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1.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 70(5): 317-321, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525669

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine has been recognized since 2010 as a constitutive element of care, however, it was not until 2016 that the first national experiments were able to be launched with the aim of validating a framework allowing a possible rapid passage in the common right. These experiments, which are due to end in December 2021, have succeeded in involving more than 100,000 patients, mainly suffering from cardiac pathologies. The arrival of COVID-19 has made it possible to measure the usefulness of practices at a distance both from teleconsultation and telemonitoring, with the appearance of organizational and technical innovations that must now be maintained and developed in order to integrate the telemedicine of tomorrow into our actual medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Patient Satisfaction , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/trends
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397297

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased use of telemedicine in health care delivery. Telemedicine facilitates long-term clinical care for monitoring and prevention of complications of diabetes mellitus. GUIDELINES: Precise indications for teleconsultation, clinical care services which can be provided, and good clinical practices to be followed during teleconsultation are explained. Guidance on risk assessment and health education for diabetes risk factors, counselling for blood glucose monitoring, treatment compliance, and prevention of complications are described. CONCLUSION: The guidelines will help physicians in adopting teleconsultation for management of diabetes mellitus, facilitate access to diabetes care and improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Remote Consultation/standards , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Expert Testimony , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0249872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341484

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the application of various telemedicine services in Gansu Province, China during the COVID-19 epidemic, and summarizes the experiences with these services. In addition, the satisfaction levels of patients and doctors with the application of telemedicine in COVID-19 were investigated, the deficiencies of telemedicine in Gansu were determined, and recommendations for modification were proposed. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has broken out in China, and Gansu Province in Northwest of China has not been spared. To date, there are 91 local COVID-19 cases and 42 imported cases. 109 hospitals were selected as designated hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak, and most of them were secondary hospitals. However, it was unsatisfactory that the ability of medical services is relatively low in most of secondary hospitals and primary hospitals. Therefore, we helped the secondary hospitals cope with COVID-19 by means of remote consultation, long-distance education, telemedicine question and answer (Q&A). Our practical experience shows that telemedicine can be widely used during the COVID-19 epidemic, especially in developing countries and areas with lagging medical standards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Telemedicine/organization & administration , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Continuing/statistics & numerical data , Education, Nursing, Continuing/methods , Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Continuing/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics , Geography , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Physician-Patient Relations , Remote Consultation/instrumentation , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Software , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Telemedicine/methods
4.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 108, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Attempts to manage the COVID-19 pandemic have led to radical reorganisations of health care systems worldwide. General practitioners (GPs) provide the vast majority of patient care, and knowledge of their experiences with providing care for regular health issues during a pandemic is scarce. Hence, in a Danish context we explored how GPs experienced reorganising their work in an attempt to uphold sufficient patient care while contributing to minimizing the spread of COVID-19. Further, in relation to this, we examined what guided GPs' choices between telephone, video and face-to-face consultations. METHODS: This study consisted of qualitative interviews with 13 GPs. They were interviewed twice, approximately three months apart in the initial phase of the pandemic, and they took daily notes for 20 days. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and inductively analysed. RESULTS: The GPs re-organised their clinical work profoundly. Most consultations were converted to video or telephone, postponed or cancelled. The use of video first rose, but soon declined, once again replaced by an increased use of face-to-face consultations. When choosing between consultation forms, the GPs took into account the need to minimise the risk of COVID-19, the central guidelines, and their own preference for face-to-face consultations. There were variations over time and between the GPs regarding which health issues were dealt with by using video and/or the telephone. For some health issues, the GPs generally deemed it acceptable to use video or telephone, postpone or cancel appointments for a short term, and in a crisis situation. They experienced relational and technical limitations with video consultation, while diagnostic uncertainty was not regarded as a prominent issue CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates how the GPs experienced telephone and video consultations as being useful in a pandemic situation when face-to-face consultations had to be severely restricted. The GPs did, however, identify several limitations similar to those known in non-pandemic times. The weighing of pros and cons and their willingness to use these alternatives shifted and generally diminished when face-to-face consultations were once again deemed viable. In case of future pandemics, such alternatives seem valuable, at least for a short term.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , General Practice/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Remote Consultation/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Denmark/epidemiology , General Practice/methods , General Practice/organization & administration , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , Physician-Patient Relations , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Qualitative Research , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telephone , Videoconferencing
5.
Rev Esp Cir Ortop Traumatol (Engl Ed) ; 65(1): 54-62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230734

