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1.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1232-E1241, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited space and resources are potential obstacles to infection prevention and control (IPAC) measures in in-centre hemodialysis units. We aimed to assess IPAC measures implemented in Quebec's hemodialysis units during the spring of 2020, describe the characteristics of these units and document the cumulative infection rates during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For this cross-sectional survey, we invited leaders from 54 hemodialysis units in Quebec to report information on the physical characteristics of the unit and their perceptions of crowdedness, which IPAC measures were implemented from Mar. 1 to June 30, 2020, and adherence to and feasibility of appropriate IPAC measures. Participating units were contacted again in March 2021 to collect information on the number of COVID-19 cases in order to derive the cumulative infection rate of each unit. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 38 of the 54 units contacted (70% response rate), which provided care to 4485 patients at the time of survey completion. Fourteen units (37%) had implemented appropriate IPAC measures by 3 weeks after Mar. 1, and all 38 units had implemented them by 6 weeks after. One-third of units were perceived as crowded. General measures, masks and screening questionnaires were used in more than 80% of units, and various distancing measures in 55%-71%; reduction in dialysis frequency was rare. Data on cumulative infection rates were obtained from 27 units providing care to 4227 patients. The cumulative infection rate varied from 0% to 50% (median 11.3%, interquartile range 5.2%-20.2%) and was higher than the reported cumulative infection rate in the corresponding region in 23 (85%) of the 27 units. INTERPRETATION: Rates of COVID-19 infection among hemodialysis recipients in Quebec were elevated compared to the general population during the first year of the pandemic, and although hemodialysis units throughout the province implemented appropriate IPAC measures rapidly in the spring of 2020, many units were crowded and could not maintain physical distancing. Future hemodialysis units should be designed to minimize airborne and droplet transmission of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Infection Control , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Quebec/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1522-1532, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526346

ABSTRACT

Disturbed oxygenation is foremost the leading clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. However, a small proportion also develop carbon dioxide removal problems. The Advanced Organ Support (ADVOS) therapy (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany) uses a less invasive approach by combining extracorporeal CO2 -removal and multiple organ support for the liver and the kidneys in a single hemodialysis device. The aim of our study is to evaluate the ADVOS system as treatment option in-COVID-19 patients with multi-organ failure and carbon dioxide removal problems. COVID-19 patients suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency, receiving at least two treatments with the ADVOS multi system (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany), were eligible for study inclusion. Briefly, these included patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) according to KDIGO guidelines, and moderate or severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition, who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours. In total, nine COVID-19 patients (137 ADVOS treatment sessions with a median of 10 treatments per patient) with moderate to severe ARDS and carbon dioxide removal problems were analyzed. During the ADVOS treatments, a rapid correction of acid-base balance and a continuous CO2 removal could be observed. We observed a median continuous CO2 removal of 49.2 mL/min (IQR: 26.9-72.3 mL/min) with some treatments achieving up to 160 mL/min. The CO2 removal significantly correlated with blood flow (Pearson 0.421; P < .001), PaCO2 (0.341, P < .001) and HCO 3 - levels (0.568, P < .001) at the start of the treatment. The continuous treatment led to a significant reduction in PaCO2 from baseline to the last ADVOS treatment. In conclusion, it was feasible to remove CO2 using the ADVOS system in our cohort of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. This efficient removal of CO2 was achieved at blood flows up to 300 mL/min using a conventional hemodialysis catheter and without a membrane lung or a gas phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation/instrumentation , Lung/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2131749, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490644

ABSTRACT

Importance: Adults receiving dialysis treatment have a higher likelihood of death when infected with SARS-CoV-2 than adults not receiving dialysis treatment. To date, the immune response of people receiving dialysis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has not been systematically discussed. Objective: To assess immunogenicity rates in people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, explore postvaccination potential risk factors for nonresponse, and assess whether receiving dialysis is associated with different antibody response rates compared with the nondialysis population. Data Sources: This systematic review and meta-analysis used articles from PubMed, Medline, and Embase published before July 30, 2021, as well as articles in the medRxiv preprint server. Study Selection: Studies that evaluated the immunogenicity rate according to the postvaccine antibody response rate in patients with ESKD receiving dialysis were selected. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The meta-analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. A random-effects model was used. Two independent reviewers conducted the literature search and extracted the data. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the pooled antibody postvaccine response rates in individuals with ESKD. The secondary outcomes were pooled response rates in individuals receiving and not receiving dialysis. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were conducted to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 32 studies were included. The overall immunogenicity rate of the dialysis group was 86% (95% CI, 81%-89%). Meta-regression showed a significant difference was detected in the postvaccine response rate on the basis of prevalence of diabetes (regression coefficient, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02; P = .004). Compared with nondialysis controls, patients in the dialysis group had a lower response rate after the first (relative risk [RR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47-0.79; I2 = 70.2%) and second (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.93; I2 = 72.2%) doses, with statistically significantly increased RR between first and second doses (P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the immunogenicity rate among patients receiving dialysis was 41% after the first dose and 89% after the second dose. Diabetes might be a risk factor for nonresponse in the dialysis population. Patients receiving dialysis had a poorer antibody response rate than did individuals not receiving dialysis, particularly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444212

