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1.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(3): 794-797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662744

ABSTRACT

The first case of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was confirmed in the city of Qatif in March 2020. As a result, Qatif was placed under lockdown for two months in an attempt to prevent the widespread of COVID-19. Doing hemodialysis (HD) during lockdown was a new and challenging experience that we recently have faced. Swift arrangements were made to accommodate patients with end-stage renal disease in need for HD. The challenges to healthcare facilities, healthcare providers, and patients are discussed with the hope that this experience would help mitigate some of the difficulties healthcare providers may face in a similar situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 330, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617001

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HCV infection rates in haemodialysis patients in Brazil (Prospero CRD #42021275068). We included studies on patients under haemodialysis, comprising both convenience samples and exhaustive information from selected services. Patients underwent HCV serological testing with or without confirmation by HCV RNA PCR. Exclusion criteria were the following: absence of primary empirical information and studies without information on their respective settings, study year, accurate infection rates, or full specification of diagnostic tests. Studies with samples ≤ 30 and serial assessments with repeated information were also excluded. Reference databases included PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science for the period 1989-2019. A systematic review was carried out, followed by two independent meta-analyses: (i) studies with data on HCV prevalence and (ii) studies with a confirmatory PCR (i.e., active infection), respectively. A comprehensive set of different methods and procedures were used: forest plots and respective statistics, polynomial regression, meta-regression, subgroup influence, quality assessment, and trim-and-fill analysis. 29 studies and 11,290 individuals were assessed. The average time patients were in haemodialysis varied from 23.5 to 56.3 months. Prevalence of HCV infection was highly heterogeneous, with a pronounced decrease from 1992 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight decrease in recent years. The summary measure for HCV prevalence was 34% (95% CI 26-43%) for studies implemented before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 11% (95% CI 8-15%). Estimates for prevalence of active HCV infection were also highly heterogeneous. There was a marked decline from 1996 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight increase after 2010. The summary measure for active HCV infection was 19% (95% CI 15-25%) in studies carried out before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 9% (95% CI 6-13%). Heterogeneity was pervasive, but different analyses helped to identify its underlying sources. Besides the year each study was conducted, the findings differed markedly between geographic regions and were heavily influenced by the size of the studies and publication biases. Our systematic review and meta-analysis documented a substantial decline in HCV prevalence among Brazilian haemodialysis patients from 1992 to 2015. CKD should be targeted with specific interventions to prevent HCV infection, and if prevention fails, prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although the goal of HCV elimination by 2030 in Brazil remains elusive, it is necessary to adopt measures to achieve micro-elimination and to launch initiatives towards targeted interventions to curb the spread of HCV in people with CKD, among other high-risk groups. This is of particular concern in the context of a protracted COVID-19 pandemic and a major economic and political crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , Renal Dialysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 27(3): 260-268, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515236

ABSTRACT

AIM: To establish the responses to the Sinopharm HB02 COVID-19 vaccination in the dialysis population, which are not well established. We examined the humoral responses to the Sinopharm COVID vaccine in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: Standard vaccinations (two doses at interval of ~21 days) were given to all consenting haemodialysis patients on dialysis (n = 1296). We measured the antibody responses at 14-21 days after the second vaccine to define the development of anti-spike antibodies >15 AU/ml after vaccination and observed the clinical effects of vaccination. RESULTS: Vaccination was very well tolerated with few side-effects. In those who consented to antibody measurements, (n = 446) baseline sampling showed 77 had positive antibodies, yet received full vaccination without any apparent adverse events. Positive anti-spike antibodies developed in 50% of the 270 baseline negative patients who had full sampling, compared with 78.1% in the general population. COVID infection continues to occur in both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, but in the whole group vaccination appears to have been associated with a reduction in the case fatality rate. CONCLUSION: The humoral immune responses to standard HB02 vaccination schedules are attenuated in a haemodialysis cohort, but likely the vaccine saves lives. We suggest that an enhanced HB02 vaccination course or antibody checking may be prudent to protect this vulnerable group of patients. We suggest a booster dose of this vaccine at 3 months should be given to all dialysis patients, on the grounds that it is well tolerated even in those with good antibody levels and there may be a survival advantage.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated
4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2131749, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490644