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic has made telematic consultations a basic tool in daily practice. Aims: The main objective of the study is to assess the results of the application of telematic consultations to limit the mobility of patients.The operational objectives are; to propose a consultation plan, to know how attendance limits consultations and to define which pathologies benefit the most from this plan. Methods: A scheme is proposed with the creation of pre-scheduled clinic to assess suitability and the possibility of carrying them out in a single non face-to-face act. Results: Phone call to 5619 patients were made with a lack of response of 19%The cases of 74% of the patients that answered were resolved virtually. There is a difference between units, obtaining a higher answering rate from patients appointed to specific clinic units, OR = 0.60, or to general trauma ones, OR = 0.67. The lowest answering rate was obtained from those derived from the emergency department.Twenty per cent of the consultations were not accompanied by complementary tests that would have favored the resolution in a single act. The general trauma consultations, OR = 0.34, postoperative control, OR = 0.49, and specific unit ones, OR = 0.40, were the ones that better met this requirement.Out of the remaining patients, the general trauma consultations, OR = 0.50, and those referred to units, OR = 0.54, were the ones that had a higher resolution rate without in- person consultation. Conclusions: The cases of 74% of the patients who answered the phone call were resolved virtually.Cases of 20% of the patients cannot be solved in a single act because they are derived without complementary tests.Osteosynthesis and postoperative arthroscopic follow-up consultations are the ones that need to be carried out in person the most.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Departments , Orthopedics/methods , Remote Consultation , Traumatology/methods , Humans , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data
6.
Educ Prim Care ; 32(4): 237-244, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177213

ABSTRACT

Medical students are considered as 'essential workers' within the National Health Service (NHS) and the delivery of clinical experience is essential to their learning and progression into the workforce. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the delivery of clinical placements in primary care; GPs are currently delivering the majority of consultations using telephone or video methods and difficulties in attaining placement experience are being encountered by medical students. Virtual remote consultations are an appropriate adjunct to conventional face-to-face patient encounters and could facilitate students to attain core learning outcomes. This article describes some of the approaches that enable remote (home) virtual patient encounters in Primary Care for medical students. These are categorised as methods that a) enable remote access into GP clinical systems, b) enable remote access into individual patient consultations and c) enable an observational-only experience. Key considerations are highlighted to enable safe and effective implementation of remote virtual consultations, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. These include patient consent, confidentiality, data sharing and protection, professionalism, student agreements and data gathering templates. It is hoped that sharing of these methods of virtual consulting will support the ongoing delivery of Primary Care education across medical schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , General Practice/education , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Computer Security , Confidentiality , Health Information Exchange , Humans , Pandemics , Professionalism , Remote Consultation/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom
7.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 47(2): 259-288, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175078

ABSTRACT

The delivery of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP) has been found to be an efficacious, acceptable and feasible treatment modality for individual therapy. However, less is known about the use of VCP for couple and family therapy (CFT). The focus of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy, feasibility and acceptability of using VCP as a treatment delivery modality for CFT. A systematic search was conducted, data relating to efficacy, feasibility and acceptability were extracted from included studies. The search returned 7,112 abstracts, with 37 papers (0.005%) included. The methods of the review were pre-registered (PROSPERO; CRD42018106137). VCP for CFT was demonstrated to be feasible and acceptable. A meta-analysis was not conducted; however, results from the included studies indicate that VCP is an efficacious delivery method for CFT. Recommendations for future research and implications regarding clinical practice are made, which may be of interest to practitioners given the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Couples Therapy/organization & administration , Family Therapy/organization & administration , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telerehabilitation/organization & administration , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
8.
Semin Perinatol ; 45(5): 151429, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164467

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an explosive adoption of telehealth in pediatrics . However, there remains substantial variation in evaluation methods and measures of these programs despite introduction of measurement frameworks in the last five years. In addition, for neonatal health care, assessing a telehealth program must measure its benefits and costs for four stakeholder groups - patients, providers, healthcare system, and payers. Because of differences in their role within the health system, each group's calculation of telehealth's value may align or not with one another, depending on how it is being used. Therefore, a common mental model for determining value is critical in order to use telehealth in ways that produce win-win situations for most if not all four stakeholder groups. In this chapter, we present important principles and concepts from previously published frameworks to propose an approach to telehealth evaluation that can be used for perinatal health. Such a framework will then drive future development and implementation of telehealth programs to provide value for all relevant stakeholders in a perinatal health care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Neonatology/trends , Perinatal Care , Remote Consultation , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Child Health Services/trends , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infant Health/trends , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/methods , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Perinatal Care/trends , Pregnancy , Program Evaluation , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 47(2): 320-341, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142922

