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1.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170668400.07102481.v1

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a global pandemic which is primarily considered a respiratory illness. However, emerging reports show that the virus exhibits both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations in humans, with the kidney as a major extra-pulmonary target due to its abundant expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2, which facilitate entry of the virus into cells. Acute kidney injury has become prevalent in COVID-19 patients without prior any history of kidney dysfunction. In addition, the virus also worsens kidney conditions and increases mortality of COVID-19 patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, renal cancer, diabetic nephropathy, end-stage kidney disease as well as dialysis and kidney transplant patients. In the search for antiviral agents for the treatment of COVID-19, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third established member of gasotransmitter family, is emerging as a potential candidate, possessing important therapeutic properties including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and antioxidant properties. A recent clinical study revealed higher serum H2S levels in survivors of COVID-19 pneumonia with reduced interleukin-6 levels compared to fatal cases. In this review, we summarize the global impact of COVID-19 on kidney conditions and discuss the emerging role of H2S as a potential COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Nephropathies , Kidney Diseases , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Thrombosis , Acute Kidney Injury , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Neoplasms
2.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3904479.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify risk factors for COVID-19 infection and investigate the impact of COVID-19 infection on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and vasculitis flare in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV).Methods This cohort study retrospectively analyzed the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 infection in 276 patients with AAV who were followed up. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the risk of COVID-19 infection as well as CKD progression and vasculitis flare upon COVID-19 infection.Results During the 6-month observation period, 213 (77.2%) of 276 patients had a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. Of these 213 patients, 49 (23.0%) had a COVID-19-related inpatient admission, including 17 patients who died of COVID-19 infection. AAV patients with severe COVID-19 infection were more likely to be male (OR 1.921 [95% CI 1.020–3.619], P = 0.043), suffered from worse kidney function (serum creatinine [Scr], OR 1.901 [95% CI 1.345–2.687], P < 0.001), had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.054 [95% CI 1.010–1.101], P = 0.017) and less likely to have evidence of initial vaccination (OR 0.469 [95% CI 0.231–0.951], P = 0.036), and Scr and COVID-19 vaccination were proven to be significantly associated with severe COVID-19 infection even after multivariable adjustment. Severe COVID-19 infection was significantly associated with subsequent CKD progression (OR 7.929 [95% CI 2.030-30.961], P = 0.003) and vasculitis flare (OR 11.842 [95% CI 1.048-133.835], P = 0.046) among patients with AAV.Conclusion AAV patients who were male, and with worse kidney function were more susceptible to severe COVID-19 infection, which subsequently increased the risk of CKD progression and vasculitis flare.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Vasculitis , COVID-19
3.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3877193.v1

ABSTRACT

Various cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were reported among COVID-19-positive patients in the literature. We used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to evaluate the odds of ITP among COVID-19 patients in the United States between April and November 2020. Females (vs. Males), Whites (vs. other races), and the presence of multiple comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis, prior stroke, HIV, obesity, cachexia, neoplasms, and autoimmune conditions showed higher odds of ITP. Meanwhile, those with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease and covered by private insurance (vs. Medicare) were less likely to experience ITP while being positive for the virus. Events of ITP also led to a higher mortality risk in COVID-19-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Diabetes Mellitus , Cachexia , Neoplasms , Obesity , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Fibrosis , Peripheral Vascular Diseases
4.
biorxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.14.575569

