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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 650, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for a severe course of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and vulnerable to mental health problems. We aimed to investigate prevalence and associated patient (demographic and clinical) characteristics of mental wellbeing (health-related quality of life [HRQoL] and symptoms of depression and anxiety) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS: An ongoing Dutch multicentre prospective cohort study enrols patients of ≥70 years with an eGFR < 20 mL/min/1.73m2 from October 2018 onward. With additional questionnaires during the pandemic (May-June 2020), disease-related concerns about COVID-19 and general anxiety symptoms were assessed cross-sectionally, and depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and emotional symptoms longitudinally. RESULTS: The 82 included patients had a median age of 77.5 years (interquartile range 73.9-82.1), 77% were male and none had tested positive for COVID-19. Cross-sectionally, 67% of the patients reported to be more anxious about COVID-19 because of their kidney disease, and 43% of the patients stated that their quality of life was reduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to pre-COVID-19, the presence of depressive symptoms had increased (11 to 22%; p = .022) and physical HRQoL declined (M = 40.4, SD = 10.1 to M = 36.1, SD = 10.4; p < .001), particularly in males. Mental HRQoL (M = 50.3, SD = 9.6 to M = 50.4, SD = 9.9; p = .913) and emotional symptoms remained similar. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease suffered from disease-related anxiety about COVID-19, increased depressive symptoms and reduced physical HRQoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on this vulnerable patient group extends beyond increased mortality risk, and awareness of mental wellbeing is important. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), trial number NL7104. Date of registration: 06-06-2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 448-458, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the association between PM2.5 and risk of CKD remains under-recognized, especially in regions with high levels of PM2.5, such as China. METHODS: To explore the association between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and CKD prevalence in China, we used data from the China National Survey of CKD, which included a representative sample of 47,204 adults. We estimated annual exposure to PM2.5 before the survey date at each participant's address, using a validated, satellite-based, spatiotemporal model with a 10 km×10 km resolution. Participants with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or albuminuria were defined as having CKD. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the association and analyzed the influence of potential modifiers. RESULTS: The 2-year mean PM2.5 concentration was 57.4 µg/m3, with a range from 31.3 to 87.5 µg/m3. An increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was positively associated with CKD prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 1.35) and albuminuria (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.47). Effect modification indicated these associations were significantly stronger in urban areas compared with rural areas, in males compared with females, in participants aged <65 years compared with participants aged ≥65 years, and in participants without comorbid diseases compared with those with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings regarding the relationship between long-term exposure to high ambient PM2.5 levels and CKD in the general Chinese population provide important evidence for policy makers and public health practices to reduce the CKD risk posed by this pollutant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Albuminuria/diagnosis , China , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472414

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are rising in global prevalence and cause significant morbidity for patients. Current treatments are limited to slowing instead of stabilising or reversing disease progression. In this review, we describe mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their constituents, extracellular vesicles (EVs) as being a novel therapeutic for CKD. MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles, including exosomes, which carry genetic information that mimics the phenotype of their cell of origin. MSC-EVs deliver their cargo of mRNA, miRNA, cytokines, and growth factors to target cells as a form of paracrine communication. This genetically reprograms pathophysiological pathways, which are upregulated in renal failure. Since the method of exosome preparation significantly affects the quality and function of MSC-exosomes, this review compares the methodologies for isolating exosomes from MSCs and their role in tissue regeneration. More specifically, it summarises the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-EVs in 60 preclinical animal models of AKI and CKD and the cargo of biomolecules they deliver. MSC-EVs promote tubular proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and fibrosis, to alleviate AKI and CKD. By reprogramming these pathophysiological pathways, MSC-EVs can slow or even reverse the progression of AKI to CKD, and therefore offer potential to transform clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Therapy/methods , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Self Renewal , Chemical Fractionation , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Protective Agents , Renal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047328, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Globally, there are increasing cases of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin among heat-exposed workers. We aimed to see the kidney damages of indoor heat-exposed workers and whether urine specific gravity can predict any kidney damages. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A shoe-making factory in West Java, Indonesia. PARTICIPANTS: 119 subjects were included. Minimum total sample size was 62. Subjects were indoor heat-exposed workers who were exposed to occupational wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28°C-30°C for 8 hours daily with 1 hour break, 5 days a week. The inclusion criterion was healthy subjects according to the result from annual medical check-up in 2019. The exclusion criteria were subjects who were taking vitamins and/or supplements that might cause disturbance in urine specific gravity and/or hydration status, pregnant and fasting. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of urine specific gravity for the detection of urinary nephrin and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were analysed. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and quantitative albuminuria were also measured. RESULTS: WBGT in the work area of the subject was 28°C-30°C. There were 15 (12.6%) subjects who had eGFR <90 mL/min, but ≥60 mL/min. High serum vasopressin levels were found in 79 subjects with a mean of 6.54 (95% CI 5.94 to 7.14) ng/mL. Most subjects had nephrinuria (87.4%) with preserved renal function (87.4%). Several subjects had elevated urinary KIM-1 (10.9%) and albuminuria (7.6%). AUC of urine specific gravity for increased urinary nephrin was 81.7% (95% CI 68.8% to 94.6%) and statistically significant (p<0.001). Cut-off value of ≥1.018 for urine specific gravity has sensitivity of 71.2% and specificity of 80% for detecting elevation of urinary nephrin levels. CONCLUSION: Urine specific gravity with a cut-off value of ≥1.018 could be used to detect nephrinuria among heat-exposed workers.