ABSTRACT

Importance: Adults receiving dialysis treatment have a higher likelihood of death when infected with SARS-CoV-2 than adults not receiving dialysis treatment. To date, the immune response of people receiving dialysis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has not been systematically discussed. Objective: To assess immunogenicity rates in people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, explore postvaccination potential risk factors for nonresponse, and assess whether receiving dialysis is associated with different antibody response rates compared with the nondialysis population. Data Sources: This systematic review and meta-analysis used articles from PubMed, Medline, and Embase published before July 30, 2021, as well as articles in the medRxiv preprint server. Study Selection: Studies that evaluated the immunogenicity rate according to the postvaccine antibody response rate in patients with ESKD receiving dialysis were selected. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The meta-analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. A random-effects model was used. Two independent reviewers conducted the literature search and extracted the data. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the pooled antibody postvaccine response rates in individuals with ESKD. The secondary outcomes were pooled response rates in individuals receiving and not receiving dialysis. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were conducted to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 32 studies were included. The overall immunogenicity rate of the dialysis group was 86% (95% CI, 81%-89%). Meta-regression showed a significant difference was detected in the postvaccine response rate on the basis of prevalence of diabetes (regression coefficient, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02; P = .004). Compared with nondialysis controls, patients in the dialysis group had a lower response rate after the first (relative risk [RR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47-0.79; I2 = 70.2%) and second (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.93; I2 = 72.2%) doses, with statistically significantly increased RR between first and second doses (P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the immunogenicity rate among patients receiving dialysis was 41% after the first dose and 89% after the second dose. Diabetes might be a risk factor for nonresponse in the dialysis population. Patients receiving dialysis had a poorer antibody response rate than did individuals not receiving dialysis, particularly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(5): 748-756.e1, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152906

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients receiving maintenance dialysis are a highly vulnerable population due to their comorbidities and circumstances that limit physical distancing during treatment. This study sought to characterize the risk factors for and outcomes following COVID-19 in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Maintenance dialysis patients in clinics of a midsize national dialysis provider that had at least 1 patient who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from February to June 2020. PREDICTORS: Demographics, dialysis characteristics, residence in a congregated setting, comorbid conditions, measurements of frailty, and use of selected medications. OUTCOMES: COVID-19, defined as having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and all-cause mortality among those with COVID-19. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Logistic regression analyses conducted to identify clinical characteristics associated with COVID-19 and risk factors associated with mortality among patients following COVID-19. RESULTS: 438 of 7948 (5.5%) maintenance dialysis patients developed COVID-19. Male sex, Black race, in-center dialysis (vs home dialysis), treatment at an urban clinic, residence in a congregate setting, and greater comorbidity were associated with contracting COVID-19. Odds of COVID-19 were 17-fold higher for those residing in a congregated setting (odds ratio [OR], 17.10 [95% CI, 13.51-21.54]). Of the 438 maintenance dialysis patients with COVID-19, 109 (24.9%) died. Older age, heart disease, and markers of frailty were associated with mortality. LIMITATIONS: No distinction was detected between symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positivity, with asymptomatic screening limited by testing capacity during this initial COVID-19 surge period. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is common among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, particularly those residing in congregate settings. Among maintenance dialysis patients with COVID-19, mortality is high, exceeding 20%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/etiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24893, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Chronic renal replacement therapy by either a kidney transplant (KTX) or hemodialysis (HD) predisposes patients to an increased risk for adverse outcomes of COVID-19. However, details on this interaction remain incomplete. To provide further characterization, we undertook a retrospective observational cohort analysis of the majority of the hemodialysis and renal transplant population affected by the first regional outbreak of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany. In a region of 250,000 inhabitants we identified a total of 21 cases with SARS-CoV-2 among 100 KTX and 260 HD patients, that is, 7 KTX with COVID-19, 14 HD with COVID-19, and 3 HD with asymptomatic carrier status. As a first observation, KTX recipients exhibited trends for a higher mortality (43 vs 18%) and a higher proportion of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (57 vs 27%) when compared to their HD counterparts. As a novel finding, development of ARDS was significantly associated with the time spent on previous renal replacement therapy (RRT), defined as the composite of dialysis time and time on the transplant (non-ARDS 4.3 vs ARDS 10.6 years, P = .016). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an OR of 1.7 per year of RRT. The association remained robust when analysis was confined to KTX patients (5.1 vs 13.2 years, P = .002) or when correlating the time spent on a renal transplant alone (P = .038). Similarly, longer RRT correlated with death vs survival (P = .0002). In conclusion our data suggest renal replacement vintage as a novel risk factor for COVID-19-associated ARDS and death. The findings should be validated by larger cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
CMAJ ; 193(8): E278-E284, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing long-term dialysis may be at higher risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of associated disease and mortality. We aimed to describe the incidence, risk factors and outcomes for infection in these patients in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We used linked data sets to compare disease characteristics and mortality between patients receiving long-term dialysis in Ontario who were diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 positive and those who did not acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection, between Mar. 12 and Aug. 20, 2020. We collected data on SARS-CoV-2 infection prospectively. We evaluated risk factors for infection and death using multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: During the study period, 187 (1.5%) of 12 501 patients undergoing dialysis were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 117 (62.6%) were admitted to hospital and the case fatality rate was 28.3%. Significant predictors of infection included in-centre hemodialysis versus home dialysis (odds ratio [OR] 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-4.05), living in a long-term care residence (OR 7.67, 95% CI 5.30-11.11), living in the Greater Toronto Area (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.21-4.80), Black ethnicity (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.95-4.77), Indian subcontinent ethnicity (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02-2.81), other non-White ethnicities (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.38-2.97) and lower income quintiles (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.89). INTERPRETATION: Patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death from coronavirus disease 2019. Special attention should be paid to addressing risk factors for infection, and these patients should be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Risk Factors
14.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(3): 252-254, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088144