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known about how university training programs transitioned to teletherapy. This study describes the transition of two university marriage and family therapy (i.e., master's and doctoral) training clinics to teletherapy and presents preliminary analyses of the types of clients and cases that converted to teletherapy. A series of chi-square analyses, a t-test, a logistic regression model, and a multiple linear regression model were employed. Four key findings emerged: (1) most cases converted to teletherapy; (2) Hispanic ethnicity was the only demographic characteristic to significantly predict conversion to teletherapy; (3) individual cases were significantly more likely to convert to teletherapy than relational cases; and (4) the number of prior in-person sessions attended significantly predicted conversion to teletherapy. Teletherapy conversion implications are discussed across four systemic levels: client, student trainee, supervision, and larger systems.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Couples Therapy/education , Family Therapy/education , Physical Therapists/education , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telerehabilitation/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/organization & administration
11.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 47(2): 225-243, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142921

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented times of the novel Coronavirus quarantine and subsequent stay-at-home orders have changed the way many couple therapists provide clinical services. Understanding couple therapists' experiences with teletherapy is important for optimizing future telehealth delivery with couples. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods survey study was to explore couple therapists' experiences of transitioning from in-person/traditional therapy to online/telehealth delivery. A total of 58 couple therapists completed an online survey for this study. Reported are both quantitative and qualitative findings. Overall, this study found that couple therapists experienced a positive shift from traditional/in-person therapy to online/telehealth therapy, with a majority of couple therapists (74%) reporting they would continue providing teletherapy after the novel Coronavirus pandemic and social distancing regulations had ended. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from couple therapists' experiences related to advantages, challenges, and recommendations for practice. Implications for clinical training and future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
Couples Therapy/organization & administration , Family Therapy/organization & administration , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telerehabilitation/organization & administration , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Therapists/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 47(2): 289-303, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124667

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed healthcare for both clinicians and patients. This conceptual article uses ideas from the moral distress literature to understand the challenges MedFTs and physicians face during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors highlight earlier themes from the moral distress literature and share current reflections to illustrate similar challenges. Some clinicians who were already experiencing a rise in burnout due to the mass digitization of healthcare are now facing increased moral distress due to ethical dilemmas, pervasive uncertainty, boundary ambiguity, isolation, and burnout brought about by emerging COVID-19 policies. Fears about personal safety, exposing loved ones, financial concerns, self-doubt, and frustrations with telehealth have contributed to increased moral distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Building resilience by setting one's personal moral compass can help clinicians avoid the pitfalls of moral distress. Five steps for developing resilience and implications for guiding trainees in developing resilience are discussed.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , Couples Therapy/organization & administration , Family Therapy/organization & administration , Physical Therapists/psychology , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Resilience, Psychological , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 20: 1534735421999101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has catalyzed the use of mobile technologies to deliver health care. This new medical model has benefited integrative oncology (IO) consultations, where cancer patients are counseled about healthy lifestyle, non-pharmacological approaches for symptom management, and addressing questions around natural products and other integrative modalities. Here we report the feasibility of conducting IO physician consultations via telehealth in 2020 and compare patient characteristics to prior in-person consultations conducted in 2019. METHODS: An integrated EHR-telemedicine platform was used for IO physician consultations. As in the prior in-person visits, patients completed pre-visit patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessments about common cancer symptoms [modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, (ESAS)], Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCaW), and the PROMIS-10 to assess quality of life (QOL). Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and PROs for new telehealth consultation in 2020 were compared to new in-person consultations in 2019 using t-tests, chi-squared tests, and -Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: We provided telehealth IO consultations to 509 new patients from April 21, 2020, to October 21, 2020, versus 842 new patients in-person during the same period in 2019. Most were female (77 % vs 73%); median age (56 vs 58), and the most frequent cancer type was breast (48% vs 39%). More patients were seeking counseling on herbs and supplements (12.9 vs 6.8%) and lifestyle (diet 22.7 vs 16.9% and exercise 5.2 vs 1.8%) in the 2020 cohort than 2019, respectively. The 2020 telehealth cohort had lower symptom management concerns compared to the 2019 in-person cohort (19.5 vs 33.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Delivering IO consultations using telehealth is feasible and meets patients' needs. Compared to patients seen in-person during 2019, patients having telehealth IO consultations in 2020 reported lower symptom burden and more concerns about lifestyle and herbs and supplements. Additional research is warranted to explore the satisfaction and challenges among patients receiving telehealth IO care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Integrative Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/therapy , Professional-Patient Relations , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Attitude of Health Personnel , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Surveys and Questionnaires , Videoconferencing
15.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(3): 241-245, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Utilisation of the Head and Neck Cancer Risk Calculator version 2 has been recommended during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic for the assessment of head and neck cancer referrals. As limited data were available, this study was conducted to analyse the use of the Head and Neck Cancer Risk Calculator version 2 in clinical practice. METHOD: Patients undergoing telephone triage in a two-week wait referral clinic were included. Data were collected and analysed using appropriate methods. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients in the study were risk-stratified into low-risk (51.6 per cent, 33 of 64), moderate-risk (14.1 per cent, 9 of 64) and high-risk (34.4 per cent, 22 of 64) groups. Of the patients, 53.1 per cent (34 of 64) avoided an urgent hospital visit, and 96.9 per cent (62 of 64) were cancer free, while 3.1 per cent (2 of 64) were found to have a head and neck malignancy. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy were 50.00 per cent, 66.13 per cent, 99.92 per cent and 66.11 per cent, respectively. CONCLUSION: It is reasonable to use the calculator for triaging purposes, but it must always be accompanied by a meticulous clinical thought process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Triage/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Telephone , Time Factors , United Kingdom
19.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(4): 102960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083834

