the re-positive. Re-positive patients displayed a lower level of serum creatinine (63.38 ± 4.94 U/L vs. 86.82 ± 16.98 U/L; P =0.014) and lower albumin (34.70 ± 5.46 g/L vs. 41.24 ± 5.44 g/L, P =0.039) at the time of initial diagnosis. In addition, two positive phases and the middle negative phase in re-positive patients with significantly different eosinophil counts (0.005 ± 0.005 × 109/L; 0.103 ± 0.033 × 109/L; 0.007 ± 0.115 × 109/L; Normal range: 0.02-0.52 × 109/L). The level of eosinophils in peripheral blood can be used as a marker to predict re-positive in patients who once had COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Eosinophils/cytology , Reinfection/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , China , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...