ABSTRACT

Generalised immune dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, especially in patients requiring haemodialysis (HD), significantly enhances the risk of severe infections. Moreover, vaccine-induced immunity is typically reduced in HD populations, but the full mechanisms behind this remain unclear. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic provided an opportunity to examine the magnitude and functionality of antibody responses in HD patients to a previously unencountered antigen, Spike (S)-glycoprotein, after vaccination with different vaccine platforms (viral vector (VV); mRNA (mRV)). Here, we compared total and functional anti-S antibody responses (cross-variant neutralisation and complement binding) in 187 HD patients and 43 healthy controls 21-28 days after serial immunisation. After 2 doses of the same vaccine, HD patients had anti-S antibody levels and complement binding capacity comparable to controls. However, 2 doses of mRV induced greater polyfunctional antibody responses than VV, yet previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or an mRV boost after 2 doses of VV significantly enhanced antibody functionality in HD patients. Therefore, HD patients can generate near-normal, functional antigen-specific antibody responses following serial vaccination to a novel antigen, suggesting largely intact B cell memory. Encouragingly, exploiting immunological memory by using mRNA vaccines and boosting may improve the success of vaccination strategies in this vulnerable patient population.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , COVID-19
5.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.18.23300150

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients were susceptible to morbidity and mortality once they affected by COVID-19. These patients were more likely to develop severe disease, requiring dialysis, admission to intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19 in stage 3-5 CKD patients not on dialysis. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in the COVID-19 unit, at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka from September 2020 to August 2021. Hospitalized RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients with pre-existing CKD having eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 but not yet on dialysis were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded. Outcomes were observed till discharge from the hospital and followed up after 3 months of survived patients. Results Out of 109 patients, the mean age was 58.1(SD: 15.4) years where 61.5% were male. Common co-morbid conditions were hypertension (89.0%), diabetes mellitus (58.7%) and ischemic heart disease (24.8%). Fever, cough, shortness of breath and fatigue were common presenting features. Most of the patients had moderate (41.3%) and severe (41.3%) COVID-19. Sixty-six patients (60.6%) developed AKI on CKD. Twenty patients (30.3%) required dialysis. Death occurred in 16 patients (14.7%) and 12 patients (11%) required ICU admission and 6 patients (9.1%) achieved baseline renal function at discharge. We identified risk factors like low haemoglobin, lymphopenia, high CRP, high procalcitonin, high LDH and low SpO 2 in patients who did not survive. Seventy-six patients were followed up at 3rd month where 17 patients were lost. Ten patients (27.0%) achieved baseline renal function who had persistent AKI at discharge and 34 patients (87.1%) remained stable who had stable renal function at discharge. Conclusion The stage 3-5 chronic kidney patients with COVID-19 are vulnerable to severe to critical morbidity and mortality with higher incidence of AKI which demands a special attention to this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Fever , Dyspnea , Ischemia , Heart Diseases , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cough , Lymphopenia , Fatigue , Hypertension
6.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.09.03.23294865

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Antivirals with differing mechanisms of action are needed for COVID 19 treatment; remdesivir is mainly used in hospitalized patients, but additional antivirals are needed in this setting. Ensitrelvir, a 3C like protease inhibitor, received emergency approval in Japan in November 2022, based on evidence of rapid symptom resolution in nonhospitalized patients, but confirmation of its efficacy in hospitalized patients is lacking. Case presentations: This case series reports outcomes for all patients who received ensitrelvir whilst hospitalized with SARS CoV 2 infection at Rinku General Medical Center, Japan (November 2022 to April 2023). Thirty two hospitalized patients received five days of ensitrelvir treatment (375/125 mg). Mean age was 73.5 years and most patients had mild COVID 19. Patients exhibited various underlying diseases, most commonly hypertension (78.1%) and chronic kidney disease (25.0%). Seven (21.9%) patients were on hemodialysis. The most common concomitant medications were antihypertensives (59.4%) and corticosteroids (31.2%); two (6.3%) patients were being treated with rituximab; 27 (84.4%) patients had viral persistence following pretreatment remdesivir failure. Following ensitrelvir treatment, all patients experienced clinical improvement as assessed by the investigator. No ICU admissions or deaths due to COVID 19 occurred. Viral clearance was recorded in 18 (56.3%) patients by day 5 and 25 (78.1%) patients at final measurement. No new safety signals were observed. Discussion: This case series represents ensitrelvir clinical efficacy in hospitalized patients with SARS CoV 2 in a real world setting. Most patients experienced persistent viral shedding despite pretreatment with antivirals, and most were considered high risk due to underlying conditions. Despite this, no patients experienced progression of COVID 19 to severe or critical disease, including those who failed prior remdesivir treatment. The antiviral activity of ensitrelvir demonstrated here indicates it is a viable treatment option for SARS CoV 2 infection in this setting. Conclusion: Ensitrelvir was associated with potent antiviral activity and positive clinical outcomes in high risk, hospitalized patients with various comorbidities. Trial Registration: UMIN000051300