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Telemedicine use in otolaryngology waxed and waned during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in the U.S. Assessing the patterns of telemedicine use and its perceived limitations during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 allows identification and correction of impediments to consistent telemedicine use by otolaryngologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Full-time faculty of 2 academic otolaryngology departments in New York City were surveyed regarding their telemedicine use from March through August 2020 during the "first wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on these findings, a method of "augmented outpatient otolaryngology teleconsultation" designed to enhance the quality of the physical examination was developed and employed from August to December 2020. Patients receiving this augmented teleconsult were anonymously surveyed about their telemedical experience. RESULTS: Telemedicine use by faculty was minimal prior to the pandemic, but as total outpatient volume decreased 65-84% across subspecialties, it was used by all otolaryngologists during COVID-19. Physicians were less confident in making a telemedical diagnosis at all phases of the study in all subspecialties. Patients who had an augmented otolaryngology teleconsultation were satisfied with it, believed it facilitated earlier care, limited the time and cost of travel to the physician's office and felt their physician was able to perform a sufficient physical examination. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 crisis, physicians utilized teleotolaryngology to provide care but were less satisfied with their ability to make an accurate diagnosis. Inexpensive direct-to-consumer digital otoscopes can improve the quality of the physical examination provided and can address both patient and physician needs.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Physical Examination , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Young Adult
20.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(704): e166-e177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To reduce contagion of COVID-19, in March 2020 UK general practices implemented predominantly remote consulting via telephone, video, or online consultation platforms. AIM: To investigate the rapid implementation of remote consulting and explore impact over the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Mixed-methods study in 21 general practices in Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire. METHOD: Longitudinal observational quantitative analysis compared volume and type of consultation in April to July 2020 with April to July 2019. Negative binomial models were used to identify if changes differed among different groups of patients. Qualitative data from 87 longitudinal interviews with practice staff in four rounds investigated practices' experience of the move to remote consulting, challenges faced, and solutions. A thematic analysis utilised Normalisation Process Theory. RESULTS: There was universal consensus that remote consulting was necessary. This drove a rapid change to 90% remote GP consulting (46% for nurses) by April 2020. Consultation rates reduced in April to July 2020 compared to 2019; GPs and nurses maintained a focus on older patients, shielding patients, and patients with poor mental health. Telephone consulting was sufficient for many patient problems, video consulting was used more rarely, and was less essential as lockdown eased. SMS-messaging increased more than three-fold. GPs were concerned about increased clinical risk and some had difficulties setting thresholds for seeing patients face-to-face as lockdown eased. CONCLUSION: The shift to remote consulting was successful and a focus maintained on vulnerable patients. It was driven by the imperative to reduce contagion and may have risks; post-pandemic, the model will need adjustment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Practice Patterns, Nurses'/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Primary Health Care , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Change Management , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , General Practitioners/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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