ABSTRACT

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with a high mortality rate among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited data on the clinical features, ethnicity, inpatient glycaemic control and outcomes in patients with diabetes related ESRD in the literature. We report the clinical features and outcomes of 39 consecutive ESRD patients (28 on haemodialysis [HD] and 11 with renal transplant) secondary to diabetic kidney disease admitted to a university hospital with COVID-19. We observed a high prevalence of patients of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity hospitalized with COVID-19 with a 73% and 54% prevalence in renal transplant and HD groups respectively. The mortality rate of our cohort was 36%. Nearly a one-third of HD patients and one-fifth of transplant patients had hypoglycaemic events during COVID-19 hospitalization. Adjustment of diabetes treatment was frequently required. Our data highlight the importance of integrated multidisciplinary care of patients with diabetes related ESRD hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Caribbean Region , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/ethnology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/ethnology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Patient Care Team , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
CMAJ ; 193(8): E278-E284, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing long-term dialysis may be at higher risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of associated disease and mortality. We aimed to describe the incidence, risk factors and outcomes for infection in these patients in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We used linked data sets to compare disease characteristics and mortality between patients receiving long-term dialysis in Ontario who were diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 positive and those who did not acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection, between Mar. 12 and Aug. 20, 2020. We collected data on SARS-CoV-2 infection prospectively. We evaluated risk factors for infection and death using multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: During the study period, 187 (1.5%) of 12 501 patients undergoing dialysis were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 117 (62.6%) were admitted to hospital and the case fatality rate was 28.3%. Significant predictors of infection included in-centre hemodialysis versus home dialysis (odds ratio [OR] 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-4.05), living in a long-term care residence (OR 7.67, 95% CI 5.30-11.11), living in the Greater Toronto Area (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.21-4.80), Black ethnicity (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.95-4.77), Indian subcontinent ethnicity (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02-2.81), other non-White ethnicities (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.38-2.97) and lower income quintiles (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.89). INTERPRETATION: Patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death from coronavirus disease 2019. Special attention should be paid to addressing risk factors for infection, and these patients should be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Risk Factors
16.
Kidney Int ; 98(6): 1519-1529, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023690