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Critical Illness , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Hypertension
7.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.23.23294509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVESTo analyze the symptoms and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) on immunotherapy using data from the COVID-19 in multiple sclerosis (MS) Global Data Sharing Initiative dataset provided by PhysioNet. METHODSThe open-access COVID-19 in MS Global Data Sharing Initiative dataset was obtained through credentialed access using PhysioNet. The variables analyzed included body mass index (BMI), symptoms of COVID-19, age, current use of disease-modifying therapy (DMT), efficacy of DMT, comorbidities, hospitalization status, and type of MS. A linear regression analysis was completed. Data analysis and visualization were completed using STATA v1.5, R-Studio v1.1.447, Python v3.8, and its associated libraries, including NumPy, Pandas, and Matplotlib. RESULTSA total of 1141 participants were included in the analysis. 904 women and 237 men were diagnosed with MS. Among the pwMS included in the study; 208 (19.54%) had a suspected infection with COVID-19 and only 49 (5.25%) were confirmed. Any COVID-19 symptom was present in 360 individuals. The commonly reported DMT agents included dimethyl fumarate (12.71%) and fingolimod (10.17%). 101 in total (8.85%) reported not using any DMT. Factors associated with hospitalization and/or admission to the ICU included having any comorbidity (p = 0.01), neuromuscular disorder (p = 0.046), hypertension (p = 0.005), chronic kidney disease (p < 0.001), and immunodeficiency (p = 0.003). The type of MS, the duration of the disease, and high-efficacy DMT therapy did not have a statistically significant influence on hospitalization. CONCLUSIONThis study underscores the importance of comorbidities, especially neuromuscular disorders, hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and immunodeficiencies, as possible prognostic indicators for worse outcomes of COVID-19 in pwMS. On the contrary, the type of MS, the duration of the disease, and the efficacy of disease-modifying therapy did not significantly affect the severity of the symptoms of COVID-19 in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Diseases , Multiple Sclerosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Hypertension
8.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.20.23294334

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics, as well as evaluating the factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection and acute kidney injury (AKI) hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study, with convenience sampling during the period from April 2020 to March 2021, through the review of medical records data. Inclusion criteria were; patients [≥] 18 years old, with a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, who were admitted to ICU with normal renal function and developed AKI during their stay in ICU. Exclusion criteria were; patients who developed AKI prior to ICU admission, patients with chronic kidney disease with and without dialysis. Results: A total of 177 medical records that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated. The mean age was 57.2+/-13.2 years, 145 (81.4%) were male; comorbidities were: obesity 112(63.3%), arterial hypertension 55 (31.1%) and diabetes mellitus 30(16.9%); the most frequent cause of AKI was hypoperfusion (93%). 83 participants (46.8%) received dialytic support in the intermittent hemodialysis modality. In-hospital mortality was 151 (85.3%) and was higher in the group with stage 3 AKI: 109 (72.2%). The increase in ferritin level (OR: 10.04 (95%CI 4.4-38.46), p<0.001) and APACHE score (OR: 1.75 (95%CI 1.4-2.12), p<0.001), as well as the decrease in PaO2/FiO2 level (OR: 0.85 (95%CI 0.59-0.92), p<0.041, were related to mortality. Conclusions: AKI in ICU patients with COVID-19 infection has a high mortality and the related factors were the increase in APACHE II score and ferritin level, as well as the decrease in PaO2/FiO2 level. Keywords: Acute kidney injury, COVID-19, Intensive care units (MeSH)