Subject(s)
Heat Stress Disorders , Occupational Exposure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hot Temperature , Humans , Indonesia , Kidney , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Specific Gravity
6.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1104-1114, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical use of serum creatine (sCr) and cystatin C (CysC) in kidney function evaluation of critically ill patients has been in continuous discussion. The difference between estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by sCr (eGFRcr) and CysC (eGFRcysc) of critically ill COVID-19 patients were investigated in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) at Wuhan, China. Control cases were moderate COVID-19 patients matched in age and sex at a ratio of 1:1. The eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were compared. The association between eGFR and death were analyzed in critically ill cases. The potential factors influencing the divergence between eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were explored. RESULTS: A total of 76 critically ill COVID-19 patients were concluded. The mean age was 64.5 ± 9.3 years. The eGFRcr (85.45 (IQR 60.58-99.23) ml/min/1.73m2) were much higher than eGFRcysc (60.6 (IQR 34.75-79.06) ml/min/1.73m2) at ICU admission. About 50 % of them showed eGFRcysc < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 while 25% showed eGFRcr < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (χ2 = 10.133, p = 0.001). This divergence was not observed in moderate group. The potential factors influencing the divergence included serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level as well as APACHEII, SOFA scores. Reduced eGFRcr (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was associated with death (HR = 1.939, 95%CI 1.078-3.489, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The eGFRcr was generally higher than eGFRcysc in critically ill COVID-19 cases with severe inflammatory state. The divergence might be affected by inflammatory condition and illness severity. Reduced eGFRcr predicted in-hospital death. In these patients, we advocate for caution when using eGFRcysc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
7.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(2): 208-214, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299022

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to assess the prevalence of United States chronic kidney disease (CKD) health disparities, focusing on racial/ethnic groups, immigrants and refugees, sex or gender, and older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: There are major racial/ethnic disparities in CKD, with possible contributions from the social determinants of health, socioeconomics, and racial discrimination. Racial/ethnic minority patients experience faster progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and higher mortality predialysis, however, once on dialysis, appear to live longer. Similarly, men are quicker to progress to ESKD than women, with potential biological, behavioral, and measurement error factors. There is a lack of substantial evidence for intersex, nonbinary, or transgender patients. There are also strikingly few studies about US immigrants or older adults with CKD despite the fact that they are at high risk for CKD due to a variety of factors. SUMMARY: As providers and scientists, we must combat both conscious and unconscious biases, advocate for minority patient populations, and be inclusive and diverse in our treatment regimens and provision of care. We need to acknowledge that sufficient evidence exists to change treatment guidelines, and that more is required to support the diversity of our patient population.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Minority Groups , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , United States/epidemiology
8.
Magnes Res ; 34(1): 20-31, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282349

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Latin American subjects in particular are at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 and mortality. Altered renal function and lower magnesium levels have been reported to play important roles in the pathophysiology of T2D. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between renal function, serum magnesium levels and mortality in T2D patients with COVID-19. In this retrospective study, we characterized 118 T2D and non-diabetic subjects hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients were clinically characterized and electrolyte, renal function and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). T2D patients had lower eGFR and serum magnesium levels when compared to non-diabetics (59.7 ± 32.8 vs. 78.4 ± 33.8 mL/min per 1.73 m2, P = 0.008 and 1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 2.1 ± 0.3 mEq/L, P = 0.012). Survival was worse in T2D patients with eGFR levels less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 as estimated by Kaplan-Meier analyses (log-rank test <0.0001). The Cox model for T2D patients showed that eGFR (HR 0.970, 95% CI 0.949 to 0.991, P = 0.005) and magnesium (HR 8.025, 95% CI 1.226 to 52.512, P = 0.030) were associated with significantly increased risk of death. Reduced eGFR and magnesium levels were associated with increased mortality in our population. These results suggest that early assessment of kidney function, including magnesium levels, may assist in developing effective treatment strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality among Latin American COVID-19 patients with T2D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Kidney/physiopathology , Magnesium/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Nephropathies/mortality , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e020910, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263974