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among burden, depression, awareness of information (AIC), and safety behavior among hemodialysis patients in Korea during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study participants included 149 patients who received hemodialysis at seven general hospitals in Korea between January and February 2021. A structured questionnaire was used to survey their levels of burden, depression, AIC, adherent safety behavior (ASB), and dysfunctional safety behavior (DSB). The study results showed that the influencing factors of ASB for COVID-19 were AIC (ß = 0.265, p < 0.001), the burden of "not receiving hemodialysis on time" (ß = 0.233, p = 0.008), and the burden of "social exclusion of hemodialysis patients" (ß = 0.186, p = 0.032). The influencing factors of DSB were the burden of "social exclusion of hemodialysis patients" (ß = 0.258, p = 0.003) and AIC (ß = 0.217, p = 0.004). As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the latest evidence-based information must be provided to hemodialysis patients to promote self-care and prevention behavior that encourages ASB and discourages DSB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1522-1532, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429491

ABSTRACT

Disturbed oxygenation is foremost the leading clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. However, a small proportion also develop carbon dioxide removal problems. The Advanced Organ Support (ADVOS) therapy (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany) uses a less invasive approach by combining extracorporeal CO2 -removal and multiple organ support for the liver and the kidneys in a single hemodialysis device. The aim of our study is to evaluate the ADVOS system as treatment option in-COVID-19 patients with multi-organ failure and carbon dioxide removal problems. COVID-19 patients suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency, receiving at least two treatments with the ADVOS multi system (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany), were eligible for study inclusion. Briefly, these included patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) according to KDIGO guidelines, and moderate or severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition, who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours. In total, nine COVID-19 patients (137 ADVOS treatment sessions with a median of 10 treatments per patient) with moderate to severe ARDS and carbon dioxide removal problems were analyzed. During the ADVOS treatments, a rapid correction of acid-base balance and a continuous CO2 removal could be observed. We observed a median continuous CO2 removal of 49.2 mL/min (IQR: 26.9-72.3 mL/min) with some treatments achieving up to 160 mL/min. The CO2 removal significantly correlated with blood flow (Pearson 0.421; P < .001), PaCO2 (0.341, P < .001) and HCO 3 - levels (0.568, P < .001) at the start of the treatment. The continuous treatment led to a significant reduction in PaCO2 from baseline to the last ADVOS treatment. In conclusion, it was feasible to remove CO2 using the ADVOS system in our cohort of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. This efficient removal of CO2 was achieved at blood flows up to 300 mL/min using a conventional hemodialysis catheter and without a membrane lung or a gas phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation/instrumentation , Lung/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Kidney Int ; 99(6): 1470-1477, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386157