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Obesity , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury , Hypertension
9.
ssrn; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.4496138

ABSTRACT

Background: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is mainly used in patients with normal renal function or with only mild renal impairment (eGFR ³ 30 ml/min per 1.73m2). There is limited data regarding its use in advanced kidney disease. We performed a retrospective territory-wide cohort study evaluating the safety and efficacy of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir when compared with molnupiravir.Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is mainly used in patients with normal renal function or with only mild renal impairment (eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min per 1.73m2). There is limited data regarding its use in advanced kidney disease. We performed a retrospective territory-wide cohort study evaluating the safety and efficacy of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir when compared with molnupiravir.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, China, for an observation period from 1 January 2022 to 31 December 2022 (during the omicron BA.2 and BA.5 variant wave). Adult COVID-19 patients (age ≥ 18 years) were selected from medical records held by the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong. We included all patients with COVID-19 regardless of disease severity at baseline having chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4 or above (i.e with eGFR < 30 ml/min per 1.73m2) with or without dialysis who receive either nirmatrelvir/ritonavir or molnupiravir. Outcomes at day 90 post-treatment of each treatment arm (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir v.s. molnupiravir) were analyzed and compared. All-cause mortality, respiratory outcomes including mechanical ventilation and non-invasive ventilation, cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, and hepatic complications including elevated liver enzymes were analyzed. Time-to-event analysis was performed for the designated outcomes using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model regression for unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR).Findings: We included 454 and 5,880 CKD stage 4 or above patients receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir respectively from public clinics and hospitals managed by the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong during the period. At 90 days, 662 (10.4%) patients of the combined cohort experienced all-cause mortality. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir group had significant lower all-cause mortality than molnupiravir group (6.82% vs 10.7%) with unadjusted HR of 0.67 (95% CI 0.472 - 0.97, p=0.0337*). After adjusting for sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction and dialysis in multi-variate analysis, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir group was still associated with superior 90-day survival with adjusted HR of 0.60 (95% CI 0.48 - 0.992, p = 0.0452*). Composites of mechanical and non-invasive ventilation rate were similar in nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir groups (0.96% vs 1.10%, p=0.651). Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir group had higher proportion of patients who received non-invasive ventilation (1.10% vs 0.42%, p = 0.0383*) and trended towards fewer patients requiring mechanical ventilation although statistical significance was not reached (0% vs 0.59%, p = 0.996). There were no significant differences in rate of myocardial infarction (0.88% vs 2.14%, p = 0.0844) and ischemic stroke (0.22% vs 0.61%, p = 0.34) between nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir groups. Hepatic impairment, defined by elevated alanine aminotransferase concentration ≥ 2X upper limit of normal (ULN), was present in 1.45% and 0.94% of patients in nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir groups respectively (p=0.523).Interpretation: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is safe and efficacious when compared to molnupiravir in patients with advanced kidney disease.Funding: Health and Medical Research Fund, Health Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China and Mr. Lee Won Keung Donation Fund.Declaration of Interest: The authors report no conflict of interest.Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong and Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster. Informed consent from individual patient was waived as the study involved analysis of anonymized data from hospital registry only. The study was performed in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Diabetes Mellitus , Kidney Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Liver Diseases , Hypertension
10.
Ter Arkh ; 94(11): 1326-1332, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239066

ABSTRACT

The hepatic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection are now recognized as an important component of CoronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This aspect is most clinically relevant in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (CKD), who are at extremely high risk of severe COVID-19 and death. Risk factors for severe CKD, especially in people with liver cirrhosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are the direct and indirect cytotoxic effects of coronavirus against the background of systemic inflammation, blood clotting disorders and immune dysfunction. The severe negative impact of the pandemic in the presence of CKD and the difficulties of patient relationships contribute to the progressive increase in the global burden of liver disease on the health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232309