ABSTRACT

Background Emerging evidence links acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 with higher mortality and respiratory morbidity, but the relationship of AKI with cardiovascular disease outcomes has not been reported in this population. We sought to evaluate associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD), AKI, and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods and Results In a large multicenter registry including 8574 patients with COVID-19 from 88 US hospitals, data were collected on baseline characteristics and serial laboratory data during index hospitalization. Primary exposure variables were CKD (categorized as no CKD, CKD, and end-stage kidney disease) and AKI (classified into no AKI or stages 1, 2, or 3 using a modification of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline definition). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The key secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac events, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, new-onset nonfatal heart failure, and nonfatal cardiogenic shock. CKD and end-stage kidney disease were not associated with mortality or major adverse cardiac events after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, AKI was significantly associated with mortality (stage 1 hazard ratio [HR], 1.72 [95% CI, 1.46-2.03]; stage 2 HR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.52-2.20]; stage 3 HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.44-1.98]; versus no AKI) and major adverse cardiac events (stage 1 HR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.74-2.71]; stage 2 HR, 2.70 [95% CI, 2.07-3.51]; stage 3 HR, 3.06 [95% CI, 2.52-3.72]; versus no AKI). Conclusions This large study demonstrates a significant association between AKI and all-cause mortality and, for the first time, major adverse cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cause of Death , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Registries , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States
10.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(9): 996-1002, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are no reports of a large-scale survey on the infection prevention measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nephrology facilities. This study investigated the facility-level nephrology practices adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associated challenges. Additionally, the treatment patterns and outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with COVID-19 were reviewed. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey of 704 educational facilities that were certified by the Japanese Society of Nephrology (JSN) from October 20, 2020 to November 16, 2020. The questionnaire reviewed the facility characteristics, infection prevention measures taken during routine nephrology practice, impact of COVID-19 on nephrology practice, experiences in managing CKD patients with COVID-19, and nosocomial transmission in the nephrology unit. RESULTS: Of the 347 facilities that responded, 95.1% checked outpatients' body temperatures and COVID-19 symptoms at their visits. To reduce face-to-face contact, 80% and 70% of the facilities lengthened the intervals between outpatient visits and introduced online/telephonic consultations, respectively. As a result, more than half of the hospitals experienced a decrease in the numbers of outpatients and inpatients (64% and 50%, respectively). During the study period, 347 facilities managed 479 CKD patients with COVID-19. Oxygen administration and mechanical ventilation were performed for 47.8% and 16.5% of the patients, respectively, with a 9.2% total mortality rate. CONCLUSION: This survey demonstrated that JSN-certified educational nephrology facilities adopted multiple measures to manage the COVID-19 pandemic; however, they faced several challenges. Sharing these experiences could standardize these approaches and prepare us better for the future.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Infection Control , Nephrology/education , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hospitals, University , Humans , Japan , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Risk Factors , Societies, Medical , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 53(12): 2567-2575, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118258