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 disease in the French national population of dialysis patients, their course of illness and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality. Our study included all patients on dialysis recorded in the French REIN Registry in April 2020. Clinical characteristics at last follow-up and the evolution of COVID-19 illness severity over time were recorded for diagnosed cases (either suspicious clinical symptoms, characteristic signs on the chest scan or a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 1,621 infected patients were reported on the REIN registry from March 16th, 2020 to May 4th, 2020. Of these, 344 died. The prevalence of COVID-19 patients varied from less than 1% to 10% between regions. The probability of being a case was higher in males, patients with diabetes, those in need of assistance for transfer or treated at a self-care unit. Dialysis at home was associated with a lower probability of being infected as was being a smoker, a former smoker, having an active malignancy, or peripheral vascular disease. Mortality in diagnosed cases (21%) was associated with the same causes as in the general population. Higher age, hypoalbuminemia and the presence of an ischemic heart disease were statistically independently associated with a higher risk of death. Being treated at a selfcare unit was associated with a lower risk. Thus, our study showed a relatively low frequency of COVID-19 among dialysis patients contrary to what might have been assumed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Hemodialysis, Home/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(10): 2475-2489, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and quinine are used for a range of medical conditions, recent research suggested a potential role in treating COVID-19. The resultant increase in prescribing was accompanied by an increase in adverse events, including severe toxicity and death. The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup sought to determine the effect of and indications for extracorporeal treatments in cases of poisoning with these drugs. METHODS: We conducted systematic reviews of the literature, screened studies, extracted data, and summarized findings following published EXTRIP methods. RESULTS: A total of 44 studies (three in vitro studies, two animal studies, 28 patient reports or patient series, and 11 pharmacokinetic studies) met inclusion criteria regarding the effect of extracorporeal treatments. Toxicokinetic or pharmacokinetic analysis was available for 61 patients (13 chloroquine, three hydroxychloroquine, and 45 quinine). Clinical data were available for analysis from 38 patients, including 12 with chloroquine toxicity, one with hydroxychloroquine toxicity, and 25 with quinine toxicity. All three drugs were classified as non-dialyzable (not amenable to clinically significant removal by extracorporeal treatments). The available data do not support using extracorporeal treatments in addition to standard care for patients severely poisoned with either chloroquine or quinine (strong recommendation, very low quality of evidence). Although hydroxychloroquine was assessed as being non-dialyzable, the clinical evidence was not sufficient to support a formal recommendation regarding the use of extracorporeal treatments for this drug. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our systematic review and analysis, the EXTRIP workgroup recommends against using extracorporeal methods to enhance elimination of these drugs in patients with severe chloroquine or quinine poisoning.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/poisoning , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/poisoning , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quinine/poisoning , Renal Dialysis/methods , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poisoning/therapy , Quinine/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , United States
19.
Blood Purif ; 50(4-5): 513-519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, pneumonia associated with COVID-19 has spread from Wuhan to other areas in China. In the present study, we aimed to further clarify the clinical features and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients infected with COVID-19 in Xiangyang, Hubei, China. METHODS: All confirmed cases of COVID-19 with AKI in Xiangyang Central Hospital from January 22 to May 31, 2020, were included in this retrospective study. Data of epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological tests, treatment, complication, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into intensive care unit (ICU) group and isolation ward (non-ICU) group. RESULTS: Of the total patients, 33.3% in the non-ICU group and 85.7% in the ICU group had chronic diseases. In addition, 85.7% of patients in the ICU group died. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and fatigue. The lymphocyte count in the ICU group was significantly reduced compared with the non-ICU group. The chest computed tomography (CT) images appeared showed multiple mottles and ground-glass opacity. Strip shadow could be found in chest CT images of some recovered patients. All patients received antiviral treatment. Most patients in the ICU group were given methylprednisolone, immunoglobulin, antibiotics, and mechanical ventilation and 35.7% of patients in the ICU group received continuous renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly with chronic comorbidities were more susceptible to COVID-19, showing a higher mortality rate due to multiple organ damage, and 35.7% of patients with AKI in ICU received renal replacement therapy. Moreover, part of the cured patients might need additional time to recover for poor lung function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Plasma Exchange/methods , Plasma Exchange/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 532, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk of developing worse outcomes if they contract COVID-19. In our renal service we reduced HD frequency from thrice to twice-weekly in selected patients with the primary aim of reducing COVID 19 exposure and transmission between HD patients. METHODS: Dialysis unit nephrologists identified 166 suitable patients (38.4% of our HD population) to temporarily convert to twice-weekly haemodialysis immediately prior to the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in our area. Changes in pre-dialysis weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and biochemistry were recorded weekly throughout the 4-week project. Hyperkalaemic patients (serum potassium > 6.0 mmol/L) were treated with a potassium binder, sodium bicarbonate and received responsive dietary advice. RESULTS: There were 12 deaths (5 due to COVID-19) in the HD population, 6 of which were in the twice weekly HD group; no deaths were definitively associated with change of dialysis protocol. A further 19 patients were either hospitalised and/or developed COVID-19 and thus transferred back to thrice weekly dialysis as per protocol. 113 (68.1%) were still receiving twice-weekly HD by the end of the 4-week project. Indications for transfer back to thrice weekly were; fluid overload (19), persistent hyperkalaemia (4), patient request (4) and compliance (1). There were statistically significant increases in SBP and pre-dialysis potassium during the project. CONCLUSIONS: Short term conversion of a large but selected HD population to twice-weekly dialysis sessions was possible and safe. This approach could help mitigate COVID-19 transmission amongst dialysis patients in centres with similar organisational pressures.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium/blood , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
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