ABSTRACT

Hyperphosphatemia is a secondary disorder of chronic kidney disease that causes vascular calcifications and bone-mineral disorders. As per the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, renal damage requires first-priority medical attention for patients with COVID-19; according to a Johns Hopkins Medicine report, SARS-CoV-2 can cause renal damage. Therefore, addressing the research inputs required to manage hyperphosphatemia is currently in great demand. This review highlights research inputs, such as defects in the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemia, flaws in understanding the mechanisms associated with understudied tertiary toxicities, less cited adverse effects of phosphate binders that question their use in the market, socioeconomic challenges of renal treatment and public awareness regarding the management of a phosphate-controlled diet, novel biological approaches (synbiotics) to prevent hyperphosphatemia as safer strategies with potential additional health benefits, and future functional food formulations to enhance the quality of life. We have not only introduced our contributions to emphasise the hidden aspects and research gaps in comprehending hyperphosphatemia but also suggested new research areas to strengthen approaches to prevent hyperphosphatemia in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperphosphatemia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Hyperphosphatemia/complications , Hyperphosphatemia/therapy , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Phosphates/therapeutic use
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245462

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Kidneys are one of the main targets for SARS-CoV-2. Early recognition and precautionary management are essential in COVID-19 patients due to the multiple origins of acute kidney injury and the complexity of chronic kidney disease management. The aims of this research were to investigate the association between COVID-19 infection and renal injury in a regional hospital. Materials and Methods: The data of 601 patients from the Vilnius regional university hospital between 1 January 2020 and 31 March 2021 were collected for this cross-sectional study. Demographic data (gender, age), clinical outcomes (discharge, transfer to another hospital, death), length of stay, diagnoses (chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury), and laboratory test data (creatinine, urea, C-reactive protein, potassium concentrations) were collected and analyzed statistically. Results: Patients discharged from the hospital were younger (63.18 ± 16.02) than those from the emergency room (75.35 ± 12.41, p < 0.001), transferred to another hospital (72.89 ± 12.06, p = 0.002), or who died (70.87 ± 12.83, p < 0.001). Subsequently, patients who died had lower creatinine levels on the first day than those who survived (185.00 vs. 311.17 µmol/L, p < 0.001), and their hospital stay was longer (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.304, p < 0.001). Patients with chronic kidney disease had higher first-day creatinine concentration than patients with acute kidney injury (365.72 ± 311.93 vs. 137.58 ± 93.75, p < 0.001). Patients with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease complicated by acute kidney injury died 7.81 and 3.66 times (p < 0.001) more often than patients with chronic kidney disease alone. The mortality rate among patients with acute kidney injury was 7.79 (p < 0.001) times higher than among patients without these diseases. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients who developed acute kidney injury and whose chronic kidney disease was complicated by acute kidney injury had a longer hospital stay and were more likely to die.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Kidney , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Risk Factors