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This paper was intended to describe the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with known chronic kidney disease (CKD) history. METHODS: Clinical information of 20 COVID-19 pneumonia patients with CKD history diagnosed between January 20th and March 1st, 2020 were collected in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. We listed the clinical baseline data, laboratory findings, chest computed tomography (CT) changes and processed a short period of follow-up of these 20 patients. RESULTS: Based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on admission, 6 patients were classified as stage 2 of CKD, 5 were as 3a, 2 were as 3b, 3 were as 4 and 4 were as 5, respectively. COVID-19 patients with CKD history were elder and hypertension was the most common comorbidity. Cough and fever accounted for more than 80% of the infectious cases. Lymphopenia, increased D-dimer and elevated infectious indications such as hypersensitive C response protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were also common among these patients. Ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the major manifestations in CT scans. 4 patients died and 7 patients underwent acute kidney injury (AKI) during observation. Among 16 discharged patients, 12 were with stable renal function and 4 had deteriorating renal function compared with that of admission. CONCLUSION: Compared to general population infected with SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 patients with CKD history had a preference to develop to severity with higher fatality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(1): 126-134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CKD is a risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients is still poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 on hemodialysis patients. METHOD: A retrospective observational study was conducted on 66 hemodialysis patients. Nasopharyngeal swab PCR and serology for SARS-CoV-2, blood analysis, chest radiography, treatment, and outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: COVID-19 was diagnosed in 50 patients: 38 (76%) were PCR-positive and 12 (24%) were PCR-negative but developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. By contrast, 17% of PCR-positive patients failed to develop detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Among PCR-positive patients, 5/38 (13%) were asymptomatic, while among PCR-negative patients 7/12 (58%) were asymptomatic (p = 0.005) for a total of 12/50 (24%) asymptomatic patients. No other differences were found between PCR-positive and PCR-negative patients. No differences in potential predisposing factors were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients except for a lower use of ACE inhibitors among asymptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients had laboratory evidence of milder disease such as higher lymphocyte counts and oxygen saturation and lower troponin I and interleukin-6 levels than symptomatic patients. Overall mortality was 7/50 (14%) and occurred only in symptomatic PCR-positive patients in whom mortality was 7/33 (21%). CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is common in hemodialysis patients, especially among patients with initial negative PCR that later seroconvert. Thus COVID-19 mortality in hemodialysis patients may be lower than previously estimated based on PCR tests alone.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/trends , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Retrospective Studies
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 169-175, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To study the prevalence and impact of diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In a prospective, observational study including consecutive adults hospitalized with COVID-19, clinical outcomes and inflammatory markers were compared in those with and without diabetes. Participants were classified as having mild or severe COVID-19 disease using the WHO ordinal scale. RESULTS: 401 patients (125 females) with median age of 54 years (range 19-92) were evaluated. Of them 189 (47.1%) had pre-existing diabetes and21 (5.2%) had new-onset hyperglycaemia. Overall, 344 (85.8%) and 57 (14.2%) cases had mild and severe COVID-19 disease respectively. The group with diabetes had a higher proportion of severe cases (20.1% vs 9%, p-0.002), mortality (6.3 vs 1.4%, p-0.015), ICU admission (24.3 vs 12.3%, p-0.002), and oxygen requirement (53.4 vs 28.3%, p < 0.001). Baseline Hba1c (n = 331) correlated significantly with outcome severity scores (r 0.136, p-0.013) and 12/15 (80%) of those who succumbed had diabetes. Hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease were present in 164 (40.9%), 35 (8.7%) and 12 (2.99%) patients respectively. Hypertension was associated with a higher proportion of severe cases, mortality, ICU admission and oxygen administration. CONCLUSIONS: We report a high prevalence of diabetes in a hospitalized COVID-19 population. Patients with diabetes or hypertension had more severe disease and greater mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(1): 17-30, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) with the clinical prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, medRxiv, Social Science Research Network, and Research Square databases (from December 1, 2019 to May 15, 2020) were searched to identify studies that reported the associations of CKD/AKI and disease severity/mortality. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and meta-regression was performed. RESULTS: In total, 42 studies enrolling 8,932 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The quality of most included studies was moderate to high. Compared with patients without previously diagnosed CKD, those with CKD had a significantly increased risk of progressing to a severe condition (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.64-3.24) or death (OR 5.11, 95% CI 3.36-7.77). Similarly, compared with patients without AKI, those with AKI had a significantly increased risk of progressing to a severe condition (OR 11.88, 95% CI 9.29-15.19) or death (OR 30.46, 95% CI 18.33-50.59). Compared with patients with previously diagnosed CKD, those with AKI were more likely to progress to a severe condition (pgroup < 0.001, I2 = 98.3%) and even to death (pgroup < 0.001, I2 = 96.5%). Age had a significant impact on the association between CKD and disease severity (p = 0.001) but had no impact on the associations between AKI and disease severity (p = 0.80), between CKD and mortality (p = 0.51), or between AKI and mortality (p = 0.86). Four important complications (cardiac injury, shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and liver injury) did not significantly affect the associations between CKD/AKI and disease severity/mortality, indicating that CKD/AKI may be independent clinical prognostic indicators for patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients, CKD/AKI was associated with worse outcomes compared with those without CKD/AKI. AKI was associated with higher risks of severity and mortality than CKD.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Mortality/trends , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors
18.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(2): 172-180, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892080