ABSTRACT

Patients with end stage kidney disease receiving in-center hemodialysis (ICHD) have had high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Following infection, patients receiving ICHD frequently develop circulating antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, even with asymptomatic infection. Here, we investigated the durability and functionality of the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients receiving ICHD. Three hundred and fifty-six such patients were longitudinally screened for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and underwent routine PCR-testing for symptomatic and asymptomatic infection. Patients were regularly screened for nucleocapsid protein (anti-NP) and receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) antibodies, and those who became seronegative at six months were screened for SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses. One hundred and twenty-nine (36.2%) patients had detectable antibody to anti-NP at time zero, of whom 127 also had detectable anti-RBD. Significantly, at six months, 71/111 (64.0%) and 99/116 (85.3%) remained anti-NP and anti-RBD seropositive, respectively. For patients who retained antibody, both anti-NP and anti-RBD levels were reduced significantly after six months. Eleven patients who were anti-NP seropositive at time zero, had no detectable antibody at six months; of whom eight were found to have SARS-CoV-2 antigen specific T cell responses. Independent of antibody status at six months, patients with baseline positive SARS-CoV-2 serology were significantly less likely to have PCR confirmed infection over the following six months. Thus, patients receiving ICHD mount durable immune responses six months post SARS-CoV-2 infection, with fewer than 3% of patients showing no evidence of humoral or cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunity , Male , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests/methods
14.
J Nephrol ; 34(5): 1387-1403, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing in-centre haemodialysis (HD) are particularly exposed to the dire consequences of COVID-19. The present systematic scoping review aims to identify the extent, range, and nature of articles related to COVID-19 and maintenance HD: it reports specifically the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic in the HD population, implementation of strategies for the prevention, mitigation and containment of the COVID-19 pandemic in HD centres, demographic and clinical characteristics, and outcomes of the pediatric and adult HD patients. METHODS: A multi-step systematic search of the literature in Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, Embase and Web of Science, published between December 1, 2019, and January 30, 2021 was performed. Two authors separately screened the titles and abstracts of the documents and ruled out irrelevant articles. A report of the papers that met inclusion criteria was performed; then, a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the included articles and a narrative synthesis of the results were performed. RESULTS: The review process ended with the inclusion of 145 articles. Most of them were based on single-centre experiences, which spontaneously developed best practices. Most studies were conducted in high-income countries (69.7%) and a part of them (9.6%) were not in English. Prevalence of COVID-19 among dialysis patients accounted for 0%-37.6%. Preventive measures were reported in 54% of the included articles, with particular emphasis on education, triage, hygiene, and containment measures. Patients experienced a heterogeneous spectrum of symptoms that led 35%-88.2% of them to hospital admission. Median and mean hospital length of stay ranged from 8 to 28.5 and 16.2 to 22 days, respectively. Admission to intensive care units varied widely across studies (from 2.6% to 70.5%) and was associated with high mortality (42.8%-100%). Overall, prognosis was poor in 0%-47% of the hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic scoping review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the impact of COVID-19 on the frail world of HD patients. Furthermore, it may help to implement the existing strategies of COVID-19 prevention and provide a list of unmet needs (safe transport, testing, shelter). Finally, it may be a stimulus for performing systematic reviews and meta-analyses which will form the basis for evidence-based guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Child , Frail Elderly , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Kidney Int ; 100(4): 928-936, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361506

ABSTRACT

Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), which are at high risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2 virus and death due to COVID-19, have been prioritized for vaccination. However, because they were excluded from pivotal studies and have weakened immune responses, it is not known whether these patients are protected after the "standard" two doses of mRNA vaccines. To answer this, anti-spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG and interferon gamma-producing CD4+ and CD8+ specific-T cells were measured in the circulation 10-14 days after the second injection of BNT162b2 vaccine in 106 patients receiving MHD (14 with history of COVID-19) and compared to 30 healthy volunteers (four with history of COVID-19). After vaccination, most (72/80, 90%) patients receiving MHD naïve for the virus generated at least one type of immune effector, but their response was weaker and less complete than that of healthy volunteers. In multivariate analysis, hemodialysis and immunosuppressive therapy were significantly associated with absence of both anti-RBD IgGs and anti-spike CD8+ T cells. In contrast, previous history of COVID-19 in patients receiving MHD correlated with the generation of both types of immune effectors anti-RBD IgG and anti-spike CD8+ T cells at levels similar to healthy volunteers. Patients receiving MHD naïve for SARS-Cov-2 generate mitigated immune responses after two doses of mRNA vaccine. Thus, the good response to vaccine of patients receiving MHD with a history of COVID-19 suggest that these patients may benefit from a third vaccine injection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , RNA, Messenger , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis is a life-saving renal replacement treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease, but various complications occur during hemodialysis and associated procedures. This study was conducted to analyze the specific characteristics of hemodialysis-related complications and malpractice that have led to legal disputes. METHODS: Judgments from cases litigated between 1991 and 2019 due to complications related to hemodialysis or vascular access were analyzed using the database of the Korean Supreme Court Judgment System. RESULTS: Of 32 dialysis-related litigation cases, 14 cases were dismissed and malpractice was recognized in 18 cases. Among all cases and those in which malpractice was recognized, the most common clinical complication was associated with central venous catheter (CVC) insertion (25.0% and 42.9%, respectively). In 22 of 32 (68.8%) cases, complications occurred before or after (not during) dialysis, and performance error was the most common clinical error leading to legal disputes (58.3%). Complications resulted in death in 59.4% of cases, and CVC-related complications were associated with the largest proportion (63.2%) of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis was implicated in various medical disputes, and CVC-related complications were the most common and serious adverse events. Clinicians' awareness of the incidence and severity of possible complications of hemodialysis procedures should be increased.


Subject(s)
Judgment , Malpractice/legislation & jurisprudence , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Vascular Access Devices/adverse effects , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1318-1321, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347469

ABSTRACT

Facility-wide testing performed at 4 outpatient hemodialysis facilities in the absence of an outbreak or escalating community incidence did not identify new SARS-CoV-2 infections and illustrated key logistical considerations essential to successful implementation of SARS-CoV-2 screening. Facilities could consider prioritizing facility-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing during suspicion of an outbreak in the facility or escalating community spread without robust infection control strategies in place. Being prepared to address operational considerations will enhance implementation of facility-wide testing in the outpatient dialysis setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Outpatients , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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