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 17(7): 102799, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The DaR Global survey was conducted to observe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the intentions to fast and the outcomes of fasting in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Muslim people with diabetes and CKD were surveyed in 13 countries shortly after the end of Ramadan 2020, using a simple Survey Monkey questionnaire. RESULTS: This survey recruited 6736 people with diabetes, of which 707 (10.49%) had CKD. There were 118 (16.69%) people with type1 diabetes (T1D), and 589 (83.31%) were with type2 diabetes (T2D). 62 (65.24%) people with T1D and 448 (76.06%) people with T2D had fasted with CKD. Episodes of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia were more frequent among people with T1D compared to T2D, 64.52% and 43.54% vs 25.22% and 22.32% respectively. Visits to the emergency department and hospitalization were more frequent among people with CKD, however no significant difference was found between people with T1D and T2D. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic had only a minor effect on the intention to fast during Ramadan in people with diabetes and CKD. However, hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia were found to be more frequent, as well as emergency visits and hospital admissions among people with diabetic kidney disease. Prospective studies are needed in future to evaluate the risk indicators of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia among fasting people with CKD, especially in the context of different stages of kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Fasting , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Islam , Hypoglycemic Agents
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(8): 1230-1235, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mortality is predominantly due to respiratory failure. However, risk factors and predictive models for disease progression in patients with COVID-19 are not consistent across the globe. In this study, we aimed to assess the risk factors associated with intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Information was retrieved from the database of all patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia between March 2020 and July 2020 at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. The patients' demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 1054 patients admitted with PCR proven COVID-19, 254 patients (24%) with radiological evidence of pneumonia were enrolled. The median age was 55, with 25.6% above 65 years and 55.1% males. The comorbidities included hypertension (45%), diabetes (43%), dyslipidemia (24%), solid organ and bone marrow transplantation (14.5%), malignancy (13.4%), ischemic heart disease (10.6%) and chronic kidney disease (9.4%). The mortality rate was 4.7%, and 22.8% were admitted to the ICU. The risk factors for ICU admission were> 65 years of age (RR: 1.74, CI 95%, 1.10-2.74, p = 0.017), diabetes melitus (RR: 1.66, CI 95% 1.06-2.62, p = 0.028), heart failure (RR: 2.51, CI 95%, 1.28-4.93, p = 0.007), respiratory rate> 25 (RR: 2.75, CI 95%, 1.66-4.55, p < 0.001), upper lobe involvement (RR: 1.68, CI 95%, 1.02-2.77, p = 0.043), and C-reactive protein (CRP)> 140 (RR: 1.89, CI 95%, 1.14-3.13, p = 0.013). The risk factors for mortality were> 65 years of age (RR: 5.82, CI 95%, 1.81-18.68, p = 0.003), upper lobe involvement on chest radiography (RR:4.40, CI 95%, 1.22-15.86, p = 0.016), diffuse chest computed tomography changes (RR: 7.36, CI 95%, 2.31-23.46, p < 0.011), ischemic heart disease (RR: 4.20, CI 95%, 1.36-13.04, p = 0.028), chronic kidney disease (RR: 6.85, CI 95%, 2.35-19.90, p < 0.003), cerebrovascular disease (RR:13.61, CI 95%, 5.01-36.96 p < 0.001), respiratory rate> 25 (RR: 3.94, CI 95%, 1.32-11.78 p = 0.023), oxygen saturation< 90% on admission (RR: 12.19, CI 95%, 3.71-40.01, p < 0.001), thrombocytopenia (RR:4.16, CI 95%, 1.37-12.64, p = 0.013), and elevated troponin (RR: 6.20, CI 95%, 1.73-22.24, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, nearly a quarter of the patients with COVID-19 pneumonia required intensive care. We identified several risk factors associated with ICU admission and mortality that may be useful for predicting, triaging, and managing COVID-19 pneumonia patients. However, these findings need to be validated prospectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Ischemia , Pneumonia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care , Risk Factors
15.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 61(261): 428-431, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324052