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been proposed to identify patients at higher risk of adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, but existing evidence is conflicting. Thus, it is unclear whether pre-existing CVDs are independently important predictors for severe COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide Danish cohort of hospital-screened COVID-19 patients aged ≥40, we investigated if pre-existing CVDs predict the 30-day risk of (i) composite outcome of severe COVID-19 and (ii) all-cause mortality. We estimated 30-day risks using a Cox regression model including age, sex, each CVD comorbidity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-asthma, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. To illustrate CVD comorbidities' importance, we evaluated the predicted risks of death and severe infection, for each sex, along ages 40-85. In total, 4090 COVID-19 hospital-screened patients were observed as of 26 August 2020; 22.1% had ≥1 CVD, 23.7% had severe infection within 30 days and 12.6% died. Predicted risks of both outcomes at age 75 among men with single CVD comorbidities did not differ in clinically meaningful amounts compared with men with no comorbidities risks for the composite outcome of severe infection; women with heart failure (28.2%; 95% CI 21.1-37.0%) or atrial fibrillation (30.0%; 95% CI: 24.2-36.9%) showed modest increases compared with women with no comorbidities (24.0%; 95% CI: 21.4-26.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The results showing only modest effects of CVDs on increased risks of poor COVID-19 outcomes are important in allowing public health authorities and clinicians to provide more tailored guidance to cardiovascular patients, who have heretofore been grouped together as high risk due to their disease status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Decision Rules , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2419-2428, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809794

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the clinical features and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 10, 2020 and July 31, 2020 at seven hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Outcomes included clinical improvement within 30 days (primary) and in-hospital mortality (secondary). Of 766 confirmed COVID-19 cases, 500 (65.6%) were male, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 46 (34-58) years. One hundred ninety-one (25%) patients had severe/critical disease requiring admission in the intensive care unit (ICU). Six hundred twenty patients (80.9%) improved and were discharged within 30 days of admission. Overall in-hospital mortality was 13.2% (95% CI: 10.9-15.8), and almost 50% among those in the ICU. Independent risk factors for death were age < 20 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 6.62, 95% CI: 1.85-23.64), 40-59 years (aHR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.83-10.79), and ≥ 60 years (aHR = 13.63, 95% CI: 5.70-32.60) compared with those aged 20-39 years, with obesity (aHR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.24-4.27), and with chronic kidney disease (aHR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.85-15.35). In marginal structural model analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in odds of clinical improvement (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.88-2.67, P = 0.132) nor risk of death (aOR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.35-1.20) when comparing the use of chloroquine/azithromycin versus other treatments. In this DRC study, the high mortality among patients aged < 20 years and with severe/critical disease is of great concern, and requires further research for confirmation and targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/virology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(2): 190-203.e1, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780044

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Underlying kidney disease is an emerging risk factor for more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. We examined the clinical courses of critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and investigated the association between the degree of underlying kidney disease and in-hospital outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 4,264 critically ill patients with COVID-19 (143 patients with pre-existing kidney failure receiving maintenance dialysis; 521 patients with pre-existing non-dialysis-dependent CKD; and 3,600 patients without pre-existing CKD) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the United States. PREDICTOR(S): Presence (vs absence) of pre-existing kidney disease. OUTCOME(S): In-hospital mortality (primary); respiratory failure, shock, ventricular arrhythmia/cardiac arrest, thromboembolic events, major bleeds, and acute liver injury (secondary). ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We used standardized differences to compare patient characteristics (values>0.10 indicate a meaningful difference between groups) and multivariable-adjusted Fine and Gray survival models to examine outcome associations. RESULTS: Dialysis patients had a shorter time from symptom onset to ICU admission compared to other groups (median of 4 [IQR, 2-9] days for maintenance dialysis patients; 7 [IQR, 3-10] days for non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients; and 7 [IQR, 4-10] days for patients without pre-existing CKD). More dialysis patients (25%) reported altered mental status than those with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (20%; standardized difference=0.12) and those without pre-existing CKD (12%; standardized difference=0.36). Half of dialysis and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients died within 28 days of ICU admission versus 35% of patients without pre-existing CKD. Compared to patients without pre-existing CKD, dialysis patients had higher risk for 28-day in-hospital death (adjusted HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.09-1.81]), while patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD had an intermediate risk (adjusted HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.08-1.44]). LIMITATIONS: Potential residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the high mortality of individuals with underlying kidney disease and severe COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying safe and effective COVID-19 therapies in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Kidney Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
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