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Comorbidities are frequently seen in admitted COVID-19 patients most common being hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease is a slowly progressive chronic illness due to the gradual loss of kidney function or structure. The available data regarding the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and COVID-19 comorbidities is still limited. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among COVID-19 patients admitted to the Department of Medicine of a tertiary care centre. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary care centre. Data of medical records between 1 August 2020 to 1 December 2022 were reviewed retrospectively. The data was collected from 20 January 2023 to 20 March 2023. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee (Reference number: 646/2079/80). Data on chronic kidney disease patients among COVID-19 patients were collected from the hospital records. Convenience sampling method was used. Point estimate and 95% Confidence Interval were calculated. Results: Among 584 COVID-19 patients admitted, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 43 (7.36%) (5.24-9.48, 95% Confidence Interval). A total of 30 (69.77%) were male and 13 (30.23%) were female with a mean age of 55±16.22 years. Conclusions: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease among COVID-19 patients admitted in the department of Medicine of a tertiary care centre was found to be slightly higher than other studies done in similar settings. Keywords: chronic kidney disease; COVID-19; prevalence; tertiary care centre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology
16.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323015

ABSTRACT

Despite the enormous global market of dietary supplements, the impact of dietary supplements on kidney disease is still unclear. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2015 to 2017, this study evaluated the association between dietary supplement and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 13,271 Korean adults. Among the dietary supplements, vitamin and mineral intake was the highest at 61.41%, followed by omega-3 fatty acids at 11.85%, and ginseng at 7.99%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in those who consumed amino acids and proteins, ginseng and red ginseng, and herbal medicine (plant extract)-berries than in those who did not. Conversely, patients who consumed probiotic supplements had a significantly lower prevalence of CKD than those who did not. In the population without CKD risk factors or history of CKD, the prevalence of CKD was high in the group consuming ginseng and red ginseng. After adjusting for covariates, the herbal medicine (plant extract)-berry group showed an independent association with CKD incidence. In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary supplements may affect kidney function. Further large-scale cohort studies are required to elucidate the exact effects of each dietary supplement on CKD.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Plant Extracts , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
17.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 140, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 have a high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with mortality. The objective of the study was to determine the factors associated with AKI in patients with COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort was established in two university hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia. Adults hospitalized for more than 48 h from March 6, 2020, to March 31, 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 were included. The main outcome was to determine the factors associated with AKI in patients with COVID-19 and the secondary outcome was estimate the incidence of AKI during the 28 days following hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 1584 patients were included: 60.4% were men, 738 (46.5%) developed AKI, 23.6% were classified as KDIGO 3, and 11.1% had renal replacement therapy. The risk factors for developing AKI during hospitalization were male sex (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.73-2.99), age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.03-6.42), High Blood Pressure (HBP) (OR 6.51, 95% CI 2.10-20.2), higher qSOFA score to the admission (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.14-1.71), the use of vancomycin (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05-2.37), piperacillin/tazobactam (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.2-2.31), and vasopressor support (CI 2.39, 95% CI 1.53-3.74). The gross hospital mortality for AKI was 45.5% versus 11.7% without AKI. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort showed that male sex, age, history of HBP and CKD, presentation with elevated qSOFA, in-hospital use of nephrotoxic drugs and the requirement for vasopressor support were the main risk factors for developing AKI in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hospital Mortality
18.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13(2): 313-321, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321495

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection is causing significant morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. A comprehensive investigation of the disease characteristics, especially among vulnerable disease groups, could help better manage the disease and reduce the pathogen's effect. This retrospective study examined the impact of COVID-19 infection on three groups of patients with chronic diseases. We investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 535 COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and Cancer that were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Of the total cases, 433 patients (80.93%) were discharged from the ICU, and 102 patients (19.06%) were declared dead. Patients' symptoms, their clinical laboratory findings, number and type of medications, length of ICU stay, and outcome were collected and analyzed. Most COVID-19 patients included in our study were associated with other comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart disease and failure. Upon ICU admission, the main COVID-19-related symptoms in CVD, CKD, and cancer patients were cough (55.73, 50.42, and 50.5%, respectively), Shortness of Breath (SOB) (59.38, 43.1, and 43.7%, respectively), and fever (41.15%, 48.75%, and 28.2%, respectively). In terms of lab findings, D-dimer, LDH, and inflammatory markers, in particular, were outside the normal range. Treatment options for patients with COVID-19 in ICU were mainly antibiotics, synthetic glucocorticoids, and Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH). Furthermore, CKD patients had a longer ICU stay (13.93 ± 15.87 days) which illustrates the poorer outcome in this group of patients compared with the others. In conclusion, our results highlighted the significant risk factors among COVID-19 patients within the three groups. This can guide physicians in prioritizing ICU admission and help in the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Intensive Care Units , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
19.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 80(2): 105-114, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) in children is usually mild, they need hospitalization and intensive care in exceptional cases. Adverse outcomes have been observed mainly among children with comorbidities, justifying their vaccination. This study aimed to assess the risk of hospitalization and death in Mexican children and adolescents with COVID-19 and comorbidities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 366,542 confirmed COVID-19 cases under 18 years, reported by the Mexican Ministry of Health up to July 9, 2022. Logistic regression models were performed. RESULTS: The mean age was 10.98 years, 50.6% were male, and 7.3% reported at least one comorbidity. The percentage of hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients with and without comorbidities was 3.52%, and 0.20%, respectively; children with comorbidities presented a higher percentage of hospitalization (14.0%) and death (1.9%). The probability of hospitalization was 5.6 times greater in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and comorbidities, and the comorbidities that showed the greatest risk were immunosuppression (odds ratio (OR) 22.06), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (11.36), and cardiovascular diseases (5.66). The probability of death in patients with comorbidities was 11.01 times higher than in those without diseases, and the highest risk was observed in those with CKD (OR 12.57), cardiovascular diseases (6.87), and diabetes (5.83). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with comorbidities presented a higher risk of severe COVID-19. It is suggested that vaccination should be promoted with greater emphasis on pediatric patients with comorbidities.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Aunque COVID-19 (enfermedad por coronavirus 2019) en niños es usualmente leve, en casos excepcionales requieren hospitalización y cuidados intensivos. Los resultados adversos han sido observados principalmente en los niños con comorbilidades, justificando su vacunación. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el riesgo de hospitalización y muerte en niños y adolescentes mexicanos con COVID-19 y comorbilidades. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en 366,542 casos de COVID-19 confirmados, menores de 18 años y reportados por la Secretaría de Salud de México, hasta el 9 de julio del 2022. Se ejecutaron modelos multivariados de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad fue de 10.98 años, 50.6% de sexo masculino, y 7.3% reportaron al menos una comorbilidad. El porcentaje de hospitalización y muerte en pacientes con COVID-19 sin comorbilidades fue 3.52% y 0.20%, respectivamente; mientras que los pacientes con comorbilidades presentaron más elevados porcentajes de hospitalización (14.0%) y muerte (1.9%). La probabilidad de hospitalización fue 5.6 veces más en los pacientes con COVID-19 y comorbilidades, comparando con aquellos sin comorbilidades. Las comorbilidades que mostraron más riesgo fueron inmunosupresión (razón de momios (RM) 22.06), enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) (RM 11.36) y enfermedades cardiovasculares (RM 5.66). La probabilidad de muerte en los pacientes con comorbilidades fue 11.01 veces más que en aquellos sin enfermedades, y fue más elevado en aquellos con ERC (RM 12.57), enfermedades cardiovasculares (RM 6.87) y diabetes (RM 5.83). CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes pediátricos con comorbilidades presentaron mayor riesgo de COVID-19 severo, por lo que se sugiere promover con mayor énfasis la vacunación en ellos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Comorbidity , Hospitalization
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314935

ABSTRACT

We previously showed that SerpinA3K is present in urine from rats and humans with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the specific role of SerpinA3K during renal pathophysiology is unknown. To begin to understand the role of SerpinA3K on AKI, SerpinA3K-deficient (KOSA3) mice were studied 24 h after inducing ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and compared to wild type (WT) mice. Four groups were studied: WT+S, WT+IR, KOSA3+S, and KOSA3+IR. As expected, I/R increased serum creatinine and BUN, with a GFR reduction in both genotypes; however, renal dysfunction was ameliorated in the KOSA3+IR group. Interestingly, the increase in UH2O2 induced by I/R was not equally seen in the KOSA3+IR group, an effect that was associated with the preservation of antioxidant enzymes' mRNA levels. Additionally, FOXO3 expression was initially greater in the KOSA3 than in the WT group. Moreover, the increase in BAX protein level and the decrease in Hif1a and Vegfa induced by I/R were not observed in the KOSA3+IR group, suggesting that these animals have better cellular responses to hypoxic injury. Our findings suggest that SerpinA3K is involved in the renal oxidant response, HIF1α/VEGF pathway, and cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Reperfusion Injury , Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis , Kidney/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
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